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(12) Which Henry had fitted out upon News of Robert's Preparations. S. Dunelm. p. 126. Sax. Ann. Bromft. p. 99S.

rr/ 1 V ,} n Aui ^ ' Hc wat conv °y e < i fitter by that part ol Henry's Fleet which had revolted. TroDi IV*fiwr/i, Roicn immediately marched toward*
W ntbejier, and encamped near that City. S. Dunelm. p. 226. Bnmpt. p. 99S,


?9 2


Vol. !.

Jtribcs u} a
Peace ivitb
in Brother.

Sax. Ann.
'■ 1 it. Paris.


Ord. Vital.

Henry «-
venges him-
felf on bis

He attach
Robert de

Who retirel
to Shrewlbu

Old. Vital.

^ ; >
Sax. Ann.

foon as the army was ready to march, the Archbifhop
came and called the principal officers together, to whom
he fo fenfibly rcprefented the heinoufnefs of breaking their
oath, that he confiimed them in their duty; fo that they
unanimoufly promiled to hazard their lives and fortunes
in defence of the King (i). Robert, who expected the
contrary, plainly faw this change would prove very pre-
judicial to his affairs. He relied not on his own forces,
but on the affiftance of the Englijli. In expectation that
the majority would abandon the King and join him, he had
proceeded fo far as to threaten fuel) as periifted to fupport
the Ufurper, as he ftiled his Brother. But when he found
the bulk of the Nation declared for the King, and the
army had juft renewed their oath of allegiance, he percei-
ved the execution of his defign was impracticable. Thus,
falling on a fudden from all his hopes (2), he clofed im-
mediately with thepropofals of peace fent him by the King.
An accommodation appeared to him fo much the more
neceffary, as he faw the moft zealous for him at firft, be-
gan to waver. Matters ftanding thus, and the two Bro-
thers equally wifhing to come to a treaty, the Lords of
both parties met together to confider of the means. It
was eafy to fee, Robert did not expect to obtain by treaty
a crown, which he could not acquire by arms. So, in
confideration that Henry was already crowned, and born
in the kingdom after his Father was on the throne, the
refult of the conference was, that he fhould keep pofieffion
of the crown. He promifed for his part (3) to refign to
Robert the Caftles in Normandy garrifoned with Englijh,
and to pay him the yearly Sum of three thoufand Marks.
It was ftipulated alio, that if one of the Brothers died
without children, the other fhould fucceed him. This
agreement being figned and fworn to by twelve Lords of
each fide, the armies were disbanded (4). Robert ftaid
two full months (5) at the court of England, living in
perfect union with his Brother.

This accommodation was very advantagious to the
King in many refpects. It not only fecured him the
crown which he was in feme hazard of lofing, but render-
ed him alfo more feared and efteemed, when it was fcen
that by his prudence and fteddinefs, he got clear of fo dan-
gerous an affair. However, he could not forget the peril
he had been in. As he was apprehenfive his enemies
might hereafter make frefh attempts to dethrone him,
whenever an opportunity offered, he refolved to prevent
them, by ruining them one after another. It was no
hard matter for him to make them feel, by turns, the ef-
fects of his refentment. Opportunities of being revenged
are feldom wanting to thofe who have the power in tiieir
hands. Soon after the treaty, he attacked, on divers pre-
tences, Hugh de Grantmefnil, Robert de Pcntfratt, and
fome others, who eafily perceived, their greateft crime
confifted in their good- will to the Duke of Normandy.
He was particularly exafperated with Robert de Belefme
(6), becaufe he had fhown him the leaft refpect, and Hill
continued to difcover his defire of exciting new troubles.
This young Lord, Son to the late Earl of Montgomery,
publicity declared, Henry was an Ufurper, and that it
was difhonourable for the Normans as well as the Englijh,
to fuffer him to take the crown from his elder Brother.
He was not fatisfied with talking thus indifcreetly, but
rendered himfelf formidable, by ftoring and fortifying his
Caftles in Shropjhire (7). The King, who had determi-
ned his ruin, was glad, he gave him fo fair an opportuni-
ty by thefe imprudent proceedings. To complete his de-
ftruction, fpies were fet upon him, who, feigning to come
into his meafures, obferved all his actions, and took care
to talk to him, before fuborned witneffes, of things that
ferved to render him criminal. When the King thought
he had fufficient evidence againft him, he ordered him to
be accufed of five and forty articles, the leaft of which
was enough to condemn him. Belefme being obliged to
■ appear in court, defired time to prepare his anfwer ; which
being granted, he took the opportunity to make his efcape
and retire to Shrewsbury, where he hoped to defend him-
felf by the affiftance of the Weljh, who efpoufed his caufe.
When he took this refolution, he relied on the affiftance of
feveral other Lords, who feemed to be entirely of his len-

