M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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dred Houfes, and feveral Churches in London. It took off the whole Roof of St. Mary-le-botu Church, and carried it a g.-od wav. There were four
Beams in it twenty-fix Foot long, that (ell with fuch force in one of the Streets (which were'not then paved, but a moorifti Ground)' that they funk above
twenty Foot in the Street. As they could not be pulled up again, People were forced to faw them even with the Ground. S. Dunelm. p. 217. Hexed,
p. 462. Ste Stvw's Survey, Vol.1, p. 21.

(5) On Novemb. II. fiiy the Sax. Jinn. But Flor. Wor. places it on the 3d.

(6) The Places at which William Rufus is recorded to have held his Courts, are as follows. In the Year 1087 at Chiftmafs, at London. [Sax. Ann.
Huntingd. p. 37 1 . Brompt. p. 98 3. ) In 1090, at Weftmtnftir, at Chriftmafs, (Sax. A*«. ) In 1092, pro more at Chrijlmafs. ( Eadmer, p. 1 5 - 20.J trf
1093, at Cbrtjlmajs, at Cloucefter, (Sax. Ann.) In 1095, at Winchefier, at Eajltr ; at Whitsuntide, at Winder ; and at the fame place again at Cbrijl-
majs. (Sax. Ann.) In 1096, in the beginning of January, at Salijbury. (Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. p. 222. Eadmer, etc.) In 1097, at Eafter, at Wind*
Jor. (Sax. Ann.) In 1099, itJVbitfunlide, in his new Hall at Weftminfter, for the firft time ; (Sax. Ann.) and it. Cbnftmafs, K.GIoUeetfcr. In I no,
it Wtncbe/ler, at E after ; and at H'tilfunlide, at London, pmrio more. (Sax, Ann, Brompt. p. 996.)


As there is but little to fay of this King's Coin, it may not he amifs to /how how the King's Revenue was paid in thofe antient time:. At firft, The
Tenants of Knight's Fees anlwered to their Lords by military Services ; and the Tenants of Socage Lands and Demelr.es in great mcafure by Work and Pro-
visions : Afterwards, the Revenue ot the Crown was anlwered in Gold and Silver, and fometime in Palfreys, Deftriers, Cbajcms, Lewters, Hawks, &c.
(that is, in Horfes, Dogs and Birds of Game) and the like. Sometime in both together. When a Man paid Money into the Excbtrurr, it was laid, Ir.
Tbejauro liberatnt fo much ; and the fame Phrafe continueth to this Day. Thefe Payments were made ad Sealant and ad Penftim ; and in Blar.i Silver and
Numcro by Tale. Ad Sealant was by paying Sixpence over and above each Pound or twenty Shillings, which at firft was thought fufficient to make good
the Weight. Ad Penfum was the Perfon's making good the Deficiencies of Weight, though it was more than Six-pence pet twenty Shillings. But as the
Money might be deficient in Finenefs as well as Weight, a third way of Payment was by Combuftion, cr melting down part of the Money paid in, and re-
ducing it to Plate of due Finenefs. When the Ferm was melted down, it was faid to be dealbated or blar.cb'd. As fuppole a Fei m ot a hundred Pounds
was paid into the Exebcouer, after the Combuftion it was faid to be a hundred Pound Blank. Frequently the twentieth Part of one Shilling was accepted
in lieu of Combuftion, to five Trouble and Charges. The Payment by Numero or Tale needs no Explanation. Payments, or at lealt Computation?, were
made by Marks, and Half-Marks ; Ounces, and half Ounces of Gold : And in Pounds, Marks, Half-Marks, Shillings, Ptnce, SV. of Silver. The
Mark of Gold was equal to a hundred and twenty Shillings of Silver. The Ounce of Gold was equivalent to fifteen Shillings of Silver. The Pound of
Silver by Tale was twenty Shillings ; the Mark thirteen Shillings and Four-pense ; and the Shilling ccnfifted of Twelve pence ; and a Penny was the
twentieth part of an Ounce, equal to our Three-pence.

