M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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haps be too late, when they had a mind to undertake it.

Mafler and Place of Coinage.

Coins they both appear in a Pearl Diadem with Label* at each Ear, and an Arch crols the Head, «mfi
Euifhed. Mr.Tb'^/by indeed afcribes thofe with a full Fase to the. Conqueror, and thok vvith the n.lt
ption en the Conor's Money is, W I L L E M. W I L L E M V. (imrtaken by Dr. Nmfa for WIL
LEM. PILLEMV. PILLEMVS. (P. being the S«.«W) REX. REX. A. ANGL A N G h
Fleuree with four Scepters quarterly, or a Crofs with four Pellets in each Quarter, the Name ot the- .
HEREFORD. LVNDEN. L O N D. LVNDRE. LVNDR. f&tltodon ; C. for Canterb,. try ; L O <
E X E T E R L E O Y N C. for Lancajitr ; P I N C. fur Wh&pir ; D E O T F O R D. tor TbrJ, a. See tl

The Coins of the two firft William were very rare, 'till a Neft of them was accidentally found at York 1703-4. On their

niequently they are impomble to be dlfiin -

Face and Scepter to Rufus. The Infcri-


...- _ „ v „ , A N G L. A N G L O. or A N C L O R. Revert, a Crofs

the Name of the Mint-Mafter and Place of Mintage j as

E O F E R for n,i ; LIXeoL K".

the Coin in the foregoing Page, which

,e Side PILLEM REX" ANGLOR. and on the Reverie GODICON LUNDNEN.

fll He was attended by Robert Bhct his Father's Chaplain. Ord.VitaMs. _

(2) He was the Kings Steward. William de Psmte-Arcbe gave him the Keys of the Treafury at Wmtbejter .

HaZtTptvtnfo, and other Caftle, on that Coaft, he made the Keepers promife not to deliver them w^hont h,s .nowlcoje. bli onceahng

the King's Death ; which done he returned to W.r.cbejler, and difcovered that the King was dead. H.Jl. of CoUheJier- Abbey ■„ M.rajiu

*" hl 3 He brought them over with him, and put them in Prifon at Wincbejler. S. Dntln. p. 2*4. . .

1 Alter hi Coronation he went to Wi«b$tr, and dirtributed his Father's Treafure, to^Eto h.s afl •W.ll, , *. to fome of the c href
Cathedral Churches and Monafteries ten Marks of Gold a-piece, .0 fome fa, and to others el, befides nek Gnoffi?, Candle hckscTc. and to
fmaUer Churches in the Country five Shillings a-piece ; he alfo fent a hundred Pound to each County to be dtftr.buted amongft the Poor. S. D*-
velm. p. 214. Brompt. p. 983. Malmjb. p. 113. Sax. Ann. ic.

(5) Or from his red Complexion. Tyrrel, p. 73. ,.,._,. , „ . ,, , „

(6) He was corns over to England, and had bten confirmed in the polTeflion of his Earldom of Km. Ma.rr/b. p. 1


After which going to Dover,

li QM3G ■ i
Arrl. P.

120. M. Paris, p. It.

Book VI.

i. W I L L J. A M If,


Robert for-
rotes Money
of bis Rro-
thn H L nry.


He added, Juftrce Itfelf required the crown to be given to William defpairirig of becoming maflcr of Rochefter th
the firft-born, to which he had a lawful right, and of way, was obliged to befiege it. He was fix weeks befor
which he had not deferved to be deprived. Thefc confi- the town without making an v progreft f 1 1), N ':•' -

defending themfelves with li.t h" bravery, that lie began
lofe all hopes of fuccefs. I3ut at length a contagious dil
temper, which daily weakened 1 hem, compelled them to
defire a capitulation. Ii was no eafy matter to acree up-
on the terms. At length, alter many debates, the King
granted them the liberty to march oft' with their horfest
without hopes of being ever reftored to their efbttes and
employments. The Bifhop of Bayeux, being reduced to
mi led to do his utmoft to promote the defign, provided a very low condition, retired to the Duke of Normandy,
Robert would exert himfelf likewife, and bring over fup- who committed to him the administration of his affair '
plies from Normandy. The Norman Lords, who were in The fiege of Rochefler had furnr/bed the Duke with a 611 '
the confpiracy, beitirred themfelves fo effectually, that opportunity to make a diversion in fi me other part of the
they quickly gained almoft all the leading-men of their kingdom. But by an inexcufabfc negligenee; he loft the H

advantage of fo favourable a juncture. Inftead of going
himfelf into England with forces proportionable to the
greatnefs of his enterprife, he contented himfelf with fend-
ing a fingle Ship with fome foldicrs, who were all taken
and drowned (1 2).

