M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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detach'd to purfue them were immediately cut in piece; ;
(o that it was equally dangerous to purfue the Enemy 01
to retire. The confus'd manner of Cafar's relating this
Affair, is a clear Evidence that the Romans were worfted,
tho' he does not fay it in fo many Words. Befidcs, the
Reafons he alledges to excufe his ill Succefs are very weak ;
or if they are of any weight, whence is it that he did not
meet with the fame Difficulties in ib many other Actions,
wherein he pretends the Britons were routed Horie and
Foot ?

On the morrow, the Britons ported themfelves on fome Anabtr
Hills within fight of the Roman Camp. As they apptar'd Ca*fl;a,
to be but few in Number, 'twas thought they had no De- jj'j, ',,'," 1'
fign to engage a fecond Time. Mean while, Cezfar fend- defeated.
ing out all the Horfe to forage, with three Legions to guard
them, the Britons fall with great fury upon the Foragers,
who were defended by their Guard. The Refiftance made
by the Legions giving Citfar time to advance with the reft
oi the Army, a great Battle enfu'd, wherein the Britons
were entirely defeated.

After this Victory, Cafar marches towards the Thames cafa.- pafei
with intent to penetrate into CaJJibel.mus's Dominions, thtTWnw'-
When he comes to the River Side, at a very difficult £^f"
Ford, he fees the Enemy drawn up on the oppolite Bank.
Befides their great Numbers, they had fortified that Part
of the River with fharp Stakes (7), driven fo deep that fome
of them did not appear above the Water, as Deferters (aid
afterwards. Notwithftanding thefe Obftacles, Cetfar re-
folves to attack them, and orders the Horfe to ride in,
and the Foot to follow, the Soldiers being fcarce able to
hold their Hands above Water to carry their Arms. The
Attack was made with fuch Refolution that the Britons at
length were forced to quit their Poft and leave the Remans
a free PafTage (8). Cajftbelanus finding he could not hinder
Cerfeir's paffing the Thames, difmifles his Army, referving
only Four Thoufand Chariots with which he haraffes the
Romans and endeavours to cut them fhort of Provifions,
by carrying off" all the Corn and Cattle that lie in their
Rout. The Romans were great Sufferers in this March;
for they did not dare to make the leaft Excurfions in fearch
of Provifions, for fear of Sallies from the Woods and By-

Mean while, the Trinobantes, upon Carfar's approaching jj< Triro-
their Country, fend Deputies to him to fue for Peace, teatafub-
praying him withal to take into his Protection Mandubra- K:t " Csi ">
tius their King, who fled into Gaul upon CaJJibclanus's
murdering his Father Immanuentius, and depriving him of
his Dominions. Cetfar promifes to fend back Mandubra-
tius, if they will fupply him with Provifions and deliver
forty Hoftages, to which they immediately agree. Several
other States following the Example of the Trinobantes,
Cetfar found himfelf in condition to attack the Capital
City of Cajftbelanus, where the Country People were retir'd
with their Flocks and Herds (9.) What the Britons called
a City was only a Wood fene'd with a Ditch to defend
them againft the Incurfions of their Enemies. Tho' this wistefal
Intrenchment feemed very ftrong, Cetfar ordered it to be Caflibeia ■
ftorm'd fo briskly at two different Places, that the Britons ™ s ' s cki 'f
not being able to ftand the Aflault, fled out at one of their

( 1 ) Cajar had no great Caufc to boaft of this his firft Expedition, fince, according to Bede, he loft the greateft Part of his Ships, with many of his Men,
and all his Horfe. 1. I. c. 2. Orofius fays, the Ships that were to bring the Horfe were caft away in the Storm. Tyr. p. 30, 35. About Three hun-
dred Soldiers that were in two of the Tranfports not being able to reach the fame Port with the reft, were upon their landing fet upon by the Mo-
ri™, but refcu'd by a Party of Horfe fent to their Relief. This Paflage of Cajar gives fome light into the Number of Men in a Legion. Thefe
two Ships are exprefly call'd Oneraria, or Ships of Burthen. Now if thefe two held Three hundred, the whole Eighty defign'd for the Tranfpcrtation
of the Foot ot two Legions, would carry Twelve thoufand, and confequcntly there were about Six Thoufand Foot in a Legion. And to compute the Num-
ber of Horfe belonging to a Legion, we may confider that a Tranfport, fufficient for a Hundred and fifty Foot, will carry between Forty and fifty Horfe.
Confequcntly the Eighteen Tranfports defign'd for the Horfe had about Eight hundred on board, and fo Four hundred will belong to each Legion.
The Foot then in a Legion feems generally to have been about fifteen times as many as the Horfe.

