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into his country. And therefore, chufing rather to oblige

William to leave Scotland by fair means, than venture to

drive them thence by force, he fent him propofals (2),

which being gladly accepted, were foon followed by a

treaty of peace. The conditions were, that Malcolm

fhould pay William the fame homage his Father had done:

That twelve manors, held by him in England before the

rupture, mould be reftored to him, and that William Lands fhould enjoy them, they and their poflcrity

fhould pay him yearly twelve Marks (3) in lieu of all o-

1091. Storm ( 1 ), his army fuffered no lefs in marching over the film was prevailed upon to accept of this dignity. He was 1093;

a zealous affertor of the right* of the Church, and as he-
knew William was not very fcrupulous in thefe matters,
he dreaded the taking upon him a burden, which to him
feemed too weighty in luch a reign. However, the per-
fwafions of the BifhopSj and feeming repentance of the
King, brought him at length to a compliance. Before
he was confecrated, he requefled the King, to reftore to
the Church of Canterbury all that belonged to it in Lan-
franc\ time; which was pofitively promilcd. Mean time,
William, finding he was out of danger, and perceivin .'.
daily gathered ftrength, 1: fed delays, to avoid rcftoringthe
Church-Lands. At lengthy as the Archbilhop preficd
him continually upon that fubject, he frankly declared hi:
intent was, that the perfons to whom he had granted ths

even told the Arclibifhop, he expedted his content. But
Anfelm would never be brought to this compliance, which
he looked upon as a downright prevarication. Hence the
great conteft between the King and him, which oecafton-
ed a world of trouble to both.

In the mean time, William, whofe repentance proceed- '
ed entirely from the fear of death, finding himfelf per- „
fedly recovered, forgot all his promifes, and fell to his ■■'
former courfes. The prilbncrs, commanded to be freed, s ->" A ™-
were, by his order, more clofely confined, and thofe that
were fet at liberty, were again thrown into prifon. Ex-
tortion, injuftice, and rapine, were as prevalent as ever.
The adminiftration of juftice was in the hands of fuch as
took more care to inrich themfelves, than difcharge the
duties of their refpciftive offices: All were poor, but
thofe who had the fingering of the publick money. To
be in favour with the King, it was neccflary to be with-
out honour or confeience. None but informers met with
encouragement. Thefe diforders forced many honed
Men to refolve to quit the kingdom, and feek elfewhere
that tranquillity they could not fin

Edgar re-
flated to fa-



ed by the





Ord. Vital.

William re-
builds Car-

Sax. Ann.
Fl. Wig.
S. Dunelm.

thcr claims. Prince Edgar, who was employed in this
negotiation, behaving to the fatisfadtion of both parties,
William and Robert received him into favour, and he had
leave to return into England. The Duke of Normandy
was in hopes the war being over, the King his Brother
would ferioufly think of fatisfying him. But perceiving at
length he fought only to amufe him, he returned home (4)
in great anger, taking Prince Edgar along with him.

Whilft William was in Scotland, Robert Fitz-Hamcn,
■ Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, conquered Glamorgan-
Jhire in South-Wales. He had ferved 'fejlyn, Lord of Gla-
morgan, againft Rees King of Wales, on certain terms,
which the Welfh Lord refufed to execute, after the war
was ended. This breach of Faith caufing Fitz-Hamon to
refolve to right himfelf by arms, he drew his friends to-
gether, attacked Rees, flew him in the fight, and leized
his country. Twelve Knights, who accompanied him
in his expedition, were rewarded each with a Manor
which they and their pofterity enjoyed (5).

