M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(8) There came Swtyn's two Sons, Harold and Canute ; Earl Turks II, and Chriftian their Bifliop. 5. Dunelm. p. 198. Bremft. p. 065.

(9) In the Mouth of the I lumber. Huntingd. p. 36S. 5. Dunelm. p. 198.

(10) With Wahbojf, thefe brought him feveral thoufands of armed Men. S. Dunelm, ibid- Af. Paris, p. 5.

(I!) More than three thoufand Normans were killed. William Mulct the Pice-comes, and his Wife ani Children, n tb, Gilbert de Cai.nt, and feme few
others wer: fparcd- 5. Dunelm. p. 199.

(Kj They wintered between the Oufe >nd th« Trent, Hunting, p. ] c a. M, Paris, p. 5. Sax, Ann,



Vol. I.


He recalled feveral whom he had banifhed, fet others at
Liberty, and affected by fome inftances of feverity to re-
prels the Infolence of the Normans (t). His Fears being
fomewhat abated by the good efFccls of thefe Proceedings,
he lent the Queen and the Princes into 'Normandy, and
then marched againft the Danes, He was fo provoked
with the Northumbrians, that he was heard to fwear by
God's Splendour, he would not leave a Soul alive. As
foon as he entered Yorkjkire, he began to execute his
Threats by terrible ravages. Mean time the Danes kept
their Poit, where he durft not attack them, well knowing,
by hazarding a Battle, he flaked his all againft little or no-
t thing. To extricate himfelf out of this difficulty, he be-
lieved the heft courfe he could take would be to bribe the
General by Prelcnts. For that pdrpofe he fent private
Emifiaries to offer him a large Sum of Money, with leave to
plunder the Country along the Sea-Coaft , provided he would
depart when Winter was over. This Negotiation fucceeding
to his wifh, OJ'bern retired in the beginning of the Spring,
for which he was feverely punifhed by the King his Bro-
ther (2). The Danes being gone, The King marched to
York to befiege the City, defended by an Englijl) and Scotch
Garrifon, under the command of a brave Governor (3).
This was Earl Waltheff, who by his Courage and Con-
duel, rendered the Siege fo lona; and difficult, that the King
hegan to defpair of Succefs, when the want of Provifions
obliged the belieged to capitulate. How incenfed foever
the King might be, he readily granted honourable Terms to
this brave Governor, whofe Valour he had fo often admi-
red during the Siege. He was not fatisfied with fhevving
him this mark of his Efleem, but gave him in marriage
his own Niece, Daughter to the Countefs of Albemarle (4).
Some time after, he made him alfo Ea rl of Northampton and
Huntingdon, and Lift ly of Northumberland. He received
likewile into favour Earl Gofpatric ; but punifhed feverely
the rcfl of the Officers and Soldiers of the Garrifon, lay-
ing a heavy Fine upon the Citizens of York. As foon as
the Siege was over, and the King found it in his power to
be revenged of the Northumbrians, he ravaged their Coun-
try in fo meicilefs a manner, that for frxty Miles together,
between 1'ork and Durham, he did not leave a fingle Houfe
ftanding (_;). He fpared not even the Churches and other
publick Edifices. This is what William of Mabnsbury,
though a Norman, durft not deny. His Pretence for thus
laying the Country wafte, was, to prevent a fecond Dani/h
Invafion. But the method he took, was a clear evi-
dence, it was to glut his revenge, and ftrike a Ter-
ror into the reft ot the Kingdom. It is impoffrble, ac-
cording to Hiftorians, to defcribe the Miferies of the nor-
thern Counties. The Lands lying unfilled (6), and
the Houfes being deltroyed, People died in heaps, after
having endeavoured to prolong a wretched Life, by eating
of the moft unclean Animals, and fometimes even human
Flefh( 7 ).