(2) Boulogne, fays Tyrrcl and Brady j about Calais, fays Horjley. Rowlands in his Mona Antiqua, p. 24, derives it from Porth-eitha, i.e. the ulmojl, or
fuitbejl Pajj'age, obferving that Cajar only latinized the antient Gaulijh or Britijh Names, leaving us to feelc their Etymons not in the Roman but in the Britijh

Language. Horjley obferves, that Cajar calls the Paflage the ihorteft and eaiicft, being about thirty Miles. Now by an accurate Survey the Diftance at
Calais from Land to Land is twenty-fix £nglijh Miles, or twenty-eight and a half Roman, which fliows how near Cajar came to the Truth.

(3) Rapin by miltake fays Six-fcore.

(4) This River could not be the Thames, that being too diftant, but the Stour. So that the Battle very probably was fought on the Banks of the
Stsur to the North of the Town towards Sturry or Fordivich. The ftrong Place to which the Britons retreated after their Defeat, muft have been
Durcrjernum, or Canterbury, (twelve Miles from the Place of Cajar'-s landing) which was taken (and poflibly kept 'till Cajar s Return) by the feventh
Legion. This might afterwards be converted by the Romans into a Station, as they treated feveral other Towns of the Britons, as Camekdunum , Vcru-
iamium, ljurium, and others, the Capital Towns of feveral States. Horjley, p. 14.

(5) Upon the Shore about Deal, Sandon and W aimer, art a long Range ot Heaps of Earth, where Camden thinks this Ship-C:mp w-as, which, he
fays, by the People thereabouts was call'd Rome* s-lVerk.

(6) Rapin by miftakc fays twenty. Cajar's Words are, a man eirciter millia pajjuvm celoginta. The Borders of Cajjibelanus'-, Territories extended to
the Thames in Surry, over-agamft Oatelands, which lies Eighty Miles from the Eaft Shore of Kenr, where Cajar landed. The Trinobantes inhabited
Ejjex with part of Hertfordjhire, Verilam being the chief Town of their Kingdom.

(7) Thefe Stakes are juft above Waltem in Surrey, and the Meadow facing them is call'd Co-way. They arc even now to be fcen at Low-water, and one of
them was pulled out of the Thames laft Year, but with great Difficulty : They are of Oak, and tho' they have lain fo long in the Water, are as hard as Bra'
x 'l, and as bl.ick as Jett. At Sbepperten they have feveral Knite-handles made of them. See Camden, p. 1 5 5 . Btdt, 1. i. c, 2. Tyrrel, p. 34.

(8) Cxjar does not mention a Stratagem he is faid to make ufe of upon this Occafion. He caus'd an Elephant well-fenced with Iron, with a
wooden Tower on his back full of Men, to be forced into the River; the Sight of which monftrous Creature, that look'd like a walking Baiury,
did not a little ccntribute to frighten the Britons from the oppolite Shore. Polyanus Stratag. 1. viii.

(9) This is fuppos'd to be Veiulamium, or the prcicnt St. Albans, it is certain London was not fo confidcrable in Cajar's Time as Verulamium, th:»
laft appearing to have been more antient, and was a Mumcipium or Colony, when London was not,

z Avenues,

1 2

Four Kcn-
tifti King*
attack the


They arc rc-
fuh d, and
om takan
B .,


kg, p««,

and vbtaitu

Tributt r»i-

- . Bi I ns.

77* H I S T R T of E N G L A N D. Vol. I.

Remarks on
Csefar' .-' -

/■::■- £ </.vj';

Avenues, hut not without great Numbers (lain and taken,
and leaving behind them abundance of Cattle.