timents. But whether he was deceived, or not fleemeda 1 102.
fit perfon to be head of fuch an enterprize, he found him-
felf abandoned by all, and thereby faw, though too late,
the vanity of his projects. The King proclaiming him a.
traytor, marched againft him with fo fuperior a foice, that
in few days he became matter of Shrewsbury, where the re-
bel did not dare to expect him (8). After which, he took all
his other caftles, and compelled him to rclinquifh whatever
was held by the Earl his Father in England, and retire tottf"'^'-
Normandy, where he carried his ill temper. Henry confif- ^°™«"?;,'
cated all his Lands a "d involved his Brothers in the lame are confifct-
punifhment, notwithstanding their innocency, fo defirous '«*
was he of expelling this family out of his dominions (9).

The infolence of this Lord did not give the King fo 1 103,
much trouble, as the haughtinefs of Archbifhop Anfelm, Cmtrjl b,-
with whom he had a concert that threw him into great '^""^j
perplexities. The Archbifhop had conceived two projects, Anfelm
which could not, in all likelihood, be accomplifhed with- "tout iW-
out great difficulties. The firft was to oblige the Clergy^'""""
to live unmarried, and the fecond, to wreft from the King
the inveftiture of Bifhops and Abbots. To attain his ends, Eadmcr,
he convened a Synod, where, in the firft place, he eaufed
all the married rriefts to be excommunicated, though they
were then very numerous in England. Henry, who was
not much concerned in this affair, being unwilling to give
the Archbifhop any diftafte, the decree paffed in the Sy-
nod, notwithstanding the ftrong oppofition of the inferior
Clergy, who in vain tried to ward off this blow. An fj„ nt ; n ,j,
Hiltonan remarks, that, although Anjelm's good intentions m. Paris,
were generally applauded, it was thought to be a thing of
dangerous confequence, to compel the Priefts to a conti-
nency, of which many of them were not capable; and
adds, it was juftly feared, this rigour would occafion their
committing uncleannefs of a more criminal nature than
the prohibited marriage.

Anfelm feeing his firft project fucceed, undertook the
execution of the fecond, and would have proceeded to ex-
communicate the Bifhops inverted by the King. But i,ere
the cafe was quite altered. The King was too much con-
cerned, not to oppofe to the utmoft ot his power the abo-
lifhing a prerogative his predeceffors had quietly enjoyed.
But how vigorously foever he exerted himfelf, he could
not prevent fome Bifhops who had received their invefti-
tures from him, from refigning their Bifhopricks out of
fear of excommunication. On the other hand, Anfelm re-
futed to confecrate fuch as were nominated to their Sees by
the Kinc;, unlets lie would give up the right of invert*- *
ture. This new claim, which the Archbifhop, finding
himfelf fupported by the Court of Rome, very boldly af-
ferted, occafioned a many years quarrel between him and
the King. As Henry would not depart from his preroga-
tive, Anfelm pretended he could not fubmit without be- a p f l^, c ,h.
traying the caufe of God. All hopes of accommodation Pope,
being taken away by the obftinacy of both parties (10), M> p "' s •
the Archbifhop refolved to carry his complaints to Paf-
chal II, who was then Pope. In all appearance, it was by
his orders that he imbarked in this enterprize. He was
attended in his Journey by the Prelates that had refigned
their Bifhopricks, and upon his arrival at Rome, inftantly
demanded of the Pope that he would be pleafed to reftore
them by his authority : Then, fays an Hiltorian, the Holy m. Paris.
See, whofe clemency is open to all the world, provided care be
taken to prepare it beforehand by a certain dazzling Metal,
rejhred the Bijhcps, and fent them back to their refpeclive
Churches. The King being informed that Anflm was
gone to Rome, fent alfo three agents to plead his caufe,
namely, Gerard Archbifhop elect of 1 r orh, Herbert Bifhop
oiThetford, and Robert Bifhop ofChe/ler, with IVilliam de
Warelwajl, an Ecclefiaftick of great learning, to affifl
them with his advice (11). Though thefe agents main-
tained the King's caufe with a great zeal and refolution,
Pafchal would abate nothing of his pretentions. The af-
fair was carried fo far, that the King was going to be ex-
communicated. On the other hand, the Archbifhop was
deprived of his temporalities, during his abfence from the
kingdom. At length, after many conteits for near three
years together, the King and Pope happening to be in
fuch circumftances, as made them equally with to fee an