The Step lately taken by the Englijh in calling the
Danes into the Kingdom, thoroughly convinced the King,
lie fhonld never be in peaceable Poileffion of the Crown till
he had intirely put it out of their power to execute the
Projects formed againft him. This made him refolve to
humble in fuel) a manner all that had any Intereft with the
People, that they fhould not be able to make any confi-
deiable Effort. It is true, many innocent Perfons were
to fuller in the execution of this Defrgn. But at that time,
it is certain the King thought only of his own fafety,
without troubling himfelf, whether the means he made ufe
Jrgulph. of were confiftent with Juftice. To accomplifh his ends,
he fuddenly removed the Englijh from fiich Pofts as gave
them any Power over their Countrymen. After which


R ; ' ■
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Judith the

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p- 197.

he difpoflelTed them of all the Baronies and the Fiefs of the 1070.
Crown in general, and diftributed them to the Normans Hc V-"
and other Foreigners who had followed him into England, ' a Jd EOa't's
But as thefe laft were not fo many in number as thofe that to Norman*.
were deprived of their Eftates, he was obliged to load
them, as I may fay, with Benefits, in order to draw all
the Crown-Lands out of the hands of the Englijh. We
may be fatisfied by the following inftances, how profufe the
King was in this Diftribution. Robert, his uterine Bro-
ther, had the Earldom of Cornwal, in which were two
hundred and eighty eight Manors(8), befides five hundred
and fifty eight (9), which he pofielTed in other Counties.
Odo, Bifhop of Bayeux, his other Brother, was made Earl
Palatine of Kent, and Jufticiary of England. This Pre-
late had one hundred and eighty Fiefs in Kent alone (10),
and two hundred and fifty five in feveral other Places. Wil-
liam Fitz-Osbcrn was rewarded with the whole Earldom
of Hereford (11). Hugh Lupus of Almonches the King's
Sifter's Son, was prefented by his Uncle with the County
Palatine of Cbejler, with all the Royal Prerogatives, to
hold it in full Sovereignty as the King himfelf held his
Crown. Alan Fergeant Duke of Bretagne, the King's
Son-in-law, had all Earl Edwins Eftate with the fame
Privileges as were granted to the Earl of Che/?er(i 2). Ro-
ger de Montgomery had firft Arundel, Chichejier, and after-
wards Shropjliire. Walter Giffard had Buckinghamjhire, and
JVilliam Warner, the County of Surrey. Eudes, Earl of
Bliis, was put in pofleflion of the Lordfhip of Holdernefs.
Ralph de Guader ( 1 3) a Breton, was made Earl of Norfolk
and Suffolk, and Lord of Norwich. Henry de Ferrariis
received Tutbttry-Cajlle (14). William Bifhop ofConJlanee,
was poftefled of two hundred and eighty Fiefs, which he left
at his Death to Robert Moivbray his Nephew. It would
be endlefs to mention all the Donations granted by the
King to the Foreigners, at the Expence of the Englijh.
Thofe above-mentioned are fufficient to fhew, the Intent
of this Profufion was folely to deprive the Englijli of their
Eftates. This therefore is a memorable Epocha, when,
to fpeak in the Language of the Hiftorians, England was
delivered into the hands of Foreigners. It may eafily be
conceived, the Lords, to whom the King diftributed fo B . _
many Eftates, fuffered none to hold of them but thofe of VoJ. I.
their own Nation. Accordingly from that time, we hearP' 2 7°-
no more o( Ealdormen, or Thanes, but of Counts, or Earls,
Vifcounts, Barons, Vavaffors, Ej'quires, and other Titles
taken from the Norman or French Tongue, which began to
be introduced into England inftead of the Saxon Names. So
that England may be truly faid to become Norman. Per-
haps even its own Name would have been changed for that
of Normandy, if fome things, fpoken of in the following
Reigns, had not made the Normans, fettled in England,
defrrous of being confrdered as Englijhmen, and even taking
the Name. Be this as it will, from the Foreigners, who
were then put in pofleflion of thefe Lands, are derived a
great part of the moft eminent Families this day in the

It was not only the Englijli Nobility that were fufterers rt ; King
by the Conqueror's new Plan : The Clergy met with no *"»*'
better quarter. The Saxon Kings had granted to feveral JSL/JP '
Bifhops and Abbots Lands exempted from all military Ser- m. Pari«.
vice, denouncing in their Charters Imprecations againft
fuch of their Succeflbrs as fhould dare to violate thefe Pri-
vileges. But King Jl'illiatn, not being one of thofe fcru-
pulous Princes who looked upon what t heir Predeceflbrs have
fettled as unalterable, cancelled all thefe Immunities (15).
Church-Lands as well as the reft, were obliged to find,
in time of War, a certain number of Horfemen, notwith-
standing the Claufes in their ancient Charters to the con-

(1) To till" Time Mr Tyrrel re&n th.it confiderablc Tranfaftion related by Roger dc HmcJen, That William caufed certain wife and noble Englijhmen through-
cut all England to befumm. n.d, that he might hear from them the Laws and ancient Cultoms thereof, and confirm them. Tyrrel. p. 21. See R. Hived, p. 601.&C.