Whilft Cafar was advancing into the Enemies Country,
the Kentijhmen inhabiting on die South-Coaft over againft
Gaul, drew their Forces together, with defign to cut ofF
the Romans that were left to guard their Ships. As foon as
they were ready, they marched under the Conduct of four
Kin' T s, namely, Cii/getorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus, and
Segonax, and furiouiiy attacked the Roman Camp ; but after
a long and obltinate Fight were repulfed, and King Cinge-
torix taken Prifoner.

After fo frequent Defeats, Cafftbelanus, confidering that
molt of his Kingdom was now in Subjection to the Ro-
mans, and feveral neighbouring States had made, or were
ready to make their Submiilion, treats with them likewile,
by the Mediation of Comius. He eafily obtains a Peace,
Cafar's Refolution to return to Gaul not permitting him
to purfue his Conquefts in Britain. Befides, he confider'd
that the Weather beginning to grow bad, wouii help Caffi-
belanus to defend himfelf the reit of the Campaign, as well
as the whole enfuing Winter. By the Conditions of the
Treaty, the Britons are annually to pay the Romans a cer-
tain Tribute ; CaJJibelanus is to deliver fuch a Number of
Holhi'jes, and leave Mandubratius in quiet Poffeffion of
his Dominions ( r .) Tho' Cafar had fcarce Ships enough
to tranfport his Army, he chofe rather to ftow his Men on
board what Veffels he had, than run the hazard of being
furpriz'd by the Autumnal Equinox. He embark'd them
therefore in the beft manner he could, and receiving the
Hoftages, puts to Sea, and fafely arrives in Gaul (2).

This is the Account given by that great General of his
two Expeditions into Britain. And here we may obferve,
that tho' out of an affected Modefty, he refrains from all
Commendations of himfelf, yet by the bare Recital of his
Actions, he gives himfelf the higheft Praifes. For to make
a Defcent with two Legions only, in an Enemy's Coun-
try, in fight of an Army formidable for Number, Bra-
very, and Way of fighting ; to force Enemies intrench'd on
the Side of a River, and what is more wonderful, to pafs
the Thames at a Ford guarded by a numerous Army, ftuck
full of fharp Stakes, and withal fo deep as to take the Sol-
diers up to their Chins ; thefe, I fay, are Actions that fuffici-
ently (peak their own Praife, and need no amplification.
And if Cafar in penning his own Hiftory, is charged with
turning every thing to his Advantage, this Imputation feems
to be no where more juftly caff upon him than in the pre-
fent Cafe. Indeed, one can't read the Particulars of his two
Britijh Expeditions, without being fenfible that fomething is
wantin"-, and what is pafs'd over in filence was not to his
Honour. I forbear to infift upon the great difficulty of
knowing where the Ford he mentions could be, fince in
the very place he is thought to pafs the Thames, there is no
lets than fix Foot Water. But what I have been faying
will appear ftill more evident, if we confider Cafar's De-
fign in attacking the Britons, and the Iffue thereof. He
fails from Gaul with a Refolution to conquer Great-Bri-
tain, and reduce the whole Ifland to a Roman Province.
This is what Dion Cajfius pofitively afferts. He every
where gets the better of the Britons. He paffes the Thames
in fpite of all Obftacles. CaJJibelanus, vanquifh'd and rout-
ed, disbands his Forces, not believing himfelf able to ftand
aaainft him. Cafar becomes Mailer of his Capital, and
the Britons fubmit and fue for Peace. With all thefe Ad-
vantages he is contented to impofe an eafy Tribute on
Cafftbelanus, and without fortifying any one Place, or lea-
ving any Troops in the Ifland, drops his firft Defign, fa-
tisfied with reftoring Mandubratius, as if the War had been
undertaken purely for his fake. Does not this fhow that
he was fore'd to be fatisfied with fo inconfiderable an Ad-
vantage? Lucan's Teftimony is a further Confirmation of
the Matter, who taxes him plainly with turning his Back
to the Britons (3). Tho' Lucan was no Friend to him, he
would not however have ventur'd to upbraid him with run-
ning away, without fome Ground. Dion CaJJius fays,
that in a Battle the Britons utterly routed the Roman In-
fantry, but were afterwards put in Diforder by the Cavalry
(4.). Horace and Tibullus intimate in feveral Places of their
Works, that in their Days the Britons were not confider'd
as a conquer'd Nation (5). All which evidently fhows
that the Fame acquir'd by Cafar in thefe two Expediti-
ons came far fhort of the Idea he would give of it in

his Commentaries. But however this be, moft certainly
the Common-wealth reap'd no great Benefit by them ;
which doubtlefs was the Reafon of Tacitus faying, Caviar
rather Jhow'd the Romans the way to Britain than put Vlt,A 6 rit0 ''
them in Pojfcjfion of it.

