M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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as thole that dar'd not to oppofe him were defpifed, he
the King extremely uneafy. The Honour he had
juii received animating him with frefh Ardour, and with a
Defire to fhew he was not unworthy of it, he prepared for
a vigorous Defence, forefeeing he fhould not be long in
that place without being attacked. Whilft: he was laying
arl ike Stores, he caufed all the acceffible Parts of' the
Iile to be carefully fortified, and took all other Precautions,
that might render a Siege the more difficult. King Wil-
liam knowing whom he had to deal with, marched with
all poffible (peed to attack him, in expectation to furprize
him unprepared. But Hercuiard had already taken care
to oppofe his Entrance into the lile, by ordering a Caftle
of Wood to be run up in the Morafs, which could not be
affaulted, and which defended the only Paffage to the Be-
heged. In fpite of thefe feemingly infurmountable Diffi-
culties, the King was bent upon a Siege, or rather a
ade. He was in hop.es to reduce them by Famine,
and have them all at his Mercy, the fame thing that pre-
vented his Approaches, being alio an invincible Obftacle to
their Flight. With this view he built a Bridge over the
Morals two Miles in length, by means of which he de-
priv'd the Befieged of ali hopes of Relief (i). However,
though he had now (pent a great deal of time in tbe
Siege, he was never the nearer, fince the Rebels had pro-
vided great (lore of Piovifions. This Delay mad-; him
verj uneafy, as well upon account of the Affair in hand,
as becaufe it prevented him from marching againft the
King of Scotland, who had taken this opportunity to make
an Intoad into the northern Counties. At length, when
be began to defpair of the Succefs of his Enterprise., a happy
thought made him mailer of the Place.
i r The Monaftery of Ely holding without the Limits of
the Ifle many Manors, from whence the greateft part of
their Revenues arofe, the King was advifed to feize them,
in order to reduce the Monks to obedience out of fear
ot lohng them. He had no fooner put this advice in
practice, and diftributed the Lands to his Courtiers,
but Thurjlan the Abbot, not being able to withftand the
Clamours of the Monks, fought means to recover their
Eftates. He could think of no properer method than
procuring the King's Favour by feme conliderable Service.
To this end, he privately fent and offered to put the
King in -poileffion of the Ifle of Ely, with all that were
in it, and pay him a thouiand Marks (2), on condition
the feized Lands were reftored to the Monaftery. This
offer was gladly accepted, and the Abbot performed his
Prcmile: hut Hiiiorians have neglected to inform us of
the means lie ufed to accomplifh it. However that be

1 [m<

Up til Ij.
< Jjlj .

a Barbarity unworthy a Chriftian Prince, if it was fuch 1071,
as is defer ibed by the Englijh Hiftorians. They tell us, the
Scots ripped up the Bellies of Women with Child, cut
the Throats of the old Men, and tohed young Children
into the Air to receive them on the Points of their Swords.
But very likely, this Account is exceedingly aggravated,
as well as the Number of I :.ives, earned into

Scotland, where it is pretended eve ' • was furniihed
with one. Gofpatric, who was then Governor of Nor, G -■<?■«?:<:
thumberland (7), not being flrong enough to refill the £)£* ]
King of Scotland, made an 1 rfion into Cumberland, Ian™ °"
where he revenged on the Scots the Calamities in lifted by
their Countrymen, on the Englijh. This Expedition ferved
only to inflame the King o\ Scotland's Refentment (3), who
took occafion from thence to encreafe his Ravages in Nor-
thumberland. The King could not bear thefe Infults; 1072.
but the Attair of Ely feeming of greater importance, he rh ' K ">i
was willing to fee the End. As foot] as it was over, he T^iLm""
marched into Galloway, where however he only fatigued
his Army to little purpofe. Mean time Malcolm, who Sax - Ann -
was retired into Scotland, endeavoured to prolong the !" EU ij h '
War, in hopes fome new Troubles, of which he might PdTviig,
take advantage, would arife in England. The fame
reafon obliged the King to put an End to it as foon as
poffible. The readieft way to fucceed, as he thought,
was to follow the Scots into the heart of their Country,
that the Dread of a Battle, which to them might prove
fatal, might compel them to a Peace. This Refolution
procured him the expected Advantage. Malcolm, unwil-
ling to hazard a Battle in his own Kingdom, offering to ^ Treaty
accommodate Matters by a Treaty, he" was of Opinion, b "' u ""'. '&
he ought immediately to end a War, which the Circum- "^ K ' V '
fiances of his ArFairs made him look upon as extremely
dangerous. Befides, he feemed, ever fince the Battle of
Hajhngs, refolved never to run any hazard. This was
what had formerly prevented him from fighting the
Danes, and probably the fame reafon caufed him to he- ingulph.
have in like manner with the Scots. Be this as it wi!!, the