The next year, Prince Henry took by furprize Dom-
front, a fmall town in Maine, where he retired in expec-
tation of a better fortune.

nd in their native coun-
try. But even this liberty, which they imagined they Pol . vir _
could not be abridged of, was denied them by an edidt,
The frequent irruptions of the Scots into the northern forbidding all perfons to go out of the kingdom with-
parts of England, convincing the King of the neceffity of out the King's leave.

flopping their progrefs by a ftrong Barrier, he ordered the Whilft England was in this wretched condition, Mai- *ȣ '/

City of Carlifle upon the Tine to be rebuilt. This City colm King of Scotland came to Gloucrjhr, according to an Sco,l » n<1
which had been deftroyed by the Danes, and lain two hun- agreement made with William, to lettle fume affairs that Gkucefter
dred years in ruins, was peopled again, and endowed with were left undetermined in the late treaty. As foon as the Sax - An "'

Kins had notice of his arrival, he fent him word, that S '


He falls ill.
S. Dunelm.
Sax. Ann,

ef Repen-

Makes An-
felm Areb-
brfbop of

great privileges which it enjoys to this day (6). The epif-
copal See of Dorchejier was removed to Lincoln, and that
of Wells to Bath about this time, with the King's confent,
which was purchafed with a large fum of money.

This monarch was become fo abfolute, that he met
with no oppofition to his will. Taxes and impofitions
were renewed every day on diverfe pretences. Nothing
happened but what the King made an occafion to levy
money upon the Cities, Burroughs, private perfons, with-
out favouring the Normans any more than the Englifh.
None daring to oppofe thefe oppreflions, the people ex-
pected no other remedy for their evils, but the death of
the King, which they heartily prayed for in private. A
diftemper, which feized him at Glouce/ler (7), gave them
hopes their prayers were going to be heard. He himfelf
thought he had not long to live. The approach of
death, which to him feemed certain, and the exhortati-
ons of the Bifhops about him, threw him into reflections,
which were followed by fome figns of repentance. He
appeared firmly refolved to correct the mifmanagements in
the government, if it pleafed God to reftore him to his
health. The Bifhops improving thefe good motions, ad-
monifhed him to fill the vacant benefices. They repre-
fented to him what an obftacle it was to his Salvation, to
apply the Church's revenues to ufes contrary to the intent
of the Donors. The condition he was in, made him
readily comply with whatever was defued. He nomina-
ted Robert Bloet, one of his councilors, to the Bifhoprick
of Lincoln, and for Arclibifhop of Canterbury, made choice
of Anjelm, Abbot of Bee in Normandy, who was then at
the Englijh court. It was with great difficulty that An-

he expected before all things, to receive his homage, a "


Malcolm replied, he was ready to do it on the frontiers of*; de Ha e
the two kingdoms, according to cuftom. Willi

tarn, not

Flor. Wig.

fatisfied with this anfwer, let him know further, he would
have it done in Gloucejler, the vaflal not being to appoint
where he was to do his homage. Malcolm, looking upon Ret*™, bom,
this as a pretence to affront him, returned home without""''^'-'*'
feeing the King, provoked at the haughtinefs fhown him. btlanT"
He was no fooner in Scotland, but he began his revenges. Dunelm.
with invading Northumberland. This was the fifth time Bw,r -f l -
he had ravaged that country, revenging on the innocent
fubje&s the wrongs pretended to be received from the So-
vereign. Robert de Moxubray was then governor of the
northern Parts. He was a perfon of courage and con-
duit, and finding the King's forces were too remote,
took upon him fpeedily to remedy the evil his govern-
ment was afflicted with. He drew together a body of
troops with fuch- diligence, that he fell on the Scots when
they thought themfelves moil fecure. This unexpected
attack throwing the Scots into diforder and confufion,
they ran away without making fcarce any reiiftance.
Malcolm and Edzi'ard his cldeft Son, vexed to fee their
flying troops, and endeavouring to rally them, were both
(lain on the fpot. The Scotch Hiftorians pretend the En- Is fain with
glijh ow'd their victory to a notorious treachery (»). Per- l " Si "-
haps it was becaufe the Scots fuffered themfelves to be fur- Brcmp't.
prized. However this be, this fatal battle was the occa- v/. 1
fion of numberlefs evils to Scotland fhortly alter. Mai- ""•
colm had with him a General called Walter, to whom, in OrigTntftte
reward of his fervices, he had given the office of Steward • "•• •

(1) A few days before Michaelmas. Sax. Attn. S. Dunelm.