The Coins of William Rufus are exceeding rare, if, as is juftly believed, all thofe with the Full Face are to be afcribed tc the Ccr.ijueter t However, fe-
veral Authors place one with the Full Face to this King, inferibed PILLEM. REX. AN. a Crofs, or a Sscr, on each fide th« King's Head : R>-
verfe, a CrofS compofed of double Lines, as in the Figure here annexed.

N°. X. Vol. t

B b fe





Vol. I.

3. HENRY I. Sirnamed Beau-Clerk




r ofthi

Er.gjilh """J
w/>l. r gard
C? the o«-





H E Englifti confidcrcd the death of tPWtatn Rtt-
fus as a great deliverance, though the prefent ad-
vantage reaped by it, was not to continue long.
The Norman yoke was not broken by the death
of th : s Prince, fince there (till remained two Sons of Wil-
liam the Conqueror, of whom one was foon going to be
tlieir Sovereign. Indeed this might have been a favourable
11* Difpft- juncture, if they had defigncd to throw off this yoke, or
the two former Kings had left it in their power to at-
tempt it. But depreiled as they were, and ftript of tlieir
eftates and all offices, fuch a thought could fcarce come
into their minds. Their only courle was to be guided by
the proceedings of the Normans, who were matters of the
Kingdom. In all likelihood, thefe laft were in great per-
«faa*r*a. plexity on account of the two Brothers, who might both
claim the Crown. Robert Duke of Normandy, by his
Birth, feem'd to have an inconteftablc right, which was
further itrengthen'd by his late Treaty with William Ru-
fus, wherein it was agreed that the Survivor fhould be
heir to all their father's inheritance. Befides, his mild and
generous temper, which had gained him a Itrong party
in England, feemed to give him a great advantage over
his Brother Henry, whole difpofition was unknown. But
on the other hand, his flothfulnefs and negligence, of
which he had given too many inffances, ferm'd a difad-
vantageous prejudice againft him. His very friends were
backward to declare in his favour, fearing he was not rea-
dy to profecute his right. His departure from the Holy
Land was known, but where he was at prefent none could
tell. Nay, his friends were in pain about him. More-
over, after his great expence in his voyage, it was reafo-
nable to prefume that, at his return, he would find him-
felf deftitute of all neceffary means to difpute the crown
with his Brother. On the contrary, Henry had the ad-
vantage of being born in England (1), whilft his Father
was on the throne, which went a great way with fome
people. Then, his pretcnfions were ftrengthened with
his prefence, and pofitive promife both to the Normans
and Englijh (2) to abrogate all rigorous Laws made fince
the Conqueft, to reftorc the government as in the time of
the Saxon Kings, to abolifh all unjuft and arbitrary taxes,
to reinflate the Clergy in their privileges, to fill the va-
cant benefices, and recall the banifli'd Eccfefiafticks. But
all thefe promifes would not perhaps have produced the
effeft he expected, if his diligence and vigour at this junc-
ture had not added weight to his reafons. Immediately
after the death of William he poftcd to IVincheJier, where
the Crown and Sceptre were kept with the royal treafure,
and would have taken pofleffion, but was ftoutly oppofed
by Roger de Bretevil (3), one of Robert's adherents. This
Lord alledged, they were bound by oath to acknowledge
the Duke of Normandy for King, in cafe JVilliam died
without heirs. That befides, the Law of Nature gave
Robert a right, which could not be juftly difputed. Du-
ring this conteft, feveial other Lords being come to JVin-
chejler, there was quickly a great concourfe of people,
flowing in from all parts to know what was tranfaifting.
If the choice of a King had folely depended upon the
Lords, then at IVinchefier, the Duke of Normandy's right
Htfmvs would doubtlefs have been prcferved. But Henry gave
great Vipar them not time to take neceflary meafures to execute fuch
and Rcjalu- a j e j]g n _ j\ s ne obferved the people were in his intereft,
he improved that advantage, and drawing his fword, fwore
no Man fhould take pofltsTion of the Crown. The dif-
pute ftill growing warmer, the Lords that were prefent
thought fit to retire into a private room, to confult more
calmly together what was to be done on this emergency.
Whillt they were debating, the people made the name of


ef Henry.
Sit. Ann.

l\f. Paris.

S. Dcinclm

His Dili-
gence to get
the Crczcn.
Old. Vital.