bounds of the two Kingdoms were fettled (9), by the m^i?'

s e En- Buchanan


W^ the Male-contents were conftrained by the Abbot's Tiea-


El .

1- lor. V 01

Tbt King of

So tland


. I.

chery to fubmit to the King's mercy. Hcrauard alone
efcaped, having opened a way with his Sword through
the Guatds that delended a certain Pafs. Of thofe that
were taken in the Ifle, fome had their Eyes put out, or
their Hands cut off, others were fhut up in divers Prifons
Among rhefe laft were Earl Morcar,
of Durham, who having been fo ha

cate the King (3), was lent to Abingion, and there ftarved
to Death (4). The Monks of Ely were likewife chaftifed,
though they had taken all imaginable care to perform their
Capitulation. When they came to pay the ftipulated Sum,
for the want of a Gioat only, they were forced to pay
another thoufand Marks (5). Moreover the King quar-
tered upon them forty Knights, for whom they were obliged
to find all Neceilhries.

Whilft the King was employed in the Sice of Ely,
Malcolm continued his Ravages in the North (6), with

Treaty, and Malcolm did him Homage (10).
glijh Writers (11) pretend this Homage concerned ^.Scot-
land ; but the Scots affirm it was only for Cumberland.
And indeed that is moft likely, fince there is no appear-
ance that Malcolm, who had not received the leaft check
fhould humble himfelf to do Homage for his whole King-
dom. I am very fenfible, King William is faid to have
a right to demand it : But this is not a Place to examine
this Point, the DifctuTion whereof will more properly come
in elfewhere.

The good reception Malcolm gave all the Englijb Fu- few Fu-
gitives, drew great Numbers into his Dominions, where m ' !i " /'"!'
fome procured Settlements which obliged them to con- " ,Sco - land '
tinue there. From thefe are derive,! feveral confiderable
Families at this day in Scotland (12). Some will have it, Verftegan,
that the Englijh brought thither their Language, with the
Titles of Duke, Earl and Baron; but Buchanan affirms,
they were in ufe there before that time. He freely
owns indeed, that the Englijh introduced into Scotland
Luxury, Pride, Wantonnefs, Drunkennefs and other Vices,
to which he pretends, his Countrymen were Strangers be-
fore. Among the chief of thefe Refugees was Earl Go/pa- S-Dundm,
trie, who had been deprived of his Government, under
colour of his being concerned in the Death of Cumin, tho'

.x.-.^.o. he had fince that done the King very fignal Services.

■, with Egelwin Bifhop, He was fucceeded by Earl Walthoff (1 ■>, ), the only Englijh Wa'thoff
irdy as to excommuni- Lord, for whom the King yet fhewed any Regard But made Ear ' °f
he did not keep Jong in his Favour, for which 'he was ^T"
principally indebted to his Wife, who was the Kino-'s

The French had afforded King William fufficient time 1073.
to fettle himfelf in the Throne of England, without giv- 7b,K,*gcf
ing him the leaft moleftation. He hoped therefore, as J"^"'
they had not taken advantage of the late Troubles in En- Zrij?'
gland, they would be ftill lefs inclined to difturb him, after
the entire Reduction of his Enzlijh Subjects. But on a S a X Ann

fi) A!,;, .it :hs time I, buill Whbicb ( '. p . J+ .

12) But fevi n In.; Jrcd Si : Tyrrtl, ix I: . , ■, .-.

When! nay firft to S', tlai I. ■: 1 . Paris, p. ^ A-!. !i\fl.

fudden Philips J ealoufy reviving, he could not bear to Malmfl..