William being mailer of Roehe/ler, marched his army The >;
towards Durham, to chaftife the Bifhop, who was one
of the rebels. As the Garrifon was very weak, the
city was quickly obliged to luirender, and the Bifhop andll,
with all that had taken arms againfl the King, were*'™'
banifhed. Thus, this confpiracy, which feemed fo dan- f'LWin
gerous, was crufhed by the vigour and good conduct of
the King, who equally made ufe of prudence and force

derations were ftrcngthened with aflurances of the upright-
nefs and generofuy of Robert. He fet forth his mild and
gracious difpofition, which put them in hopes of enjoying,
under his government, the tranquillity they fo earncftly
longed for.

Whether birth-right had any weight with theft Lords,
or Williairis ill temper made them wifh for a new maflcr,
they readily came into the Prelate's meafures. Each pro-

nation. As foon as the Bifhop was fecure of the affift-
ance of his countrymen, whom he judged much more ca-
pable of ferving Robert than the Englijh, he fent that
Prince word, that nothing was wanting but his prefencc,
with a body of Norman troops, to recover the crown un-
juftly ufurped by his Brother. As this news could not but
be very agreeable to the Duke, he came immediately to a
refolution upon fo advantagious a propofal. But as he had
not Money fufficient to defray the expences of fo great an
undertaking, he borrowed [three thoufand pounds] of his
Brother Henry, for which he mortgaged to him the coun-
try of Cotentin (1). Then he fent his Uncle word, he
would not fail of coming to England, as foon as poffible,

their defigns.

As foon as the Norman Lords were certified of Ro-
bert's refolution they began to ftir (2). The Bifhop of
Conjlanee, with his Nephew Mowbray (3), made them-
S. Duneim. felves mailers of Bath and Barklay Cattle, and ftorcd
Brompt. Brijlol with ammunition, intending that place for their
chief magazine. Roger Bygod in Norfolk, Hugh Grant-
'mehil in Leieejlerjhirc, feized feveral places. Roger de

The Confpi-
rators take
tip arms.
Sax. Ann.

great Service,
Sax, Ann

Tie King
attach Odo
Sax. Ann.


M. Paris

defiring him to prepare every thing for the execution of to bring the Rebels to reafbn. He not only gained bv his G ' M 3 '™^*

addrefs Montgomery (13), but alfo feveral other Norman
Lords, whofe defection was very prejudicial to Robert's
party. By his fecrct emiffaries, he m^de them fenfiblc,
they were extremely in the wrong to aft againft him :
That, feeing they held their Eftates by virtue of the
fame right that procured him the crown, it was manifcftly
their intcreft to fupport him. On the other hand, he gaVe
an inftance of the grcateft prudence in beginning with his
Montgomery (4), William Bifhop of Durham (5), Bernard Uncle's deftruction, who was the author of the confpiracy.

But his fuccefs on this occafion was chiefly owing to his

As the Englijh had fhewed themfelves ready to aflift him WiUiairi
in his necefhty, they expected a fuitable reward. But t ! "c' :he
it was not long before they perceived they flattered them- Hove'j.'
felves with vain hopes. Whilft lie wanted their afiiflance, Eadmer.
he gave them fair words; but as foon as he faw himfelf WaIm(b '
well fettled in the throne, he forgot his prorhifesi He
even began to opprefs them with feveral impofitions ; in
which he fhewed flill lefs moderation than the late Kine.
He was gently admonifhed of thefe proceedings by Lan- L "
This prelate, who in the late reign franc, who could not forbear putting him in mind of what ff m °

he had promifed. How careful fever this Prelate might
be to make ufe of the moft refpcctful terms, William was "%"»» ««f
extremely offended, and :>.-ked him in an anjry tone
and with an oath, PPhetker he thought it pffib/e for a
Ring to keep all his Promifis ? From that time the Arch-
bifhop was quite out of favour, neither did the King ever
afford him one kind look. But his difgrace was of no
long continuance. He died quickly after, lamented by
both Nations, as one of the moll worthv Prelates, promo-
ted to the See of Canterbury ever fince the converfion of the