He meets

■auk Dij;





Henry refound in their ears by their loud acclamations, n 00.
and gave them reafon to dread it would be extremely dan-
gerous to declare for Robert. So preferring their own Henry/:
iafety to juftice and equity, they refolved, (in order to pre-
vent a civil war which feem'd unavoidable, if they perfift-
ed in aflerting the rights of the Duke of Normandy,) to
place Henry on the throne. This was enough to fatif-
fy the Prince that his right was fufficiently eftablifhed.
Without flaying for the confirmation of the eftates, he fet
out immediately for London. On the morrow after his w cniurid,
arrival, Maurice, Bifhop of that city (4), in confequence Sax. Ann.
of this hafty and irregular election, put the crown on his m '
head, adminiftring to him the ufual oath.

The fhort fpacc between the death of William and Remark on
Henry's coronation (5) is ufed as an argument by thofe •* '£l' a <-
that maintain the right of electing the Kings was then
confined to a few of the principal Lords. At leaft, they
infer from hence that the Commons were not concerned
in the elections. Henry had it not in his power to feize
the crown by mere force. Neither can it be faid to have
fallen to him as next Heir, for his elder Brother was alive.
He obtained it therefore only by election. This being
granted, to fay he was chol'cn by the nation reprefentcd,
as at this day, by a Parliament, it fhould be proved, fuch
a Parliament was then fitting. But that is impoffible.
Much lefs can it be laid, that in three days fpace, the
eftates could be fummoned and aflemblcd. This is a plau-
fible argument : But the truth is, nothing can be conclu-
ded from it, becaufe there was yet no regulation made
fince the Conqurjl about the fucceffion of the crown (6).

As Henrys pretended election interrupted the natural Hcnrv re-
order of the Succcffion, it was to be feared, it would fin**

make dangerous imprcfiions on the minds of the people. „f''.

t> i-ii -r 1 .i 1 1 Mwmlfc.

It was therefore highly neceilary he ihoukl enter upon Brompt.

his reign in fuch manner as might give his fubjeits room
to hope well of his government. The performance of his
promifes being the left that was to demonftrate the fince-
rity of his intentions, lie began his reign with that, in or-
der to gain the people's affection. He fet about, in the
firft place, reforming his court, where the King his Bro-
ther had fuffered many abides to creep in. The courtiers,
for the mod part, fure of impunity, were wont to tyran-
nize over people in a fhameful manner. Not content Hunting.;.
with oppreffing them by unjuft and violent methods, and
fccretly attempting the chaitity of the women, they pub-
lickly gloried in it, inftead of dreading a punifhment. To
cure thefe diforders, Henry publifhed a very fevere edict
againft all offenders in general, but particularly againlt
adulterers. As for thole that abufed their power in op-
preffing the people, he ordered them to be put to death
without mercy. Some who were already notorious upon
that account, were driven from court, and Ramtlpb Bifhop
of Durham, the dctefted Minijlcr of the late King, was
thrown into priibn (7).

If this firft proceeding of the new King gave the Eng- Grams tit-
lijl) a good opinion of his reign, what he added foon after Saijefls a
was no lefs acceptable to them. To convince them of his cta
real intent to perform what he had promiled, he aboliihtxl
the Couvre-feu, which they could not but confidcr as a
conflant badge of their fervitude(8). This favour WHSSvh/lanetif

' Charter.
M. Hans.
?■ 55"

followed by another of much greater importance : 1 mean, •'■'
a Charter, confirming divers privileges enjoyed under the '
Saxon Kings, and renouncing all thole unjuit prerogatives
ufurped by the two late Kings. By this Charter, Henry
reftored the Church to her anticnt liberties, and freed her
from all thofe oppreffions fhe had for fome time been
fubjecSt to, particularly during the vacant Sees and Abbies.
He contented that the Heirs of Earls and Barons upon

(:) He was born at Sclby in Ywljhirt in 1070, Sandfcrd, p. 24.. M. Paris fays it was in 106S, p. 5.