After Cafar % Death, who had render'd himfelf Sove- Awgusti".
reign of that Common- wealth whereof he was born a Sub- State of Bri-
ject, the Empire was fo torn with Civil Wars that it was?" 1 *
not poffible for the Romans to think of Britain. So the
Tribute was not paid, nor, it may be demanded for
twenty Years. But when, after the Defeat and Death ofDionCaffius,
Mark Anthony, Augujius was firmly fettled in the Poileffion [:.* lix ' &
of the Empire, he undertakes to compel the Britons to
ftand to their Agreement with his Predeceffor, and to that
end advances as, far as Gaul twice in order for Britain (6),
but is prevented the firft time, by a Revolt in Pannonia,
and the fecond, by the Submiffion of the Britons, who
lend Ambaffadors to fue for Peace, which he very readily
grants. Britain, conhder'd then as a wild uncultivated
Country, did not feem to him worth the pains of con-
quering. Befides, he was determined not to enlarge the
Bounds of the Empire, wifely confidering that a State, like
a Ship, cannot be managed when too vaft and unwieldy :
Yet as the Britons neglected to perform their Promife, lie
refolves in good earneft to go and fubdue them : But
hearing of his Defign, they find means to appeafe him.
Tenuantius, Succeffor of CaJJibelanus, fends the lame Em-
peror rich Prefents, which were laid up in the Capitol.
Cunobelinus his Succeffor, following his Example, keeps fair Camden is
with the Romans. Nay, he order' Money to be coin'd, Middleiex,
fome Pieces of which are ftill to be feen in the Cabinets of
the Curious, with the five firft Letters of his Name,
C. u. n. o. b. or C. a. m. the three firft of Camelodunum,
his capital City on one Side, and on the Reverie, a Man
fitting and coining Money with thefe Letters, T. A. S.
C. I. A by which Antiquaries underftand that this Money
was defigned for the Payment of the Tribute (7).

Tiberius, Succeffor of Augujius, neglected Britain Tiber ms
as a Country of little Confequence, it being unknown to '■' i?'" 7 -' Bri "
him. Satisfied with the Refpecl fliown him by die Bri- T c ' t _ An _
tons in fending back fome of Ge-r/nanicus's Soldiers that were nal. 1. xi.
fhipwreck'd on their Coaft, he left them to enjoy their Li-

Caligula, his Succeffor, would not doubtlefs have 4°-
turned his Eyes towards Britain, if he had not by a Briton £ A "J-,"/"
himfelf been drawn into the Project: of conquering the Expedition
Ifland. Adminius, Son of Cunobelinus, incurring his F 'a- wfi ' hc
titer's Difpleafure, and flying to Rome for Protection, finds Su " t on!'
means to perfwadc the Emperor that nothing was more eafy Dion Call",
than this Conqueft. Caligula, whole Folly is well known, +9-
imagines, upon what the young Prince tells him, that
the Sight of him is fufneient to fubdue die Britons. Full
of this Notion, he advances in Peribn to the Coaft of
Belgick Gaul, where he had ordered his Army to march.
But being told, as he was embarking his Men, that the
Britons flood ready to receive him on the other Side of the
Water, his warlike Ardor cool'd, and he defifted from an
Enterprife which began to appear too hazardous. How-
ever, as he was led by his Caprice to the moft extravagant
Actions, he went on board a Galley, ordering the Peo-
ple to row with all fpeed towards Britain, as if he in-
tended to have alone the Glory of conquering the Ifland.
But prefently after, he is feen to return back as faft as he
went off. As foon as lie lands he harangues his Troops,
as if he were going to employ them in fome important
Expedition. Having ended his Speech, a Charge is found-
ed juft as if the Enemy were in view. Upon which, the
whole Army, purfuant to an Order given to the principal
Officers, fall to gadiering of Cocklefliells in their Helmets.
The Emperor pleas'd with the Alacrity of his Soldiers on
this Occafion, liberally rewards them, and fends Letters to
Rome of his Succefs, wifhing the Senate to decree him a
Triumph. But being informed the Senate made fome Dif-
ficulty to comply with his Order, he refolves to put all the
Senators to Death. He would doubtlefs have executed his
barbarous Purpofe, had he not been depriv'd of the Power
with his Life, by a Confpiracy foon after form'd againft