Whilft Lanfranc was alive and at court, the prefence Tyraaniit
of fo venerable a Man was fome check to the Kind's Fr "'d^gs
vicious inclinations. But as foon as he was clear of this ' '* '"**
Prelate, who had an awe over him, he threw off all re-
ftraint. More efpecially he gave a loofe to his natural Maimfb.
defire of heaping up money in order to fquander it Eadmer;
away in a vain and extravagant manner. Avaricious
without frugality, covetous and prodigal at the fame
time, continually fcraping up money without ever filling
his coffers, he was alwavs in want, and under a ne-
ccflity of inventing perpetually new ways ?nd means of
railing money. One of his methods, never before prac-
tifed in England, was to feize the vacant benefices. J-[ c //<■/••*«- r?«
was not fatisfied with having the Firjl-Fruits, burapprc-
priated the whole profits to himfelf for feveral years to- 1

M. Pari*

of Neivark (6), Roger Lacy, Ralph Mortimer fecured 11 01
cejlcrjlnre. In a word, there was not a Lord among the
confpirators but what fortified himfelf in fome city.
Had Robert arrived at that time, probably he would have
dethroned his Brother. But his natural flothfulnefs, and
unneceflary expences made him lofe fo fair an opportu-
nity. On the contrary, the King, who was of a quite
different temper, omitted nothing to ftifle the confpiracy,
Lanfranc whilft his Brother's indolence afforded him time. The
doestbiKing m oft effectual means he made ufe of, was the gaining the
Englijh to his fide, in which Lanfraric's intcreft was very
ferviceable to him

had fhewn great regard for the Englijlj, made ufe of their
confidence in him, to induce them to aflift the King in
fo urgent a neceffity. By his follicitations and pair.?, he
reclaimed the confpirators, and perfuaded the reft to con-
tinue firm to the King (7). So that in a very fhort fpace
William was enabled to fend out a fleet, whilft with an
army of Englijhmen (8), he marched againft Odo his Un-
cle, whom he juftly confidered as the Ring-leader of the
rebels. The Prelate had fortified himfelf in Kent, where
he had made himfelf mafter of Roehe/ler and Pevenfey.
As foon as he heard of the King's approach, he fhut him-
felf up in Pevenfey (9), where he was in hopes to hold out
a fiege, 'till the Duke of Normandy fhould come to his re-
lief. But as he was more hot than couragious, and for
want of fore-fight, had even neglected to provide things
neceffary for his defence, the town was taken in a few
days (10) by the furious affaults of the King. Odo could
obtain his pardon upon no other terms but the procuring
the furrender of Roehe/ler, where the chief of the Norman
Lords were fhut up, under the command of Eujlaee Earl
of Boulogne. To this purpofe he was conducted to the
gates of Roehe/ler, where he feigned to perfuade the gover-
nour to deliver up the city. But Eujlaee obferving by his
looks, that he did not fpeak from his heart, detained him
prifoner, and fo furnifhed him with a plaulible excufe for
the breach of his promife.

(1) The County of Con/lantin (now Coter.tin) was then the third part of Normandy.

(2) The Confpiracy was formed in Lent, and about Eajlcr they began to ftir. Sax. Ann. S. Duntlm. p. 214.

(3} Geoffrey Bilhop of Con/lance, (of Exeter, C1ysJlt3tr.pt. p. 9S4.) and Robert de Msiubtay Earl of Nurlttimberlnd. Malirfa. p. ice. R.del
p. 489. M. Pant, p. 1 1 .

(4J Earl of Arundeland Sbre-wjb-jry. Brady, p. 218. Note(bl.

(5) Whom William II. had made Jtifiicier. M.Paris, p. II.