M. Paris.

}!,'., i.«m,p. s . M.Wcft. (4) Heft.,, ved himfelf to death. BromM p. 060,

more, to make it up one thoufand; to raife which, thej were forced to feJl their Plate, to itrip their

,. '. »n d =11 the neighbouring parts; burnt feveral Churches, killed abundance of NoWemen, ftfe. S. Dmelm. p. zoo

' ' ' , ■ , , , (7) Having biught that Government of the King. S.B .. p. zoo. 8 id.

, he ,.-.ut himfelf up in Bamicm I ., i i 1... „ , . ?. D t and HcvtJ ibid

erefled in the middle of the Mountains of S*mm»Ti.nMin
.■■•.■•.. , having th Arms of both Kings engraved on th=fev.ral Sides of it - ■^^
he two ICingd, ms, .he Remainders of which Croft is 11:1! £:> be ,ee„. ' Camkn.

' ! .. ..\. 1 1 h .1 . t . ■ 1 . , . ........... ..*,,,, ai _ 1 ., „

' / l " l "^ ,»u rLiii'.ui in:,, ,ne .

I 10] He) h '11 at called Iberndby.

I , , J' ... ^ ... . ...L . . r 1. 1 J

a hich was

1 ntroy. o. Vunelm.T,. ;o-. Hvvcd. p. 454.

' ' ' / "' JiJ Hon, us for what, p. 79 . See Sax. An* Malm*

p. 203. J , /:, m ft. p. y - 2 . > 1 11 "■ si™, uia.mx.

ived the Families of Lirdfay, Tt<

lived the Families of Lirjfay, , , ;/r w

'" ibout the fame time came fe, II pleoutoffl at the R«, u 7 ,XZ

" i ■ < - out'ol FrZ,

■ ' ■-■. ■■ - • ■ , J, nl&ClD.Z"

* vas due to him b th bj his lather and Mother's Side, fir he was the Son of Earl Siv»ri, by Et/rcja the Dau t hter of liarl

3 fee

Book VI.

I. WILLIAM//^ Conquefof*.



Edgar Athe

to the King,
Sax- Ann.

M. Paris-

lie ■■f, d

■Mil I -

mayc of the
Cregor. 7.
Ep. z 7 .

The King

fujes it.
Eadm- p. 6
«.i</ N *.
p. 164.

if the N, r
mans agat
the . , i .
Sax. Ann.
M. Paris.
Fl. Wigor.

fee the King of England in fo profperous a condition. He
blamed himfelf for being Co impolitick as not to aflift the
Englijh Malecontents, and refolved to retrieve his Error
by attacking Normandy. He expected no doubt the Englijh
would take advantage of this Diverfion to revolt, and keep
the King employed in England. Whatever his thoughts
were, he fuddenly invaded Normandy, without any De-
claration of War. Upon which, the King went over
with an Army wholly confifting of Englijh (i), not daring
to carry his Norman Troops out of the Kingdom, lie-
fides, he chofe rather to expofe the Englijh than Normans,
who were abfolutely neceflary for the Prefervation of his
Conqueft. With thefe Forces, he retook Mans and all
the Province of Maine, which had lately revolted, theiiB-
•glijh glorying in faithfully ferving him in Normandy, whilft
in England he treated them with great rigour-. Philip
not fucceeding according to his expectation, foon grew
weary of the War, and put an end to it by a Peace with
the King of England.

Shortly after this Treaty, Prince Edgar, tired with
living like a Fugitive in a Foreign Country, came to
the King, and, begging his Pardon, fubmitted to his
Will. He met with a favourable reception, and was al-
lowed a Pound of Silver a day. From that time he
ever remained in obedience without giving the King the
lead: caufe of uneafinefs. If he had occafion to com-
plain, it was not (u much of the Kirrg as of the Englijh,
who, after the death of Edward, had preferred a private
Perfon before him. It was not Edgar that King William
had deprived of the Crown, but Harold, who pro-
bably, bad he been able to keep it, would have left
it to his Son, regardlefs of the Rights of the Saxon
Prince. On the other hand, it mull be confeft, Edgar
had reafon to be fatisfied with the King's Clemency,
who was very willing to receive him into Favour, not-
v.'jfhdanding the Miltruft he might jultly entertain of