(2) lie was banifhed. Malmsb. p. 106.

(3) Euthe took Oxford \n his Way, which had revolted againft him, and foon reduced it. From Oxford he marched on by Ncttingham towards Turk, when
irue into Torkjhire, ht flew the created pan oi the People, and laid the Country wafte; and engaging the Enemy at York, he put the ftrongeft to flight,

11 ftreyed .11 the nfi with the Swcid. Ord. Vital. Mat. Far,

. P- 4. 5-

'■ lis Siftci Iv the fame Mother, ins Niece's Name was Judith. Gemet. 1. S. c. J7.
5 1 Abi ut this time Egelric Bifhop of Durham was deprived, and his Brothel Egchcin put in his room. M. Paris, p. 5.
(0 rh.s . ccafioned a terrible Famine, of which there is a melancholy Account in S. Dunelm. p. 199, &c. The Lands lay unfilled for nine Year;. 5. Dunelm.
ibid. Brmipt. p. 966.

(") '"■" ■ '■' '";'"'> K fcon as he came to Durham, ordered a Caftle to be built there. S. Dune'm. p. 49. Cbrif.mas approaching, he caufed his Crown, &V.
to be bit ught to i k, \ here he kept that Feftival. As foon as the Holidays were over, he marched againft a Party, who had fortified themlclves in an bi-
ble Angle of that Country, and having purfued them as far as the Teys, he marched over Mountains, and through Woods, almoft crofsthc Kingdom into
' ire, to be 1 c venged on the Weljh, w ho had lately befieged Shrewsbury ; but upon his Arrival with his Army at CbeJIer, he theieby quieted the whole Pro-
v.ncc of M rem : And Edrit the F».-f. : .-> having new made his Peace, the King built a Caftle there, and another, in his Return out of thofe Parts, at Stafford,
, utting rtrcng Garrifons into both. Fiom thence he came to Salisbury, where he kept his Eajler, and largely rewarding his Soldiers, he difmiffed them. Ord. Vit.

•—— During William's Abience in the Nrrth, the Sons of the late King Haicld, having procured from Derma King of hdand a Fleet of fixty Sail,

landed again not tar frcm Exeter, plundering and burning wherever they came: But Brien Son to Eudo Ear] of Bretagne, fought them twice in one Day, killing
feven hundred ot their Men, with divers of the Irifi Nobility, the reft flying to their Ships, returned into Ireland. W.GtmetuenJA. 7 . c. 40. Ord. Vital.
See Tyrrel. p. 23, 24, 25.

i$) Brady fays two hundred and forty eight.

(9) According to the fame Author, it was but five hundred and forty five: And in all feven hundred and ninety three.

(10) Brady fays one hundred and eighty four ; in all four hundred and thirty nine. Brady, p. 195, 196.
F (%] ^ d aI,r ° the l!ie of Wight. He was Scoter of Normandy, and placed with Walter Lacy, the King's Standard

(12) Rapin, by Miftake, fays Morcar\ Eftate. The Words of the Crant arc Ego Gulielmus cognomine Baftardus </«, Src. Alano, &c. rn*i 1 i/hs £f terras
cvermtpcr fuerunt Comitis Edwini in Eboralcira cum f : rd,s ailitum, Ice. Thefe Lands, when given, were gildable, but by the King's Favour were changed into
a tiDeity or Honour, now called Richtmndjbin, from a Caftle of that Name, built by Earl Alar..

(13) Now C„aer, a Caftle in Bretagne.

f i*l M h "s''' hC WaS nJ Earl at ,he ' Timc of the Sm V> he •«<* <hen an hundred and feventy fix Lordfhips, befides Tutbtry Caftle.