(6) Or rather of Newmarket. Brompt. p. 9S4. R. di Dtceto, p. 4S9.

(7) He promifed them that the King would make good Laws, abolilh the Taxes, and give them free liberty of Hunting. MdtmJB. p. 120.
Sax. Ann. &c.

(8) And Normans. R. de Diccto, p. 4S9;

(9) Which belonged to his Brother Robert Earl of Mertaignc. R. de Diccto, p. 489.

(10) It held out above fix Weeks. Huningd. p. 372. Sax. Ann. S. Dune/m. p. 215. Seven Weeks, i*ys Br.-.vftcn, p. S95.

(11) This does not appear from any of the ancient Hiftorians. It is probable Raptn hath confounded the account 01 the Siege of Pevenfey with

(12) The Hiflorians fay, that he fent over part of his army, but King William's Fleet deftroyed an innumerable multitude of his Mea :
*'*"* mu ft have fent a considerable number of Troops. Brompt- p. 985. Sax. Ann. Huntingd. p. 372. See Mmlmjb. p. 121.

(13) Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arur.dd and Sbrrai/bury. Maltnjb, p. 120.

Which fcewj


1 84


Vol. I.


Jl ScHfm in
the Cburcb
hinders the
Pofr f. fl


William has
a Defign
uf>cn Nor*

S. Dunelm.
Old. Vital.

He tahet
Valeri and

Robert i«-
pfore* Aid
ft « the
A of
F :e,
is bl ib'd by
Willi m.
Sax- Ann*
S. Dunelm.

Plot to deli-
ver w/>Roan.
Ord. Vital.

Pr'-rce Hen-
ry joins his
Brott. er

fie fives
Ord. Vital.
p. 690.

Peace he-

tiveen the
King and
Flor. Wig.
Ord. Vital.
Sax. Ann.

gether without filling them. And after conveying away
every thin 0, that was convertible into Money, he fold
them fo pilled to fuch as bid higheft, without regarding
their merit or capacity. As foon as the Archbifhoprick
of Canterbury was vacant by Lanfranc's death, he feized
the temporalities, and kept them in his hands four years.
He did the fame with the Bifhoprick of Lincoln, and all
others that became void in his reign. This Prince's Hi-
ftorians, mod part Monks or Ecclefiafticks, bitterly in-
veigh againft him upon this account. They fo frequently
infill on this point, that there is no room to doubt, it
was one of the principal motives which induced them to
blacken his reputation to the utmoft of their power.
However this be, thefe proceedings occafioned loud cla-
mours among the Clergy ; but they were difregarded by
the King. It was in vain they carried their complaints
to the Pope. The Court of Rome, as matters then flood,
durft not intermeddle in this affair. The Church was
rent by a Schifm, wherein England was yet uningaged.
Befides, Urban II, to whom the Englijh Clergy made
application, was then projecting the recovery of the Holy-
Land, in which enterprife he intended to engage all the
Princes of Cbrijlendom. It was not poffible therefore for
the Pope, nor confident with his intereft, to fall upon
William it fuch a juncture.

This Monarch had reafon to be fatisfied with the pof-
feffion of a Crown, which he had no right to expect.
Tins fingle confideration, doubtlefs, ought to have bred
in him fo much regard for his Brother Robert, as might
have helped to make him eafy under the injury he had
done him. But neither duty nor brotherly affection could
balance in his mind the defire of becoming mafter of all his
Father's dominions. He no fooner faw himfelf fettled in
the throne of England, but he formed a defign to conquer
Normandy. Perhaps, to his avidity was added the defire
of being revenged for the Duke his Brother's attempt to
dethrone him. Be this as it will, after making extraor-
dinary preparations, the intent oi which Robert never fuf-
pected, he made auefcent in Normandy. He immediately 1
became Mafter of St. Valeri, Albenu-rle, and fome other
Places, whilft Robert was unprovided of forces to oppofe
this invafion ( 1 ).

The preffing neceffity the Duke was in of applying to
a foreign power, obliged him to implore the protection
of the King of France, who came in perfon to has affifl-
ance. But he reaped no great advantage from thence.