(z'j To the Clergy and Laity (pcfulo tmiverfi) which he aflemblcd it, London. M. Pans, p. 5. Eadmer, p. ee. S. Duntlm. p-l«,tf. Sax. Ants.
f 3) William d-: Bretevil, and not Roger. He was Son of William Fhx-ofbcrn Earl of Hereford, and had his Eltatc in Normandy, ot which Brmlium was
thv chief Seat, from whence he was firnanud William de Bntolio, now Bretevil.

(4) And 'Stomas Archbifliop of }»>. R. de Diceto. p. 498. M.Paris, p. 4.6. P. BlefenJSi, p. 11 J.

(5) William died the fecond, or, according to fome, the firft of Augufl, and Henry was crowned the fifth. S. Duisclm. r. lie. ]\T. Paris, p. 46.
Bnmft. p.997. The 1'erfon that affilUd jWy moiUy in getting the Crown was Henry de Bella Metite, or Beaumont Earl of H aittict. Malmfi.f. , 5 6.
Brady, p. 235.

(6) This Difpute whether the Commons had any marc in the decline of the Kings, fecms to proceed from not confidering that the Barons had all the
Lands in their hands in thofe days, and that there was no fuch thin;; then as what we call Commons ni w, nor till Ionic time alter. See Note, p. 155.

(7I This was done by the advice of the Great Council of the Kingdom. M, Paris, p. 47. httx. Ann,
(2) 6>r page 171, Nctt (1).

2 a death,

Book VI.


H F. N R Y f.


Anfelm re-

Tbt for,?
marries Ma
tilda of

Cbfiaclcs to
the Mar-


M. Paris.
Pol. Virg.

a death fln'.iM not b? obliged to reds-cm their eftates, but
pay only a lawful Relief (i). And at the fame time re-
cuired the Lord:, to deal in like manner with their Vailiik
He agreed tliat the Nobles might marry their Daughters
without asking the King's conlent, provided it was not to
the enemies ol the State. He appointed the Mothers, or
nearcft relations, guardians to Minors. He made a ftan-
dard for weights and mealures throughout the kingdom,
and ordained that Coiners ihould be puniihed with iol's of
limbs, hi fine, having granted a general pardon for all
Crimci committed before his coronation, and remitted all
arrears and debts due to the crown, he added a very ma-
terial article, which was no lefs fatisfactory to the Nor-
mans than EngUJh ; which was, the confirmation of the
Laws of King Edward, that is, of the Laws in force du-
ring the empire of the Saxon Kings, and entirely laid alide
or cxprcfly aholifhed fince the Concjueft. 'J 'he native
EngUJh, could not but be extremely well pleafcd to fee
their antient Laws rellorcd. And the Normans were no
lefs gainers by it. Hitherto they held their cftatcs at the
will of the Conqueror, confequently were liable to be dif-
poffefled at his pleafurc. But by this charter, which con-
fined the royal authority within its antient bounds, they
were fettled in their poilefiions, and fcreened from the vi-
olence of arbitrary power. This charter being approved
and figned by the Lords fpiritual and temporal, feveial co-
pies were tranferibed and depofited in the principal Mona-
fteries to be confulted upon occafion (2).

This beginning of government gave the people room to
hope a happy continuance, fince they already law fo ad-
vantagious alterations. But ftill one thing was wanting
to compleat their fatisfacStion, namely, the recalling of
Anfelm Archbifhop of Canterbury, who had gained their
eftcem and affection, by his vigorous oppohtion to the late
King's oppreilions. Henry, unwilling to refufe them this
pleafure, writ a Letter to the Archbifhop, who was kill
at Lyons, to invite him to return to his Dioctfe ; intima-
ting withal, he defigned to be guided by his directions,
and entruft him with the administration of affairs. Jn-
J'elm, to whom this news gave wings, returned forthwith
into England (3), to the great joy of the people.

The arrival of this Prelate was no lefs agreeable to the
■ King. He had need of him in an affair which could
not be managed without bis affiftance. As his defign was
to attach the EngUJh to his intereft, he believed nothing
was more capable to gain their affection, than his marry-
ing Matilda, Daughter to Malcolm King of Scotland by
Margaret, Sifter to Edgar Atheling (4). Indeed this alli-
ance could not but be very grateful to the Nation, fince it
would be the means of reltoring the Saxon royal family to
the crown.