\ 5J Mr. Seldcnu nf Opinion, That this Burden was not laid upon the Bilhopricks and greater Abbies, without their own Contents, given in a Svnod or
treat Ltujjcrl of the kingdom, which the King held this Year « Winihefter, Jules of Honour, p. 578. See Tyrrel, f. 25.

1 trary

rd Bearer, to oppofe the Welfb. Ret. pen.

Cook VI.

I. WILLIAM the Conqueror.




.,,,/ " ■■ ■•

•;, Mwtfi

S Dunclm.
Sjx. Ann.

/' ' ' '
Abl ri re
tUfoj, d.
S- Dunelm-
Brom] i
Malmsti- d"

wade Arch-
M. Weft.
Sax. Ann.

The Re-volt
ef the Abbot
UfSt. Al-

M- Paris.
p. i ooo.

trary. Such of the Clergy as refufed to comply, only
gave the King what he wanted, a Pretence to difpolTefs
them and plate Foreigners in their room. Moreover, he
quartered upon the Monafteries almolt all his Troops, and
obliged the Monks to find them in Neceflaries. By this
means, he kept his Aimv without any cirarge, and had
Spies in all the Religious Houfes, who watched the Aclions
of the Monks.

All this not fuflicing to make the King eafy, he be-
thought bimfelf of another Expedient, which drew upon
him the Imprecations of the l'cople, and efpecially of the
Monks. Some of his Fniifiaries (i) informing him that
many Perfons had lodged their Money and Plate in the
Monafteries, he took occafion to order all the Religious
Houfes to he fearched, and every thing of value to he
fei"/,'d, on pretence it belonged to the Rebels. Some Hilto-
i ians affirm, he did not (pare even the Shrines of the Saints
and the confecrated Veflek. Very probably, the Clergy's
Zeal, niter the Battle of Ha/lings, to place this Prince on
the Throne, was entirely owing to the fear of lofing their
Effects. But on this laft occafion, they had but too much
reafon to perceive huw greatly they were miftaken in their

How feverely foever the King had ufed the Clergy, he
was not yet fatisfied. The great Credit of the Biftiops
and Abbots (till making him uneafy, he refolved to be rid
of the moft fufpected. To proceed in the leaft blameable
manner, he fent for two Legates from Rome (2), who
convened a Council at Winchejlcr (,■), where every thing
pafTed to his wifll. Stigand, Archbifhop of Canterbury,
was degraded for intruding into the See, Robert his Prede-
cefibr not having been canonicallv depofed. This was pro-
bably a Sacrifice offered by the King to the Pope, for it
does not appear he had any reafon to complain of the Arch-
bifhop. The fame Council alfo depofed Egclmer, Bifhop of
Eajl-Ar.glia, whofe See was at Helmham. Agelric, Biihop
of Selfcy (+), and fome others, whom the King did not
like, were likewife facrificed to his Jealoufy. As (brothers,
againft whom the Council had nothing to alledge, the
King, by his fole Authority, banifhed fome the Kingdom,
and threw the reft into Prifon, without any legal Proceed-
ings, or giving other reafon than his Good-Pleafure. After
he was thus clear of all that gave him any Uneafinefs, he
placed in their room Normans or other Foreigners (;), for
all were acceptable but Englijh. He promoted Lanfranc,
an Italian, Abbot of a Monaftery at Caen, to the Arch-
bifhoprick of Canterbury (6), and Thomas, a Canon of
Baycux, to that of York. Three of his Chaplains were made
Bifhops of Winchejler, Helmham, and Seljey(j), and Nor-
man Abbots were placed in the Monafteries, from whence
the EngUJh were lemoved. This however mult be faid
for the King, that he made choice of Perfons of eminent
worth to fill up the Vacancies.

Let it not be imagined that I have ufed any exaggera-
tion, in what has been faid concerning the ufage of King
William to the EngUJh, or affected to follow thofe who
made it their bufinefs to blacken his Reputation. Who-
ever will be at the pains to confult the original Hiftorians,
will eaiily be convine'd of the contrary. They will fee,
there is not a fingle Circumttance but what occurs in the
Hiftories, written during his Lite, or fhortly after his
Death, by Authors moft delirous to juftify his Conduct.
'Tis therefore a groundlefs Affertion of fome of our mo-
dern Writers, to lay, this Prince never afted as Conqueror,
but conftantly followed the ancient Laws and Conftituti-
ons of the Realm.