(1) Henry encamped with a very large Army, near Haflings, about Midfummcr. S. Dunelm. p. 226. Sax. Ann,

(2) Eadmcr fays, he was afraid of being excommunicated by Anfelm, p. 49.

(3) See the Conditionsat length in the Sax. Ann.

(4) Robert fent part of his Army back into Normandy, and kept the reft with him, which committed great Ravages whilft they ftaid in England. S,
Dunelm. p. 227. Sax. Ann.

(5) Till Michaelmas. Sax. Ann. Huntingd. p. 37S.

(6) De Belefme, or de Bcllifmo Cajlcllo, a fair Cattle in Perch : He was Son of Robert de Montgomery, and upon the Death of his Brother Uxgb de Mont-
gomery, the Earldom of Shrczu/bury and Arunde I came to him in the tenth of W. Rufus.

(7) Thofe of Sbrrw/bury and Bridgnorth, as alfo thofe of Tikhill in Vukjhire, and Arundel \n Suffix. Ord. Vital.

(S) The King went firft and beficged Arundel Caftle in Sufex, which (being blocked up by feveral Forts about it) furrendered with the Earl's Leave.
From hence the King marched to Bridgnorth, and fpent three Weeks before it, and at Lift took the Caftle by bribing the Weljh. After this the King de-
manded Sbrcwjbury of Robert de Ncviland Vigor de Vevables, (placed there as Governors by the Earl) and threatcn'd, if it were not delivered up in thue
Days, he would hang all he mould take therein. Upon which they treated with the King, and the Keys of the Caftle were lent to him, by Ralfh
Abbot of Seyi, afterwards Archbiihop of. Canterbury. Ord. Vital, p. S06, &c.

(9) This Earl had a vaft Eftate in Normandy. His Brothers were Arnulfh and Roger of Poiilcu.

( to) This Matter feems to have been debated in a Great Council of the Nation. See Eadmtr, p. 62, 65, 66, 69.

(11) Rafin, who calls thefe Agents, Ambail'adors, has named them wrong, fallowing ferae mcd«rn Hiftorians ; and therefore »ke Names are here in-
fertcd as they ftand in Eadmcr, p. 63.

J end

Book VI.



1 103. end of the quarrel ; the Pope permitted the Bifhops to do
homage to the King, and Henry gave up the right of In-
veftiture. Thus ended this affair, which I have hut juft
mentioned here, intending to treat more fully of it in ano-
ther place.