Henry had now demanded the Princefs of King Edgar
her Brother ; but there occurred a great obftacle to the
execution of this project. Matilda had been educated in
England in the Monaftery at Wilton, where fhe had put
on the veil. Indeed, to remove this difficulty, it was
alledged fhe had not taken the vow, and had been veiled
only to preferve her chaftity, fuppofed to be in danger in
the beginning of the Conquejl. But this reafon did not
appear to the two Kings fufheient to authorife any farther
proceedings, though they were both equally defirous of
the match. Every one knew, Matilda had put on the
veil, and, it was generally believed, had vowed chaftity.
Some even affirm, fhe excepted againft her marriage as
unlawful, and add, that, when prefled at laft with rea-
fons of State, (he yielded to the inftances of her Bro-
ther and Lover, fhe curled the Line that was to fpring

from her, as abominable in the fight of God. The dec:- 1100
fion of this affair, which appeared fo difficult, being left to
the Archbifhop of Canterbury, he would not undertake it
alone, but cai;.;u in the affiftance ol j council which m< I
bis palace at Lambeth-. This :i!.i.ml>Iy being entirely incli- '
nud to the King's fide, the arguments for Matilda's libera *
ty to many, were lo well managed, that the council de-
clared the intended marriage to be good and lawful. Pur-
fiiant to this declaration, it was fhcrtly after folemnizcd
to the general fatisfaction of both kingdoms (5).

Wfiilfl thefe thing; were tranlactin^, Duke Robert was 1 ic.
returned to Normandy (6), and had taken poileffion of his 0«*c H '. :t
dominions without oppofition. Though \urmandy was '{'""" fi '
mortgaged to the late King (7), Henry did not think fit or. Vital.
to dilpute it with his Brother, at a time wl.cn he was appre- *■• dmir.
henfive of being attacked hiinlelf upon the account oi Eng-
land. Duke Robert in his way home from the Holy-La- d, Malmlr.
made fome ftay in Apulia, where he married a wife (8 j, * v ' G*"**"
which delay helped his Brother to rob him of the crown.
He was no fooi.er arrived, but he openly mowed ins re-
fentment at being uipplanted, and a firm refolution to. at-
tempt the recovery of what he had been deprived of in his
abfentc. The Bifliop oi Durham, who, finding means M. Pari,
to efcape out of prifon (oj, w;« retired to Normandy, did
not a little contribute lo confirm him in that defign.
Moreover feveral Norman Lord-, who had confer. ted to • VIjlmft -
Henry\ election by a fort of compulfion, began to contrive,
how to place Robert on the throne (10). They had alrea-
dy been tampering with fome of the principal EngUJh
Lords, to draw them into their plot. As they knew hirn
to be a mild and good-natured Prince, they promifed them-
felves much greater happinels under his Government than
under Henry's, who appeared to have more vigour and
refolution. Mean time, the rumour of Robert'), preparing
to afl'ert his rights, wrought variotifly on the minds of
the people. Some were for continuing firm to the King,
and keeping the Oath they had taken to him. Others,
on the contrary, though latisfied with the King's pro-
ceedings, relumed their former inclination for the Duke
his Brother, fo that Henry was under great perplexity.
If he was loth to truft to the fidelity of the Engiijh, they £^ mer .
were no lels fo to rely on his fincerity. What they hau
experienced from the two late Kings, gave then but too
much reafon to dread, that whatever the prefent King
had hitherto done, was only to amufe them and prevent
their fiding with his Brother. In this ftate of uncertainty,
Anjclm's affiftance was of great ufe to Henry in fixing the
Englijli (11), who feemed to be wavering. The Arch-
bilhop, who was indebted to tlie King, was very glad ta
fhow his gratitude on this occafion. He aliemb.ed the
principal tnglijh and Norman Lords, and fo pofitively af-
furcd them, the King would punctually perform all his
promiles, that they lecmed very well fatisfied. And yet,
no (boner was it known that the Duke of Normandy was
going to embark for England, but the greatclt pait of
the Nobles declared for him, and part of the fleet (iz) Sax. Ann,
followed their example. This defection gave the Duke
opportunity to land at Portjmouth (13), where he was re-
ceived without oppofition. He was not ignorant how the
EngUJh ftood affected. Such as came to him every dav,
allured him of the good wifhes of their countrymen.
They made him hope, the King would quickly be defer-
ted by the whole Nation, who looked upon their oath
of allegiance as involuntary. Mean time, Henry tool: all
the meafures he thought requifite to fruftrate the de-
figns of his Brother, by making ufe of Anfelms credit,
in whom the people feemed very much to confide. As