..iam, who underftood how to ufe cunning as well as
force found means to make Philip his friend (:), who re-
tired without (icing any thing, leaving Robert expofed, as
before, to the infults ot 111s Brother. By the King of
France's retreat, the Duke's affairs were in a worfe con-
dition than ever, for relying on that aid, he had taken no
other meafures. William took trom him feveral other
places, and bribed certain Burghers of Roan, who pro-
miled to deliver the Metropolis of Normandy into his
hands {',).

Mean time, Robert was in great Straits (4). He had
no other refuge than the affiitance of Henry his youngeft
Brother ; but he had little reafon to expect any favour from
him. Henry was exafpe rated at the Duke's taking poflef-
fion of Coientin without paving what he owed him, and
was preparing to do himfelf jullice by force. Neverthe-
leis, Robert's promife to make him fatisfaction, as foon as
the war was ended, difarmed him, and even ingaged him
in his quarrel. This aid came very feafonably, to free the
Duke trom his prefent danger. Henry hearing of" the plot
that was contrived at Roan, fuddenly entered the city, and
feizing Conon Chief of the confpirators, threw him head-
long from a Tower. By this bold action, he quafhed the
confpiracy, which, had it taken effect:, would have rob-
bed the Duke of his Capital, and probably, of all his other

The union of the two Brothers, and the ill fuccefs of
the Roan confpiracy, put a flop to William's progrefs,
who, quickly after, was obliged to conclude a peace with
the Duke. The articles of the treaty were, that Robert
fhould deliver up to the King the country of En and
towns of Fefcamp and Cherburgb, with all the places he
had taken on the coaft of Normandy. William on his
part, obliged himfelf to affift him in reducing the Province
of Maine which had revolted, to reftore to the Normans
all their confifcated Eftates in England, and to grant cer-
tain Fiefs to his Brother in the fame kingdom. Laftly, it

was agreed, if either of the two Brothers died without IC9 t.
heirs, the furvivor fhould fucceed to all his dominions.
This treaty was folemnly fwore to by twelve Barons on
each fide, and the Brothers feemed perfectly reconciled.

But if thefe two Princes were pleated, their younger Hauyjeiza
Brother was not fo. He was not only omitted in this ^"l?' 7 ?"''.
treaty, but found Robert by no means difpofed to keep his Malmiv
word with him. Incenfed at this treatment, he thought Ori. Vital.
he might lawfully right himfelf fome other way, and, on
a fudden, furprized Mount St. Michael. This unexpected
blow (lartled Robert, who not caring to leave a place of
that importance in the hands of his Brother, defired Wil-
liam's affiitance to retake it. Though William had no . .
concern in this affair, he readily accompanied Robert (5) j^Jj ' lhcrf%
to the liege, or rather Blockade of this place, fituated on
a rock, which the Sea, by flowing round it twice a day,
renders inacceffible.

Whilft the two Brothers lay before Mount St. Michael, •*" Moa*
William, as he was riding alone at fome diftance from the y"Jf u
camp, chanced to fee two Horfemen (6) coming from the Knighton,
town. As he was of an impetuous temper, he rid up to Maim * 1 '
them to try to take one of them prifoner, that he might
be informed of the ftate of the place. The Soldiers, find-
ing themfelves attacked by a fingle perfon only, ftood up-
on their defence, and in the firlt encounter his Horfe was
killed under him, and himfelf thrown on the ground with
his foot intangled in the ftirrup. This accident would
have coft him his life, if, the moment one of the Soldiers
was going to kill him, he had not cried out, Hold, Raf-
cal, I am the King of 'England. Upon which, they were
ftruck with fear and refpeet, and helping him up, gave
him one of their Horfes. He nimbly leaped into the Sad-
dle, and then addreffing himfelf to the perfon that dis-
mounted him, Come, faid he to him, thou Jhalt be my
Soldier for the future, and enjoy the reward of thy valour.