1104. Though the King's conteft with the court cf Rome
Robert vifiis gave him a great deal of trouble whilft it lafted, it did
the Km; his no( . n ; n J cr n i m from minJing his other affairs. Robert
Sax! Ann, Ms Brother, who was then in England (1), found by ex-
Malmib. perience how attentive this Monarch was to whatever

might turn to his advantage. The realbn of the Duke of
Normandy's vifit, was to pnjft the payment of his penfion.
Gives tip bis But Henry knowing his Brother's mild and generous tem-
?<"/""'• p e r, carciied him in fuch manner, and gave him fo good
words, that he infenfibly drew him in to defift from his
demands (2). This unleafonable generality coft the im-
prudent Duke very dear, fince it proved in the end the
occafion of his ruin. His eafy and liberal temper had al-
ways fpoiled his defigns. We have already feen, in the
beginning of the reign of William Rufus, how ill he con-
fumed the money lent him by Henry, inftead of employ-
ing it in keeping up his party in England ; by which in-
difcreet management he loft the crown for that time. Af-
terwards, he borrowed ten thoufand Marks of King Wil-
liam for his voyage to the Holy Land. This fum not
fufficing to defray the great expence he was at, he con-
trailed fo many debts during the voyage, and fince his
return, that he was forced to mortgage almoft all his
W. Gemit. Demefns. He had nothing left but the city of Roan, which
he would have alfo mortgaged, if the Burghers would
Repents of it, jjjyg g| ven ^gj,- con fent. His wants, which daily increa-
ptaim of the fed, foon made him fenfible of his overfight in not infift-
Khg, ing upon the penfion, he might juftly demand of his Bro-

ther. He complained, his eafy nature was abufed, and
adding to his complaints fome imprudent menaces, gave
Henry a pretence openly to act againft him. The King
did not want much folliciting to break entirely with his
Brother. Ever fince he found himfelt in peaceable pofief-
fion of England, he began to caft a greedy eye on Nor-
mandy, and was extremely defirous of annexing it to his
crown. Robert's ill conduct ftrengthned his hopes of be-
ing one day mafter of that Dukedom. And as he waited
only for a favourable opportunity to execute this defign,
he did not fail to embrace the firft that offered.
Belefme It has been related, that Robert de Bclefme, after the

raijes imu- \ f s Q f f^j e fl;ates in England, retired into Normandy. He
mandy. was n0 f° oner arrived there, but he endeavoured to be re-
Ord. Vital, venged on the King, by fiercely falling upon fuch of his
Subjects as had lands in that country ( 3 ), under a pretence
of making himfelf amends for what die King had taken
from him in England. The Duke's indolence, who neg-
lected to oppofe thefe outrages at firft, rendered this Lord
the more fierce and prefumptuous. He committed fo ma-
ny violences, that complaints were brought againft him
from every quarter. At length Robert, rouzed by the peo-
pie's murmurs, refolved to chaftife him, and levied an ar-
DuTt 'and m Y t0 P ut a ft°P to tri efe diforders ; but had the misfor-
ejpirc 1 to tbt t tune to be defeated (4). The Rebel, exalted with this
Dukedom, f UC cefs, carrying his boldnefs and ambition ftill farther,
formed a project of becoming mafter of the whole Duke-
He Is joined dom. Whilft he was purfuing this defign, he faw himfelf
by the Duke ftrengthencd with the afliftance of another male-content
g7* Lord : namely, William Earl of Mortagnc Son of Duke
Robert, the eldeft of William the Conquerors half-brothers.
This Lord not being fatisfied with the Earldom of Corn-
wall, pretended, the King ought to give him alfo the Earl-
dom of Kent, which his Uncle the Bifliop of Bayeux had
enjoyed. But meeting with an unexpected denial, he fell
into fo great a fury with the King, as even to threaten him.
His infolent behaviour caufed the King to difpoffefs him of
the Earldom of Cornwall, as a punifhment for his rafhnefs.
bo mates Whereupon he retired, in great difcontent, into Normandy.
Peace with As foon as he arrived, he joined Robert de Belefme, and
him. ftrengthened his party in fuch a manner, that the Duke

„' " was obliged to conclude a peace with them on terms very
difhonourable to a fovereign Prince (5).