(1) When the King's Tenant in Capite died, his Lands were in the King's Hands till the Heir had done Homage and was of Age. When the Heir fued
to have his Eftate out ot the King's Handi, his obtaining it was called Livery, and the Profits received in the mean time by the King, were called Primer
Seijin. Now, according to Sir Henry Spelman, redeeming Lands was a Competition with the King for Primer Seijin, Livery and Relief ± tor the two firft
of which by Henry's Charter, the Heir wa; not to pay any thing for the future. Spelman's Feuds, Ice. p. 30. c. 16. The Relief of an Earl, as fct down
in the Lvwsof the Conjucror, was, eight Horfes feddled and bridled j four Helmets ; four Coats of Mail ; four Shields; four Spears ; lour Swords, four
Chafers, and one Palfrey bridled and laddled. That 01 a Baron half as much, with a Palfrey. That of a Vavafor to his Lord, his belt Horfc, his Hel-
met, CoatofMail, Shield, Spear, Sword, or in lieu of thele a hundred Shillings. That of the Countryman, his befl Bcaft ; and of him that farmed
his Lands, a Year's Rent. Thefe were afterwards turned into Money; and no doubt both Money and Arms were extorted in an arbitrary manner, as ap-
pears by the Words of the Law, LL. Cut. 11, c. 13, c. 24, c. 29. Rabat dc Belefme Earl ot'Arundelani Sbretvjbury, upon the death oi his Brother
Hugh dt Montgomery, paid for the faid Earldom, asa Relief, three thouland Pound Sterling, in the tenth aiWilliam Kufiii. 0,d. Vital, p. -o5.

(2) There were if many Copies as Counties, which were lint to certain Abbies in each County : And yet there was fcarcc one to be found m the Rei^n
of King John, whole Magna Cbarta was founded upon it. There is a Copy at this Day in the Red Salt of the Exchequer. And Matthew Paris (p. c 5.)
has given us a Tranfcript of that which was lent into Hereford/hire, which you may find tranflated by Tyrrel, p. 1 14. B. 111. Vol. II.

(3) Before Mi.baelmafs, and landed at Dover, Otlob. 24. Eadmer, p. 55. Sax. Ann.

(4.) Bnmpton fays, he did it by the Advice of his great Council, p. 998. See o'. Dunrtm. p. 226. They were married, Nov. II. Sax. Ann. Malmft.
p. .56. J

IS) "*■ P " r:! his account of Matilda't being againft marrying and declaring lierfelf a Nun, and curling her IlTue feems to be groundlcfs. Fcr Eadmer
lays, fhe ptivately applied to Anjelm, confeHing fhe had been veiled indeed, but againft her Will, and had never worn her Veil unlcfs in the Pretence .j"
the Abbefs Cbripr.a her Aunt ; and alfo that the King her Father feting it once en her Head, pull'd it off, and tore it, protgfting to Alan Ear. ot Brtr
tagne, he intended to marry her, and not to make her a Nun. Eadmer, p. 56.

(6) In Auguji. Huntingd. p. 37S. Brompr. p. 99S.

(7) It was only for three Years. See above, p. 187. Mire (5).

(3) Siiilla Daughter to Geoffrey, and Sifter to Wilham Earl of Ccnverfana, a Prince of Italy, with whom he had a fine Fortune. Mcltr.fi. p. 153.

(9) By bribing his Keepers, M. Paris, p. 47. They brought him a Rope in a Pitcher ot Water, by which he let himl'elf down. Malm/b. p. i<;6.

(10) The chief of thofe that remained faithful lit Hairy, were Robert Fit x-bamon, Ricbaid de Rediirs, Roger Bigot, Robert E»n ot Melu :t, «ith hU
Brother Henry. Malmjb. p. 156.

(1 1) The King and they fecm to have entered into a Covenant. Sec Eadmer, p. 59.

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