(2) This Peace was brought about by means of Duke Robert and Edgar Atbeling. See 5- Dunelm. p. 216. Brompt. Sax. Arm.

(3) Of Gold. S. Dunelm. ibid. Brompt. (4.) Two days before Cbnfimas. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. p. 217.
(5) There is a Book written on thisSubjeft by Sir Ethiard Stradling, or Sir Edtvai d Manjel, (tor it isafcribed to both) wherein you have the Nama




(6) Carlijle (the Lugubalhm, or Luguballia, or Luguvallmm of the Britons and Romans, and the Luel «< the Saxons) flands near the Confluence of the
Rivers Eden, Pelenll, and Caude, and not on the line. The Colony fent hither by William Rufus, 01 Hulbandmcn, are by all Records laid to be the.
hrft that tilled the Lands thereabouts.

where he lay lick all the Lent. S. Dunelm,

(7) It feized him at the Manor of Alnjejian in Gloueefierfhire, from whence he was carried to Gh
p. 217, 213.

(S) B ""bius and Bucbanan fay, that Malcolm having reduced the Caftle of Alne-ailck to Extremity, the Bcfieged were forced to furrender, and enly de-
lircd that the King ,n Perl.-n would receive the Keys or the Gates, which were brought by a Soldier upon the Top , t ., Lane-, who finding v. ,th n -'■.
Wall, thruft the Point ot the Lance into the King'-. Eye as he was going to take them. Upon which £'.
received a Wound of which he loon alter died. See Mulmlb. u. ten.

N*X. Vol. I. A a.

d his bju Jailing ;oo raihlj up^r. ths eaexD) ,




Saucer. Mar-
garet dies*

Donald maG


S. Dunelm.

He invades


Vol. L

or "real Mailer of his Houjhold ( 1 ). From this Officer This news was fo acceptable to thefe Soldiers lifted again ft 1 094,

fprang the family of the Stuarts, who long fwayed the
fcepter of Scotland, and for a century that of England (2).
Margaret, King Malcolm's Queen, and Sifter ot Edgar
Athelirig, furvived the melancholy news of the death oi her
Husband and Son but three days. Though Malcolm left
three other Sons of fit age to govern, the Scots placed the

their wills, that there was not one but what was glad to
be difmifled at fo eafy a rate. By this means William
raifed the Sum often thoufand Pounds Sterling, with which
he brib'd the French to retire, who were an obftacle in
his way.

The departure of the auxiliaries put Robert's affairs in a 109;.

rmwn on the head of Donald his Brother. This Prince very bad ftate. Probably, it would have occafioned the »'»«**
was no fooner on the throne, but he expelled all the Eng-
lijh out of the kingdom. Among whom was Edgar Athe-
ling, who taking with him the Sons of Malcolm his Ne-
phews, retired into England.

The Scots delayed to take vengeance of their defeat only
whiift they were employed in the coronation of their new
King. Towards the end of the Summer, Donald, at the

1: defeatid.

Sax. Ann.

War ivilh
Flor. Wig.

ii'srs againfl
bis Brother
Sax. Ann.
Fl. Wig.
M. P.iris.
S. Dunelm.