Whilft the King was in Nor?nandy, Gregory VII, the
boldefr and mod enierprifing Pope that ever fat in the Pa-
pal Chair, lent his Auntio to fummon him to do him Ho-
mage, pretend ng, England was a Fief of the Holy See.
He demanded likewife the Arrears of Peter-Pence, which
had not been paid for feveral years. Some pretend the Pope's
Demand as to the firft Article, was not groundlefs, but
was the Condition, on which the King had obtained the
Pope's approbation for the Conqueft of England. Others
derive the Pope's Sovereignty over England from the vo-
luntary Grant of Romefcot, or Peter-Pence made to the
Church of Rome, by Ina and OJfa, Kings of IVeJfex and
Mcrcia. They pretend it was a real Tribute by which
they became Feudataries to the Holy See. In fine, there
are fome who giving up this preteniion, content themfelves
with dating this Sovereignty from the time of Ethclwulph's
Journey to Rome. But tho' perhaps at the time King Wil-
liam was meditating his Enterprife, he did not difpute the
Pope's Claims, yet when he found himfelf well fixed in
the Throne, he was otherwife difpofed. He plainly told
the Nuntio, he held his Crown only of God and his
Sword, and would not make it dependent on any Perfon
living. Nay, he went further : For, upon the Nuntio's
daring to threaten him, he publifhed an Edidt, forbidding
all his Subjects to acknowledge any Pope but whom he
allowed of, and receive any Orders from Rome without his
Leave. This was to make Gregory fenfible, who had then
a Competitor, how great a risk he run of being fowred
in his turn, if he periifted in his Claims. As for the Ar-
rears ol Piter-Pence, be promifed to pay what was due,
and to be more punctual for the future. This Firmnefs
convincing the Pope, the King was not fwayed by fuper-
Ititious Scruples, much lefs to be awed with Threats, he
debited from his Pretentions.

The King's long Stay in Normandy occafioned in En-
land a frefh Confpuacy, fo much the more dangerous as
the moft confrderable of the Norman Lords wee the Con-
trivers. Ralph de Gtiadcr, a Breton, Earl of Suffolk, and
Roger de Bretcvil Earl of Hereford (2), refolving to unite
their two Families by the Marriage of Ralph with the
Daughter of Roger (3), tire King for reafons unknown
put a flop to their Proceedings. The Earls, who durft

not complete the Marriage whilft the King was in En- 16;
gland, took the opportunity of his Abfencc to accomplifh
their defign. They made a fplendid Entertainment upon
this occafion, to which were invited feveral Perfons of
Quality, and, among the reft, Earl IValthojf. As they
knew the King's Temper, they formed at the fame time
the Project ol a Confpiracy to depofe him, perceiving
no other way to avoid the effects of his Anger. The
prcfent occahon feeming favourable to draw their Guelts
into their Plot, as foon as they law them heated with
Wine, they began to talk of the King, and dwelt upon
fuch Suhjecio a, were moft likely to exafperate them
againft him. They pretended to pitv the Englijh, who
from being always a free Pi pie, were now reduced to a
fliameful Servitude. As for the Normans, they ftirred
them up with a Confideration of the King's fevere
Government, who by the exceffive Impofitions laid on
Eftates, took from them with one hand what he had given
them with the other. In line, perceiving they were I
with pleafuic, they openly declared, it was unworthy
of Perfons ol Honour to be governed by a Baftard, who
had ufurped the two Crow:,, he pollened. Their Dif-
courfe had f > Hidden an Effect upon Men who in their
Cups thought nothing difficult, that with one conient they
refolved to take Arms and oppofe the King's, return. Earl
Walthof, warmed with Wine like the reft, came into w,:,
the Plot without reflecting on the Confluences. But on
the morrow, the Fumes of the Liquor being difperfed, ' h W< *'
he confidered more maturely, that he had embarked in
an Enterprize, which inftead of freeing the EngUJI) from
Oppreffion, could not but encreafe their Mifery. He
forefaw the Difficulties which would naturally occur in the
Execution. But fuppofing it chanced to fucceed, he plain-
ly perceived, England would not be the better for it, fince
Ihe would become a Prey to feveral petty Tytants who
would complete her ruin. Moreover, he confidered, in
cafe the Confpirators were crufhed, which was very pro-
bable, the Vengeance would all fall on his Head, as being
an EngUfliman, whereas the Foreigners might find fome
Favour with the King. He could not likewife forbear
acknowledging he was much indebted to the King, who
not only pardoned him once before, but alfo diftinguifhed
him by many Favours from all his Countrymen. Thefe
Reflections working in his mind a hearty Repentance for Rtfenonf It,
what he had done, he went to Lanfranc and imparted to
him all that had palled. He alledged his drinking too
much permitted him not to reflect on what was propofed
to him, and intreated him to intercede for his Pardon.
The Arcbbifhop commended his Repentance, and advifed
him to repair forthwith to the King, and inform him of
all the Circumffances. He put him in hopes of eafily
obtaining a Pardon for a Crime done with fo little pre-
meditation, at fuch a time, and for which he was fo
foon forry, and even wrote to the King in his behalf. „ d h ,,,,.
IValthojf taking this Advice, fet out immediately and W.
went and threw himfeJi a; the King's feet, who re-
ceived him very kindly, and pardoned his Imprudence,
after he was informed of all the Particulars of the Con-

