M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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vour, by renewing his promifes. To this end, he con-
vened the Great Council or Parliament (4), and endea-
voured, in a ftudied fpeech, to demonftrate the juftice of
his undertaking. He reprefented to them, " That Rs-
" bert's refufal of the kingdom oj 'Jerufaleni, had drawn
" down on his head the vengeance of God ; by whom,
" ever fince that time, he had been viflbly torlaken, as a
" Prince unworthy of his care, after defpifing fo great a
" favour (;J. He aggravated the oppreffions the Nor-
" mans groaned under, and ftrove to make the Englijb
" believe, it was incumbent on them to take in hand the
" defence of a miferable people. He defired the Lords to
" confidcr his own peaceable temper, and how patiently
" he had taken his Brother's menaces, to which he had
" made no other return, but brotherly and gentle admo-
" nitidis. He enlarged upon the Duke's ill qualities.
" He difplayed his exceffive profufenefs, which made him
" a continual burden to all the world. Moreover, he ac-
" cufed him of extreme arrogance, and of (bowing on
" all occafions an utter contempt for the Englijh nation.
" He allured them, for his part, he frill perfifted in his
" refolution to govern by juft Laws, of which the Char-
" ter he had granted, was an undeniable argument. In
" fine, he added, provided he was fure of the hearts and
" affection of the Englijh, he valued not any thing his ene-
" mies could do againlf him." This Speech had the effect
he expected. All the Lords thinking themfelves honoured
by the confidence lie placed in them, and flattering them-
felves, that he would perform his promifes, unanimoufly
declared they would live and die in his fervice.

What colour foever the King might give his ambition,
it was eafy to difcover the weaknefs of the reafons aliedg'd
in vindication of his undertaking. The truth is, thefe
reafons were not fo much as plaufible. The pretended
refufal of the crown of "Jerufalem, had no better founda-
tion than an uncertain rumour (pread in England, which,
in all likelihood, was falfe, for the beft Hiitorians make
no mention of this fact (6). But fuppoftng the thing had
been as true as it v/as doubtful, Robert poffibly might have
refufed the crown out of modefty, as well as from a prin-
ciple of pride or irreligion. But be this as it will, Henry

could have no right from thence to deprive him of his do- 1 toti._
minions. It is evident therefore, the fole motive that en-
gaged the Englifn Lords to alfure him of their affiftance,
was his foltmn promife to fee his Charter oblerved, which
had been hitherto very much neglected.

Henry made ufe of the declaration of the Englifb in liis^ Hcnr y "•
favour, to obtain a grant of frefh fupplies, by means of N orn J nd „
which he made a confiderable addition to his troops. As Sax. Ann.
foon as the feafon permitted (7), he croffed the Sea with a J^f'
numerous fleet (8), in order to complcat the conquer! of\y. Genu?,
Normandy. He opened the campain with the fiegc of
Tinchebray, where the Earl of Mortagnc, who had lided
with the Duke, had thrown in a ftrong reinforcement.
As this place was of great flrength, and well provided with
neceffaries, it held out long enough for Robert to come to
its relief. Ever fince the Duke parted from the King his
Brother, without being able to prevail with him, he had
joined with the Earl of Mortagne and Robert de Bclefme,
who had led all their forces to his affiftance. The King
of France had alio lent him fome troops, and feveral Nor-
man Lords (9) came to him with confiderable bodies, as
foon as they perceived Henry was not ailing for them,
but for himfelf. All thefe fuccours enabling the Duke to
give his Brother battle, he marched towards him with
that refolution. The two armies were almoft equal in
number. Robert had more foot, but not fo many horle
as the King. So, each fide might flatter themfelves with
hopes of fuccefs. However, the battle, which was fought £f"* 'f
under the Walls of Tinchebray, did not laft long. The tubm Ha- '
Norman horfe being put in diforder at the firft enter, and bert Is take*
the foot net being ;.b!e to maintain the fight without their ; 'l'"' r »
aid, the whole army was entirely routed, and the Englijh
had nothing to do but to kill or take prisoners. The Duke
of Normandy perceiving there was no poffibility of rallying
his troops, and refolving not to turn his back, chole ra-
ther to be taken, than ihow the leaft figns of cowardice.
Edgar Atbeling, the Earl ol Alortagne (10), four hundred
Knights, and ten thoufand Soldiers, had the fame fate.
As the battle of Hojlings made the Normans mafters ofMalm/b.
England, fo this, which was fought forty years after, s -^' A-im.
put the Englijh in poflcffion of Normandy. Prince Edgar,
who had often been the fport ol Fortune, was immedi-
ately releafed, and went and palled the refidue of his days
in England, where he died of extreme old age. The
Duke of Normandy, and Earl of Alortagne, were not fo
favourably treated. The Earl was fhut up in the Tower <"'</*»' "f
of London, and the Duke in Car.diffe-Gajile in I Tales,' ^1^
where he remained a prilbner to his death, which happen- Mczerai.
ed not tiil twenty-fix years after. Some lay, this uniortu- 1 '' 1 - PaliSi
nate Prince attempting to make an efcape, Henry order'd
his fight to be- taken away, by applying a burning-hot
Brafs Bafon to his eyes (11). But the iilence of the beft
Hiforians renders this facT: Ibmething improbable. I do
not pretend to excufe the hard-heartednefs of the King,
who ought to have called to mind Robert's generofity to
him, during the fiege of Mount St. Michael, though lie
had forgot he was his Brother. In vain does an Hiftorian Malmffc.
endeavour to juftify him, by obferving Robert never loved
him during their younger years, and had done him many
injuries. Such a reafon will fcarce ferve the purpofe, for
which it is alledged by that author.