lofs of all his dominions, if the King had not been obliged c ,
to return into England to quell the IVelJh who were rava- cambr.
ging Shropjhire and Chejler. Never could a diverfion come
more unleafonably, fince it made him loie the conqueft
of Normandy, which he now thought infallible. He left
Normandy therefore with extreme indignation, after a re-
conciliation with his Brother Henry, who crofs'd the Seas
head^of his army, made an irruption into England, where with him.
he cruelly revenged Malcolm's death. As foon as William At his arrival in England, he march 'd into Wales, Ik K«£'
had notice of it. he fent an army into the North under where he rebuilt the Caftle oi Montgomery that had been t ^ E i ^ f ' d "
the command of Duncan, natural Son of the late King of demolifhed. At his approach, the Weljh, according towa'to.'
Scotland. At the approach of thefe forces, Donald haitily cuilom, retired to the Mountains, where it was impof-
retired into his kingdom ; but was fo clolely purfued, that fible to reach them. As that difficult country was un-
he could not avoid coming to a battle. As his army was known to him, he loft fo many of his Men in obftinately
much inferior to that of the Englijh, he was defeated and purfuing the enemy in their lurking holes, that he was
forced to betake himfelf to one of the Hebrides (3). This at laft compelled to retire without doing them much da-
misfortune throwing the Scots into great confternation, mage.

Duncan improved the juncture, and got himfelf crowned Jn fpite of the difficulties he had ftruggled with in this

expedition, he refolved upon a fecond, the fame year, af-
ter ftrengthening his army with new levies. But he was
fcarce entered Wales, when he was called off" from his en-
terprize, by affairs of greater importance, which more
nearly concerned him.

Robert de Mowbray had done the King fignal fervice Mowbray's
by his victory over the Scots. Blown up with liis hap- Revolt.

in the room ot Donald.

About the fame time, new troubles arifing in Wales, the
Englijh army marched thither. This war proved fatal to
the Wcljh, who loft part of their country, with Rees their
King flain in a battle (4).

The affairs of Scotland and Wales being ended to Wil-
liam's fatisfa&ion, it was not long before he fought frefh
occafions to exert his activity. Robert his Brother being
difpleafed that their late treaty was not executed, was
making preparations, which made William apprehenfive,
lie defigned to retake the places yielded to him by the generofity in him, exprefled fo little gratitude, that the

Robert af-

ffledtytbe France

S. Dunelm.

py fuccefs, he imagined William could not fufficiently re- £? al " lb '
ward fo important a fervice, that had freed him from a s. Dunelm.
very troublefome neighbour. But the King, who had no Brompt.

Sax. Ann.

Earl's haughty fpirit led him to devile means to make
him repent of this contempt. Nothing lefs would fatisfy
his revenge than the dethroning of William and letting
the crown on the head of Stephen, Earl of Albemarle,
Nephew to William the Conqueror. He drew into this
conlpi.acy a great number of Lords, who, as well as
he, were diffatisfied with the harfti and fcornful beha-
viour of the King. William received the firft news of
this confpiracy as he was marching into Wales. But this
war feeming to him of little importance in comparifon
of the gathering ftorm, he altered his courfe (7), and
marched with all fpeed to the North. His defign was^^
to crufh the head of the Male-contents, before the reft bad like «
could join him. The confpirators forefeeing he wou Id f aU '"""">
march that way, laid an ambufh for him," which he ord^Vital.

ference" and began Hoflilities. He immediately became would have certainly fallen into, if Gilbert dcTunbridge(%),

maiter of fome places, the Governors whereof he had one of the rebels, had not given him notice of it. This He ke j; sgts

brib'd. But afterwards, Robert receiving affiftance from ftratagem failing, William continued his march, and be- Bamborough
■e retook Argentan, and made the garrifon, confift- ficged the Caftle of Bamborough where Mowbray was (9).