Though the fiege went on but ilowly, Henry was dri- Generofuy of
ven to great ftraits for want of water. However, as he Rutert<,>
knew Robert's good nature, he did not defpair of fome re-
ief, by reprefenting to him, it would be more glorious to
fubdue him by arms than by thirft. Robert, who was na-
turally generous, fent him immediately a tun of wine (7),
with leave to fupply him with as much water as was ne-
ceflary. William upbraided him as guilty of folly in this
complaifance. What, replied he, is the quarrel between us
and our Brother of that importance, that we fhould defire he
fhould die with thirjl ? We may have occafton for a Brother
hereafter, but where Jhall we find another when we have dc-
Jrroycd this ? But William not at all pleafed with this, as
he thought, unfeafonable generofity, quitted the fiege and
returned to England. However, Robert perfifted, not- Robert tafet

withftandine, all difficulties, to carry on the fieee, till the '*' M™ 1 "'
1 /■ 1 m . u 1 • it Old. Vital,

place was furrender d upon terms. Henry having liberty

to^go where he pleafed, wandered up and down for fome
time without an" fixed abode, attended only by a chap-
lain and three or four domefticks.

About the fame time Robert banifhed Edgar Atheling s Ann#
out of Normandy, and William forbad him ever returning s. Dunelm.
into England. The caufe of his difgrace is unknown ; Hoved.
it is only faid, he retired into Scotland, his only refuge in
his misfortunes.

Whilft William was employed in Normandy, Malcolm Flor. Wore.
King of Scot/and took advantage of his abfence, to make Brompt.
an incurfion into Northumberland (8), from whence he had
carried away a great booty. The northern people loudly
complained of the King's amufing himfelf beyond Sea,
whiift his frontiers were plundering by foreigners. Thefe
complaints apparently haftening his return, he was no
fooner arrived (9), but he made great preparations to be
revenged of the King of Scotland. But fearing his Brother
Robert, who was become mafter of Mount St. Michael,
would take advantage of his abfence and leize his Caftles
in Normandy, he defired him to come and join him. He
pretended, his valour and experience were abfolutely ne-
ceflary to put an honourable end to the war. But to en-
gage him by a more powerful Motive, he promiied as foon
as the affair was over, he would punctually perform his
part of their late treaty. Robert being prevailed upon by willh m <W
this promife, and the good opinion the King his Brother Rcbert
feemed to have of" him, fpeedily repaired into England and J 1 ""'

attended him to Scotland.
The fuccefs of the war


did not anfwer William's

Their ii!

preparations. The greateft part of the fleet, fitted out s-acccj:.
to annoy the Coafts of Scotland, was deftroyed by a Brom i' t '

(1) Stephen of Albemarle, Son of Odo Earl of Champagne, at King William's charge, fortified and mann"d his Caftle for him. Ord. Vital, p. 60S.

(2) He bribed him with Money. Flor. IVig. p. 664. Sax. Ann. S. Bunclm. p. 216.

(3) It'illiam came ovei to England, and kept his Coutt at Chrijimas at Wcfiminfter, grievoufly opprefling his Subjecls with Taxes ; and then at Candlemai
Went back to Normandy. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. p. 216. Brompt. p. 986.

(4) King rVtlham was come over with a great Fleet, on purpul'e to deprive him entirely oi Normandy. Ord. Vitahs.

( 5) Malmjb. fays, that he was come over from England, (whcie he had piobably been lince the conclufion ot the treaty) that he might, according to his
engagament, help to reduce the inhabitants of Maine. Malmjb. p. 121. (6) Malmjb. fays, that he alone rulhcd upon many, p. 121.

(7) It doth not appear that he fent him either Wine or Water ; but only that he ordcied his Men to keep iuch a negligent Watch on one fide, as that
Henry s Men might have an opportunity to provide themfelves with Water.

(8j He waited a great part ot it in May, but was beaten back by the Inhabitants. S. Dunelm, p. 216. Sax. Ann, Enir.pt, p. 9S7.
(9) He came over in Aug-Jl. S. Dunelm. Brompt, lU


Book vr.

i. W I L L I A M It.


A Peace it



morafles and mountains. The want of provifions in thofe

almoft defolate places he was engaged in, and the roads,

grown impaflable by reafon of the bad weather, vifibly

deftroyed lb many of his Men, that he often repented of

this expedition. He would have been very hard put to it,

by thefe accidents, had not Malcolm been apprehenlive of

the ill confequences of a war, that had drawn the enemy

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