1 105. This Peace, inftead of reftoring tranquillity to the
TfoNor- country, ferved only to increafe the infolence of the two
mans apply £ ar j s . w h contemning the Duke's orders, continued
o/Engl.md. daily to commit ravages infupportable to the Nobles and
Ord. Vital. People. At length, fome of the chief Men of the coun-
Malmfb. tr y fi JK j; n g themfelves thus oppreffed by thefe two tyrants,

without any hopes of protection from the Duke, refolved 1 10$.
to apply to the King of England for relief. Their fuit
was very welcome to Henry, who only wanted a pretence
to interpofe in the affairs of Normandy, in order to have
an opportunity of icizing the Duchy. But as this defign
was in itfelf very odious, he endeavoured to give it a co-
lour of juftice, by pretending to act from quite another
motive. To this purpofe, he writ a letter to his Brother I '"P J 'f
(6), rcprefenting to him, that his conduct gave the Nor- "Jill's'
mans juft caufe of complaint, fince he piotected perfons Bntbcr, «
who ought to be deemed enemies to the publick : That the '** f' jT '
peace he had made with thcin, leaving the country expo- ?, m .
fed to their ravages, his Subjects could no longer confidcr
as their Sovereign, a Prince from whom they could ex-
pect no protection : That he entreated him therefore to
redrefs the grievances complained of by the Normans, or
not think it ftrange, that upon his neglect, he Ihould
himfelf efpoufe the caufe of thole that applied to him. To
thefe remonftrances, he added complaints of certain inju-
ries, which he pretended to have fuffered himfelf, and de-
manded fpeedy fatisfaction. He would doubtlefs have ta-
ken it very ill, if the Duke had thus meddled with his af-
fairs. But fuch is the unreafonablenefs of moft Men, that
they practile without fcruple what they condemn in others,
and fancy the world is fo blind as not to fee the injuftice of
their actions, becaufe they are artfully covered with the
cloak of charity.

Whilft Henry feigned to have no other defign but Hinr y '«"'"
to relieve the diftrefied Normans, he himfelf opprefied his "^7<s '"
own Subjects by an exorbitant tax. He pretended to be Ord. Vital.
forced to go and wage war with the two tyrants f Ei<!mcr -
Normandy ; a war wherein the Englijh however were
wholly unconcerned. Notwithftandir.g ail his promifes
to the people, this tax was levied with all imaginable
rigor, even to the imprifoning and plaguing various ways
fuch as refufed, or had not wherewithal, to pay it. As
foon as his preparations were finished, he palled intoZl/'m
Normandy with a numerous army (7), carrying with him Normandy,
large fums of money, with which he bribed the Nobles whe " he
and Governors of the Caftles. He could the better do rt'J?"
this, as Robert was not in condition to crofs his defigns
or fecure the allegiance of his Subjects by the fame me-
thod. The prefent pofture of affairs favouring the King
more than at any other time, he feized upon Caen and
fome other cities (8). The Duke of Bretagne and the
Earl ot Anjou, even permitted him to garrifon fome of
their Frontier- Towns, for fear of drawing upon them-
felves the burden of the war, deligned againft Robert.
On the other hand, they that had invited him to their
afliftance, plainly foreteeing, if the quarrel was made up,
it muft be to their prejudice, never ceafed exhorting him to
pulh his conquefts, and make himfelf mafter of ail Nor-
mandy. They reprefented to him, it was the only way
to cafe them of the oppreffions they lay under, fince they
could expect no afliftance from their Sovereign. The Ori.Vtafii.
Bifhop of Seez, fworn enemy of the two Earls^ who had r " S ' 5-
turned him out of his Diocefe, blew up the flame to the
utmoft of his power, and loft no opportunity to excite
Henry to purfue his undertaking. One day, as he was
with him in the Church of Carenton, he caufed him to ob-
ferve how full the Church was of goods, brought thither
by the people, to fecure them from the plundering Ty-
rants. This afforded him a pretence to make a long
Speech, reprefenting to the King that the rife of all
their miferies was owing to the careleffnefs or conni-
vance of the Duke ; adding, that the country would ne-
ver be reftored to its former tranquillity, till they had ano-
ther mafter. In fine, he conjured the King to take upon
him the government, and free the Normans, the antient
Subjects of his family, from the wretched ftate they were
reduced to. Henry, who only wanted a cloak for his in-
juftice, liftened very attentively to this fpeech ; and pre-
tending to be touched with compaffion for the Normans,
promifed to exert his utmoft to procure the relief they Malttft.
expected at his hands. However, he exprefied an ex-
treme concern that he was forced to deprive his Brother
of his dominions, who by his incapacity was running
headlong into deftrudtion. Purfuant to this refolution,
which he pretended to take purely out of neceflity, and
in compliance to the intreaties of the A or/runs, he con-
tinued the war. Robert made but a weak defence; for,
not fufpecting the King's defigns, he had no time to pre-

(1) He came over in the Year 1103. Sax. Aim.