ing of eight hundred Men, prifoners. After that, he be-

fieged the Caftle of Holms, which furrendered at difcre-

tion. Thefe Succefles made William fenfible, he fhould

find it difficult to be clear of this war without lofs, if the

French troops continued in his Brother's fervice. Having

learnt by experience that Philip was not proof againft pre-

fents, he refolved to try the fame way that had formerly

fucceeded Co well. But after the exceffive taxes laid on

the kingdom, it feemed impracticable to raife the fum he

then wanted. However, as he had a fertile invention on

thefe occafions, he bethought himfelf of a new expedient

which fucceeded to his wifh. Under pretence that there

fame treaty. Therefore, without troubling himfelf to
fatisfy him, he refolved to lead an army into Normandy
to fecure his fortreffes, and make new conquefts. As he
went to imbark, he palled through Hajlings, where he
vifited Battle-Abby, and caufed the Church to be confecra-
ted, which was dedicated to St. Martin, as the King his
Father had ordered. Upon his arrival in Normandy (5),
he wanted to hold a conference with his Brother, where-
in he endeavoured to amufe him with frefh promifes.
This interview proving ineffectual, they agreed upon a
fecond, in the prefence of the twenty-four Barons, who
had fworn to the treaty. IVilliants fole aim was to
intimidate thefe Barons, that they might lay the fault on
his Brother. But finding that, inftead of blaming Robert,
they openly declared in his favour, he broke off the con-

This place, which was ftrong and well ftored with ne-
cefiaries, holding out longer than was expected, he re-
folved to change the fiege into a Blockade, that he muht
go in queft of the other confpirators, who were now
up in arms. To this purpofe he built near Bamborough ., ■,,
a Fortrefs which he called Mal-Voifin, [or Bad-Neigh- Mal-Vo/fin.
lour,'] becaufe it took away all polfibility of throwing Hunt-
any fuccours into the Caftle. Some time after, Mowbray Hoved-
going out upon a falfe information ( 1 o), had the misfor-
tune to fall into the hands of the Befiegers. As foon as M
the King heard of it, he ordered the Prifoner to be car- tak™ W

Who are
bribed by


ried to the foot of Bamborough- Walls, and, in cafe the > m /> r 'p"'d-
was an urgent occafion for Supplies, he lent orders into Befieged refufed to furrender, to have his eyes put out Brddy '
England to levy with all poffible fpeed twenty thoufand before their faces. This order produced the expected
Men. In railing this army, fuch were purpofely taken effect, the Caftle was furrendered upon Terms, and
for Soldiers as were well to pafs, or to whom it was very Mowbray confined in IVindfor-CaJlle, where he remained
inconvenient to leave their Families. When thefe levies a prifoner thirty years. His companions in the revolt
were going to embark, the King's Treafurer told them, met with no better treatment. Roger Lacy was dif- Hi, Acccm-
by his order, that they might every Man repair to his poffeffed of all his Lands (1 1). Hugh Earl of Chejler re- t'^'l'f ""
own Home upon die payment of Ten Shillings each (6). deemed his life with the fum of three thoufand pounds Malmio.

Sax. Ann.

(1) This Magiftrate (fays Buchanan) was to gather io all the King's Revenues ; alfo he had a Jurifdiflion, fuch as the Sheriffs of Counties have, and
he is the fame with that which our Anceftors called a Thane, f. 217.

(2) Camden fays, Malcolm made Walter Steward of the whole Kingdom of Scotland, and that he was Son to Flean by Nejla Daughter to Griffith af Lie-
V/clin Prince of North-Wales. Flean was the Son of Banquo, (lain by Macbeth.

(3) A duller of Ijles called by the Inhabitants Inch-Gall, who retain the Manners, Cuifoms, and Habit of the ancient Sects, and fpeak the Irijb
Language. They are commonly thought to be forty-four in Number, though they that have travelled them, reckon them to be about three hundred.
They are called by the Englijh, The Wejiem Ijles.

(4) From this time there were no more Princes in South-Wales, but the Kings of England were accounted their chief Governors.
(O He came there about the middle ot Lent. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. p. 219.

(6) Simeon of Durham, and the reft of the Hiftorians fay, That Ranulf Fljmta.l, the Treafurer, took from them the Money that had been paid them
for their Maintenance. S- Dunelm. p. 220. M.Paris, p. 14. Sax. Ann. Sir Htmy Spelman fuppoies they viae raifed not by thi way we call 1'iejfmg,
hut through the King's earned Sollicitations; and that the Money the Kingtotk trim them, was what the Country had allowed them tor their Snbfift-
ence. Spelmamn Codex, p. 296. ■/■,.-, ,, ■ ,

(7) And in the mean time fent his Brother Henry into Normandy, with a large Sum of Money, to harals that Country, Huitttngd. p. 373. Sax, Ann.