The King's whole Conduct, demonftrating to the Eng-
UJh that his Delign was to reduce them fo low that they
fhould never more be able to hold up their Heads, fome of
the principal among them thought now was the time or
never, to make a vigorous Effort to prevent their utter ruin.

Frethcric, Abbot of St. Albans, was one of the moft zea-
lous to infpire his Countrymen with this Refolution, and
by mean-, of his Intereft and Riches it was that a frefh
Combination was formed to drive the King and the Nor-
mans out of the Kingdom. Matters were carried on with
that Secrecy, that the Conspirators fuddenly drew an Army
together, before the King had any notice of it. This
Army growing very numerous in a few days, the Abbot
of St. Albans fent for Edgar Atheling out of Scotland, and
put him at the head of the Malecontents, by whom he
was a now ed for King, and proclaimed in all the
Places they were matters of. This bold Enterprize made
the Ki extremely uneafy, who i er apprehenfive

of fome hidden Revolution robbing him of the Fruit of all
his Labours. He communicated his Thoughts to Lan-
franc the new Archbifhop of Canterbury, who a Ivifed him.
to deal more gently with the EngUJh; intimating the ab-
folute neceffity of a fpeedy Negotiation with the Revol-
ters, left the Flame, already kindled, fhould over-fpread
the whole Kingdom. The King took his advice, and
after many fair Promifes, found means to engage the Head,
of the Malecontents in a Conference at Barkhamjlead.
He calmly heard all their Complaints, and promifed to re-
dicl", their Grievances. Nay, he (wore on the Holy Evan-
gelifts, to eftablifh the antient Law-, of the Realm, which
went under the name of Edward his Benefactor. This
Condefcenfion fatisfying the Malecontents, they returned
to the Army to difmifs their Troops, believing they had
no further occafion for them. But the King had not the
leaft thought of keeping an Oath, which he looked upon
as extolled. Prefently after, he ordered a great Number
of thole that had taken up Arms againft him, to be ap-
prehended, fome of whom were put to death, and others
banifhed or imprifoned. Upon this Edgar fled into Scot-
land (8), and the reft took refuge in Ireland, Denmark,
and Norway. The Abbot of St. Albans retired to the Ijle
of Ely, where he died with Grief. As foon as the King
heard of his death, he feized the Goods of the Monaftery,
and took from thence all the valuable Effects : He was
refolved to deftroy it utterly, if Lanfranc had not prevailed
upon him to defift from his Deiign (9).

The King's Behaviour to the Malecontents varioufly
wrought on the minds of the Englijh. Some, terrified by
his Severity, refolved to endure all things for fear of in-
creafing their Afflictions by fruitlefs Attempts. Others,
not fo paflive, determined to try all ways to free themfelves
from a Yoke they could no longer bear. Thefe retired to
the Ijle of Ely, where was a rich Monaftery, the Abbot
of which was their Friend. But this was not the only
reafon of their chufing that Retreat. This Place, called
an Kle from its being furrounded with a Morafs, was very
ftrong, and feemed proper to flicker them from the King's
Rigours, when filled with a^ fufficient number of Men to
defend it. Edwin and Morcar chofe to join them ( 1 o),
being fenfible they fhould be the firft Victims of the
King's Sufpicions, and not daring any longer to truft to
his Promifes. Some time after, Edwin refolving to go into
Scotland, where he thought he might be more fervice-
able to his Party, was murthered on the road by his own
treacherous Followers. Morcar his Brother found in the
Ijle of Ely, many Perfons of Quality, with Egehvin (n,)
and Walter, Biftiops of Durham and Hereford, all refo-
lutely bent to oppofe to their utmoft the defpotick Power
affumed by the King. Their Number being confiderably
mcreafed by Multitudes of Male contents flocking to
them (12), they chofe for their Leader Hercward (ij),
Nephew to the Abbot (14) of Peterborough, who was
looked upon as the braveft and belt Soldier in the King-
dom. He was banifhed in the Reign of King Edward,
for fome Outrages committed in his Neighbourhood, and
retired into Flanders, where his Valour gained him great


The King ap-


S. Dunclm*
M. Welt.

The Rev:/.,
ten retire

Sax. Ann.