After Julius Cafar's fecond Invafion, to which fome
very improperly give the Name of Conqueft, the Britons
prefer v'd their Liberty above ninety Years, during the

r (1) Geoffrey of Monmouth fays, Mandubratius was not reftoi*d to his Kingdom, but leaving Britain, betook himfelf again to Cafar, and attended
hini to Rome. CaJJibelanus reigned ten Years after Cafar's Departure.

(-) It is conicctur'd that Cafar's 2d Expedition was in May, and that he return'd to Caul about the Middle of September, for in a Letter to
Cicero frcm Britain, dated September i, Cafar lays, He was come to the Sea-fide m order to imbari.

(3) Territa qusiitis oftendit terga Britannis. Lucan.

(4) He fays elfewhere, fpeaking of the Briton, when purfu'd by Plautiui, " They fled into Marines and Woods, in hopes the Romans, tir'd with
*' waiting to no puipafe, would, like Julius Cafar, retire nuithout ejjeelmg any thing.

(5) Inta&us aut Britannus ut defcendcret

Sacra catenatus via. - Hor. Epod. villi 7. Rap.

Te manet invidtus Romano marte Britannus. Tib. 1. iv.
(6) Serves iturum Ciclarem in ultimos orbis Britannos. Hor. lib. i. 35. Rap.
(7) The Payments cf the Britcni were ulually made in pieces of Brafs and Iron Rings, and probably this Coin (tamp'd by Cuncbetin was for Tri-
bute only, which the Ron a is ex.cYd in Gold ar.d Silver, as may appear by the Word Tafeia, which in Britijh (fays Daiid Bcicel) fignifies a 7>:-
bute Fct-ny. perhaps from ih: Lain Itxatio. For the Britons do not ulc the Letter X. Biad. p. 11. Tyr. p. 37. Camden, p. 109.


Book I.

fbe B R I T O N S and It M A N S.


Dio. 1. 60.

Sueton. in



Reigns of the four firft Emperors ; their Subjection to the
Romans not commencing till the time of Claudius. The
occafion of that Emperor's undertaking the Conqueft of
Britain, and the cauie of the Britons lofing their Liberty
was this :
2 2. Cunohelinus leaves two Sons, Togodumnus and Caraftct'