(8) Rapin by miftake calls him William. See id. Vital, p. 704.

(9) He befieged Nevicaftlc firft. Sax. Ann. Brompt. p. 991, &c.

(10) Sim. Durham fays, fome Soldiers belonging to NeucaftU upon Tine prormlcd to give him entrance into the Town, it he would come thither pri-
vately with a few Followers. Upon which he went out one Night with thirty SolJicrs, but being betrayed bj his own Men, was puiiucd arid taken b;' the
Carnlon of Mal-Voifin. p. 22r.

(11) Which were given to his Brother Hugh, who adhered to the King. Old. I ttal. p. 7C4.

1 Sterling.

Book VI.



Quarrel he-
tiveeri the
King and
E 'timer-

M- Paris

Sterling: The Count of Eu chufing to vindicate his
innocence in fingle combat againft his accufer, and being
overcome, was condemned to lofe his eyes, and be caftra-
ted. William of Ardrcs accufed of the fame crime, was
fcntenccd to be hanged, though he proteftcd his innocence
with his laft breath. All the reft were condemned to di-
vers punifhments, not one efcaping.

The King was no fooncr out of this trouble, but he
fell into another, occafioned by the renewal of his differ-
ences with the Arclibifhop of Canterbury. He had no
great regard to the Church's immunities, which Anfelm
too haughtily fupported. This Prelate had even prefumed
to acknowledge Urban II. for lawful Pope, though he very
well knew the King was rather inclined to Clement his
antagonift. In vain was it reprefented to him, that by a
Law made in the late reign, no perfon was to acknow-
ledge a Pope without the King's confent. This argument
was of no force with him, who pretended the King had
no right to meddle with Ecclefiaftical Affairs. But upon
what ground did he himfelf pretend to determine for the
whole Church of England ? The King, for his part, was
not willing to give way to his Subject, and as he began to
treat him a little roughly, Anfelm defired leave to go to
Rome. William at firft denied him, but at length con-
fented, being glad to be clear of him. However, not to
let him depart without further marks of his difpleafure, he
fent an Officer after him, who overtaking him juft as he
was going to fail, ranfacked his baggage, and took away
all the money he could find, pretending it was againft the
Law to carry the Coin out of the kingdom. After An-
felrn's departure, the King feized the temporalities of the
Archbifhoprick, and enjoyed them as long as he lived.
This Prelate continued fome time at Rome, where he did
all that lay in his power to ftir up the Pope againft the
King. But at length, finding Urban did not care to in-
gage in his quarrel, he retired to a Monaftery at Lyons,
where he remained 'till William's death.

Urban II. was then going to difcover the grand defign
which he had been long revolving in his mind. I mean
the famous Crufade, undertaken for the recovery of the
Holy Land out of the hands of the Saracens ( i ). This
great affair is fo well known, that there is no occafion
to defeend to particulars. It will be fufficient to remind
the Reader, that Peter the Her mite firft fet this project on
foot ; that Pope Urban II. preached it himfelf at the coun-
cil of Clermont ; and that numberlefs perfons of all nati-
ons and ranks in Europe, zealoufly imbarked in it. The
badge of thofe that ingaged in this undertaking, was a
Red Crofs wrought in their habit, and worn on the right
fhoulder, from whence they were called the Croife'es [or
the Croffed,] and the expedition, the Crufade. Their
Motto was, It is God's Will, The heads of the Croifees
were, Hugh of France (2), Godfrey of Bouillon, Raimund
of Tholoufe Count of St. Giles, Robert Earl of Flanders,
Baldwin Earl of Haynault, Bohcmond Prince of Tarenium,
Tancred his Nephew, and Robert Duke of Normandy (3).
This lafted burned with a defire of diftinguifhing himfelf

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