(2) It was the Queen that prevailed upon him to defift from it. Sec TV. Gemiticen, p. 675. Malm/b. p. 156. Kniglion, p. 2176.

(3) He burnt many Towns and Churches, with the People that had fled to them tor Safety ; and the Abbey of Almamfea. 0,'ii- Vitab's.

(4-) At Hiefmes. After which Robert de Belefme took the Fortrefs of Hieiir.es and Cwitf/Caftle, and many other Garrilons round about : and the aeieh-
baunng Territories fubmittcd to him. Ord. Vital.

(5) He granted R. de BJefme his Father's Honours and Eftates, the Biflioprick cf Seez, the Foreft of Golfer, Sec. Cid. Vital.

(b) He : palled himfelf into Normandy, with a great Fleet, and vifited Damfront, and other Towns fubjeft to him ; after which he had an Interview
!1 15 t « reproved hmi tor making a Peace with Rober, de Belefme. Ord. Vital. (7) In Lent. Sax. Ann

tb ► h ^ tCl ° k "V"*' a,lJ burnt '* almoft * th= Stound i »« which the Inhabitants of other Places, particularly tJlofc of Caen, were fo
mat WDB1 Henry marched againft them, they yielded to him, and expelled their Governor : for which good Service he bellowed on foot of tl -
-ens ot Laen the Manor ot Daliingtcn in SuJTex, worth eighty Pounds per Annum Rent. 0,d. Vital.

N°X. Vol. I.

:hief Cjti-





Vol. I.

1 105.

Sax. Ann.


Robert ji.es
Jvl. Paris.
OrJ. Vital.
S x. Ann.
Fl. Wor.

>ke of Normandy was then in a very deplorable
He perceived at length, his ruin was de-

hut can't
tain it.

M. Paris

M. Pari:

The Englilh
promife to
jerve the
King againji
his Brother.

Remark on
the Kind's

pare. Wherefore Henry, having put his affairs upon fo
crood a foot, in (his firft campain, returned to England
(1), with intent to raife, during the Winter, the money
and forces he wanted, to iinifh the work fo happily be-

The Duk

termined, but knew not how to prevent it. In this per-
plexity, he refolved to repair to the King his Brother,
and try to move him by his fubmiJTions. As he was
himfelf of a kind and generous difpofition, he could not
believe but the King was fo too. Pollened with this
notion, he came to England (2), and fued for Peace, in
a manner fuitablc to his condition, but unbecoming the
Son of William the Conqueror. Henry, who was not of
fo eafy a nature, was deaf to all his intreaties. He be-
thought himfelf of improving the prefent juncture, to he-
. come matter of Normandy, Accordingly, nothing could
bring him to an accommodation, which would have very
much leflened his pretenhons. For this reafon, he oh-
itinately refufed to enter into any Negotiation, and
thouiht he dealt very kindly by his Brother, in permit-
ing him to return. Robert defpairing to prevail, departed,
full of rage and vexation, and uttering great threats,
which Henry little regarded. An Hiftorian affures us
however, the King felt fome remorfe for the injury lie
was doing his Brother, who had never given him any
jutt caufe of complaint, and from whom he had already
taken a crown. But if he had any luch reflections,
they were very fhort-livcd (3). The only effect they
produced, was to infpire him with a dread, that his Bro-
ther's wrongs woidd move the companion of the Englijh,
and revive the affection they had formerly fbown for
that Prince. This thought giving him fome uneafinefi,
he judged it nccefiary to prepoilefs his Subjects in his fa-

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