The King was very much alarmed at this News, and qu Pbt it
refolved to return into England, without delay, to appeafe •"' a
the Troubles occafioned by his Abfence. But his Pretence
was not neceflary. The Confpiracy was ftifled almoft in
its very birth by the Vigilance of the Bifhop of Bayeux the
Regent (4). The two Earls had concerted their Meafures
fo ill, that they could not even join the Forces, each had
affembled, fo that Ralph de Guader found himfelf con-
ftramed to retire to Norwich Caftle, where he was imme-
diately befieged. As he defpaired of pardon, in cafe he
fell into the King's hands, he did not think fit to wait the
I flue of the Siege, but finding means to efcape, fled into
Denmark ($). After his departure, his Countefs defended
the Caftle fome time, but at length furrendered upon
Terms. She had liberty to follow the Earl her Spoufe,
who had now procured a powerful Aid from the Kinf of
Denmark to fupport the Revolters. And indeed, foon after Sa!t- AnH .
a Danijl) Fleet appeared on the Coaft of England, but not Hunting*.
finding the Englijh inclined to rife, failed back immediate-
ly (6).

(1) This doth not appear from the aniient Hiliorians, but rather the contrary. They tell us, That this Year King William carried a great Army of
Englijh and French beyond Sea. Sax Am. Hunting, p. 369. Bronrpt. p. yjl. Some of them indeed fay, That H illiam 1, , ~. ,'j, auxiliary

Forces that he erred over from En} land. Malmib p. 105. S. Dunclm. p. 205. But this is not laying that his Army wholly conClred of /

(z) Braeuil a Si ignory in Ni mandy. He was Sin to William F.tx.Osirrn Earl of Hereford in England, and hum him it was that the lit Laws and
Cuftoms, oblerv. d in Brttet il, were alio obfervedand piactiled in Htrejird after the Conqueft. Domcfday. Ceftrefe. let r. 11

(3) She was Daughtei to William Fitx-Oshern, and Roger's Sifter, not his Daughter. The Marriage was celebrated at Ixningcham neai Ntwmarkt. W.
Mabmb.-rt. 104. Erompt p> 974. M Pans, p. 7.

(4) And by the help of Wulftan ISilhop of WorcejUr, Agekcin Abbct ot Evejbam, Urfo Sheriff of Wmefterjhire, and 11 alter d.- Lacy ; who drew together
fome Forces, and prevented the Earl of Hereford from palling the Severn, and joining Earl Ralph; while CWo, and G .',-. 1 Bil , m nxircheii
With an Army of Englijh and French againft Earl Ralph. S. Dtine/m. p. 208..