(1) Particularly William Fitzs-Osbcrn, Earl of Hereford, &c. .S\ Dunelm. p. 200.

(2) Hermenfred Bilhup ot Sedan and John and Peter, Cardinals. 5. Dunelm. p. 201, la.

(3, Rapin by Miftake fays Wcftminfler. See 5. Dunelm. p. 201. Brompt. p. 967. M. ll'cfl. R. el- Diceto p. 482.

14) He was afterwards unjuftly imprifoned at Marlborough. S. Duntlm. p. 292. Rapin calls him by miftake, Biftiop of Durham; whereas th; BinW
of Durham then wis Egebwin, who tied into Scotland at this time. See 5. Dunclm. p. 200. Brompt. p. 966.

(c) He ufed his utmoft Endeavours to have as many of the Englijh turned out as he could, tb.it he might put fome of his Countrymen in their room.
5. Dunelm. p. 202.

(h) Mr. Tyrrel thinks, that Lanfranc was defied, or at leaft confirmed by the great Council of the Kingdom, according to the Sax. Ann. in Marg.

In this Council he likewife fuppofes, That the Bifhops and greater Abbots gave their Confents that, for the future, their Lands fiVuld be luij by Knight's
Service: From which time, the Bilhops and Abbots, whu Lit before in our Councils and Synods as mere fpiritual Perfons, appeared henceforward in th;
great Councils of the Kingdom among the Lay-Nobility, as the Biftiops do to this day. Tyrrel, p. 2S, 29.

(7) Walkdih was made Biftiop of Winebeflcr, Arfajl of Helmham, and Stigand of Selfcy. S. Dunelm. p. 232. Brtmpt. p. 96S.

(S) To th.s Time may moft probably be referred what Buchanan relates, That William fent a Herald to demand Ed%ar, denouncing War againft Scot-
land, unlets he were furrendred up. Malcolm looked upon it as a cruel and faithlefs thine, to deliver up his Gueft and Kinlman to his capital Enemy,
to be put to death, and therefore refolved to fuller any thing, rather than fo to do: And thereupon he harboured and detained Edvar. Buchanan p. a 10.
Engl. Edit Folio.

(9) The Account of this Revolt is only related by Mattbtiv Paris in the Life of Fraheric, and for that reafon is by (bme called in qucftion. But as he
cold not well invent this Story, it is rooft probable he found it in the Annals of his Monaftery of St. Albam. 1 .' Could not
be concerned in it, feeing he had fted into Scotland near two Years before, and did not return into England till three Years after, though this Author nukes
him to cine back the Year before.

(10) Undsrftanding that William intended to put them in Prifon, they privately withdrew fr. m Court. 5. Dunelm. p. 2C.3. Mttlmsb. p. 104. ir.gtilph. p. 70.

(rr) Wh, was come thither from Scotland. S. Dune

p. 203.

M. Pa


(12) The Sax. sinn. lay, that they were joined by Stuanc King of Denmark, Cbriftian a Daniflj Biftiop, Earl Olbern, and fevcial other Danes; but
Swane having concluded a Peace with William, the Danes went off" with a large Booty they had taken out of Peterborough Monaftery, which the_y plun-
dered and burnt. See In-:ipb. p. 71.

(13) II. was younger Son to Leofric Earl of Mercia, and Brother to A/gar Earl of Mercia after Leofric.

(rj.', Rapin ' p, but there was no fuch Buuoprick then. He was Nephew W Brand Abbot at Peterbircugh, Se; Ingu/pb, p. 70, 71.

N 9- Vol. I. Xx Reputation,



Vol. I.


'071. Reputation, and raifed him to eminent Pofts. The Death
of his obliging him to return into England, he

en to a Norman. He demanded Refti-
tution, but not obtaining it by a legal Procefs, drove out
the Foreignet by force, and t ok Poileffion. It was pre-
cilely at tl i Junctute that coming to Ely to avoid the
King's Refentment, i.e was chofen General by the Male-
contents. As he g real Reputation, and as the cou-
rageous and refolute were as much dreaded by the King,

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