CtAiipnismi, who both fucceeded him: but whether they reign'd
Stfimatbe j | nt ]y or feparately, or whether one was fuperior to the
conquering other, is unknown. In their Reign it happens that one
Britain. Bericus (i), being fore'd to depart the Kingdom for en-
deavouring to raife a Sedition, flies for Refuge to Claudius
the Emperor at Rome. His extreme defire of being re-
veng'd of the two Kings his Sovereigns, infpiring him with
a Delign to betray his Country to the Romans, he frequent-
ly talks to tiie Emperor of the Conqueft of Britain, as of
a thing very eafy to be accomplifh'd. By his Defcription
of the Illand and Pofture of the Britifli Affairs, he inti-
mates to him that he would meet with little or no Oppo-
lition. The Emperor giving Credit to what he fays, re-
folves to acquire Eame by an Enterprize feemingly diffi-
cult, but, according to the Britijh Lord's Account, very
practicable. Having taking this Refolution, he gives the
Ambafi'adors of the two Britijh Kings a very ill Reception,
who are fent to demand the Fugitive Bericus, refufing to
deliver up one whom he intends to make his chief Inftru-
ment in the Execution of his Project. Shortly after, he
himfelf fends to the Britons and demands the Tribute due
to the Empire : but finds them not at all ready to give
him Satisfaction. Befides that this Tribute was never re-
gularly paid, the haughty Treatment they had juft met
with in the Perfons of their Ambaffadors, by no means
difpos'd them to pay him any great Deference. They re-
fute therefore, and very juftly, as they think, to pay the
Tribute, and moreover prohibit all Commerce with the
Romans. As Claudius wanted only a Pretence for the
War, he was not forry they afforded him fo plaufible a
one. Shortly after, he orders Plautius to begin the Ex-
pec liion, wliilft he is preparing to follow when there fhould
be Occafion. Plautius accordingly draws an Army toge-
ther in Gaul, and advances to the Sea-fide. But when
the Soidiers came to imbark, they rcfufe to obey him, de-
claring, They ivill not make War out of the Compafs of the
World. The Emperor hearing of this Mutiny, fends
NarciJJus his Friedman to appeafe it. Narcijfus, tho' a
{ Favourite with his Mafter, when he would have ha-
rangu'd the Troops, could not prevail with them to hear
him. The Moment he opened his Mouth, the Soldiers
cried out, h Saturnalia, alluding to the Cuftom, during
that Feaft, of the Slaves taking the Place and Habit of their
Marten;. However, the Mutiny went no farther. The
Soldiers fuddenly altering their Refolution, of their own
accord obey the Orders of their General, who immediate-
ly puts them on board whilft they are in the Mind. He
fails from three Ports in order to land at three different
Places. But this Precaution was needlefs. 'The Britons,
inform'd of the Mutiny in the Roman Army, and not ex-
pecting fo fudden an Alteration, neglect to prepare to op-
pole their Landing. So the Roman General lands his For-
ces without any Refiftance. He was very defirous to come
to a Battle at his Arrival ; but the Britons were refolved to
avoid it, and keep themfelves in feparate Parties, behind
their MorafTes, or on their Hills. Their Aim was to make
the Romans lofe Time, in Expectation that Plautius, after
the Example of Julius Cafar, would go and winter in
Gaul. This Refolution gave the Roman General a great
deal of Trouble, being fore'd to hunt after Enemies difper-
fed in feveral Places, whom he could, as he flatter'd him-
felf, eafily vanquish at once, were it but in his Power to
. . , brine them to a general Battle. In fpite of thefe Difficul-
fots the two ties, he finds means to attack Togodumnus feparately, and
Bntiiri entirely routing him, goes in qucft ot Caraelacus, and ob-

Prince; one

43- .






ia ti ,

It is ap-


after another,

tains the like Victory over him. The Britons, purfuant to
their firft Defign, retire beyond a River, where they en-
camp in a carelefs manner, imagining the Romans could not
pafs without a Bridge. But Plautius had, in his Army,
fome German Soldiers that were us'd to fwim the ftrongeft

Currents. Thefe Soldiers, though few in Number, fwim- titftfa a
ming the River in their Arms, fo aftonifh the Britons that fVJ ".
they quit their Port and retire at a greater dillance (2). Enemy.
The Roman General improving this Advantage, fends
over a confiderable Body of Troops under the Command
of VeJ'pafian, and his Brother Sabtnus. Thefe two brave
Leaders advancing towards the Enemy, engage them and
put them to flight. The Britons however are not difcou-
raged. Next Day, they attacked a Roman Detachment rhe Britons
commanded by Sidius Geta, fo vigoroufly that the Romans "^^ ' ar .i
were immediately put in Diforder ; their Commander him- put item h
felf was engag'd in fuch a manner amongft the Enemies, i, 'fi'j' r , '

me defeated
at Up.

that he was thought to be dead or taken. But the Scale
was foon turned againft the Britons. Geta happily efca-
ping out of their Hands, heads hisTroops again, and charges
the Britons, now fure of Victory, fo briskly, that after an
obftinate Fight, he compels them at laft to take to flight.
This Affair was fo well manag'd, and Geta acquir'd fo
great Reputation on this Occafion, that the Honour of a
Triumph was granted him by the Senate, tho' he had never
been Confui The vanquifh'u Britons retire towards the fj,ey retire
Mouth of the Thames, and being perfectly acquainted with teymdtbe
the fordable Parts of the River, crofs'd over with Eafe, T^" 1 ""
whilft the Romans following them at a Diftance, fall into
the Bogs and Moraffes, from whence they very hardly dis-
entangle themfelves. At lart, the Germans lighting upon pi aut ; 33

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