(,) He went tirft to Bretagne, and thence to Denmaik, where he prevailed upon the King of Denmark to lend him Succcurs ; which accordingly came
fome t.me after, in two hundred Ships, under the Command of Canute, King Sioeyn's Son, and Earl Haeunc ; but nut finding the Enghjh difpefed to take

Arms, thy failed to Flanders, after having (raid two Days in the Thames Mouth. Sax. Ann. S.Dmelm. p. zcS. M. Weft. p. 5, ot The Sax. Ann.

and M. Pans fay, that they had fent before this to the King of Denmark for afiiftance. M. Paris, p. 7.

(6 in the Year 1074, a week before Chriftmas, died Edgitha, Relift cf Ediiard the Confeffcr, and was buried bv the Kin; her Husband in Ifedminfler
Abbey, where a fine Monument was aftci wards eafted to her Mexmry, Sax. Ann. S.Ditnilm. p. sco,. Maltr.it. f. 111,


i 7 <


Vol. I.

: 074.

H d.
Pol. Virg.

W :lll

1 1

Menu time King William being returned to England,
w::s informed, there were ft ill Come remains of the Con-
fpiracy in tlie Weftcrn Counties (1). To prevent the Fire
iu m rekindling, he marched with all fpeed to thofe parts,
and feverely punifhed all whom he fufpecled to be concern-
ed in the Plot. Some he ordered to be hanged, others, to
have theii Feet and Hands cut off, or their Eyes put out.
Thofc that were molt favourably treated were banifhed the
I .'om. The Pardon granted Earl IValthoff going for
ing, he was apprehended, carried to Winchejler, pub-
beheaded and buried under the Scaffold. Plis Riches
are (aid to be the principal Occafion of his Death, the
having a longing Defire to his great Eftate (2).
Others add, that Judith his Wife did not a little contri-
bute to his Ruin, exafperating the King by falfe Reports,
that The might be at liberty to marry eifewhere. Be this
as it will, the unhappy fate of this brave Earl was uni-
verfally lamented. Everyone thought he was too feverely
dealt with for fo flight a Crime, even fuppofing he had
not obtained his Pardon. Some time after (3) his Body
was removed to Croyland Abbey (x), where it was pretend-
ed to work divers Miracles, and accordingly this Earl paffed
with the People for a true Martyr. The Abbot of Croy-
land, encouraging this Belief, was turned out of his Mona-
fiery, by the King's order, and Tngulphus, a Monk of
Fonteuraud, was put in his room. This is the lame In-
gulphus who, notwithstanding his Obligations to King // il-
liam, lias not failed to atteft, in his Hiftory of Croyland,
the Miracles wrought at Wallhojf's Tomb.

Tho' the Englijh were not concerned in the late Confpi-
racy, but rather refufed to join the Male-contents, yet
were they no lefs punifhed. The King took it for grant-
ed, they had privately fomented the Rebellion, and conse-
quently, deprived fome of their Eftates, and others of their
Liberty. From this time William of Malmsbury dates the
Servitude of the Englijh. As much Norman as he was, he
plainly enough intimates that from thenceforward the King
had no manner of Regard for them. Hence it may be
conjeclured, this Prince's Severity to the EngliJIi was very
great and univerfal, frncethis Hiflorian reckons as a Trifle,
what the King had already done with refpect to the Spiri-
tual and Temporal Lords.

The Precautions taken by the King, to remove from
the EngliJI) all thoughts of a revolt, rendering him eafy,
he went beyond Sea, to be revenged ot Ralph dc Guader,
who was retired to his City of Dol in Bretagne (5). He
was not fatisfied with feizing all his Eftates in England,
but refolved to deprive him alfo of his Hereditary Pofleffi-
Dol, ons. For that purpofe, he laid Siege to Dol, which how-
ever he could not take, the Rehftance of the Befreged
giving the King of France time to come to their Relief.
King V/illiam miffing his Aim, returned to England,
where during the reft of that and the following Year, no-
thing remarkable happened, except a Council held at
London, where was fettled the Precedency of the Bi-

The King enjoyed then a Tranquillity which feemed
to promife a long Continuance, when it was difturbed by

The Engliih
are hardly
dealt with.

p. 704.

g es to Nor
Sax. Ann.




an unexpected War. Robert his eldeft Son encouraged ro-7.
by the King of France ((>), pretended his Father ought to
refi<in Normandy to him, in purfuance of 2 pofitive Pro- _' ■ "' ..

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 72 of 360)