The victory of Tinchebray having acquired the King Henry be.

the poflcffion of all Normandy, he returned in triumph xo''" : ".,t 1 ''^"
r- 1 1 , \ it 1 - - 1 , • /- .1 ' tf. til hot-

England (12). Upon lus arrival, Ins hrft care was to manrfy.

make fome regulations for his court, where feveral abu- M-
fes had long fince crept in which called for reformation.
In the former reign, when the King took a progrels,
thofe who followed the Court, committed all manner of
outrages in the places were they lodged. They lliame-
fully extorted what they pleafed from their Hofts, and at-
tempted the chaftity of the Women, without any re-
ilraint (i}): Coiner:; ol falfe Money were grown very
numerous and bare-faced, being fecure of the protection
of the Great, who fet them at work in their Houfes,
where no body dared to fearch tor them. Thefe diforders
not ceafing upon the King's Edict in the beginning of his




agr. infl his

(1) In Autumn. Sax. Ann. (2) Before Lent, to Henry, who was then at Northampton. Sax. Ann.

(3) The Pope helped to difperfe them, fatisfying him that it would not be a Civil War, but a very great advantage to the Country. S.

(4) At London. M. Paris, p. 5;.

(5) Hence it is plain, it was believed in England that Robert had refufed the Crown of J crufalem ; othcrwifc Henry could not have urj
Brother. Rapin.

(6) It is mentioned by no Author older than Henry of Huntingdon, confecjuently 'tis only to be looked upon as a minor Tradition.

(7) Belore 4ugujl. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelrr.. p. 229.

(S) And the principal Nobilitv of the Kingdom- Flor.JVorc. Ord.Vttaln.

(9) Particularly Robert de Stutimlle, tsai William de Eerrari. King Henry had on his fide William Earl of Etirtux, Robert Earl of McUm, Jl'iWam
Earl of Warren, Earl of Maine, Sec. Vrd, fitalis.

(10) Ani of Norman Barons, rl'illiasn Crifpin, William de Ferrars, Robert de Stuteville, Senior. Eadnstr, p. 90.
(n) Hence the Italian Word, Abaeinarc, to blind. Menage, Orig, de la Lar.gue Xtal, Rapin.

(12) In Lent 1107. Sax. Ann.

(13) In the King's Progrefs his Attendants plundered every thing that came in their way, fo that the Country was laid wade where the King
For which caufe People, when they knew of the King's coming, left their Houfes, carrying away what Prouiiions they cculd, and iheltering t
in the Woods and By- places. The King ordered, that whoever fpoilcd any Goutii ol thole that entertained them, ci abufed theii IVikns, fiiou!
ved, have their Eyes put eut, or their Hands and Feet tut off.

' ; 1 II L

. .! . . ; . -j -

Book VI.

3. H E N R Y I.


1107. reign, he published a fecond with ftill greater Penalties, three Shillings on every lii'dc of Land. This tax brought
Severity was necelTary to check the licenfe that was intro- him in an immenfe fum, if it be true, as fome pretend to
duced into the kingdom, by the connivance that offences calculate itj^that it was equal to 824,850/. of our preSent


1 toS.

}h Ic.QtTlfS


of this nature had hitherto met with (1).

Before the war in Normandy, Henry had pofitively af-
furcd his Subjects, he would govern according to equity,
'"-'and maintain them in their privileges. But profperity
made him forget his promilcs. Immediately alter his re-


Anfelm /*'
Jeeutes the

S. Dunclm.

money. The cuftom of raifing money for the marriage

of the King's eldcft daughter was introduced by this Piinccj
and very duly pra&ifed by his fucceffors, who found it too
beneficial to foffcr it to be loft (6). Hence may be (^n
how prejudicial to a free people fuch innovations are, that
turn, he was oblerved to be grown more haughty, and become as a law by one Angle precedent.
lefs popular than before. He treated the Nobles with an Before the marriage was folemnizcd, death took out -'

intolerable arrogance, even to the ufing, when (peaking of the world Anfelm ArchbiShop of Canterbury, (7), a f
to them, very abufive language. Befides he little regard- learned Prelate of that age, but haughty and bigotted to 9 ..
ed his own Charter, nor corrected any abufes that turned the la ft degree. ' Tia very real. .'liable to fuppofe that his
to his profit. Anfelm was the only perfon he ihowed any zeal for the Court of Rome, his firmncf, in the affair of
value for. The trouble that Prelate had given him, made Inveflitures, and his conftant endeavours to eftablifh the
him look upon all occafions of quarrelling with him as (o celibacy of the Clergy in England, entitled him to a place-
many dangerous quick-lands, which he was refoived to in the Calendar. As foon as Anfelm was laid in I
avoid. But his precautions ferved only to render Anfelm grave, the King Seized the revenues of the Archbifhop-
more haughty and imperious than before the conteft. rick, and kept them in his hands for five years. Tbe^ beK '"e
The Archbiftiop perceiving the King, for fear of being in- Clergy were in hopes, the perfection they had Suffered. '"

during his life, would end with his death ; but the Court ,"
of Rome was no lefs zealous to fupport what the Archbi-. 1
fhop had done folely by her Orders. Befides, the Kins, !
who was very unwilling to break with the Pope, (Inctly

gaged in frefh difputes, retrained from meddling with ec
cleiiaftical affairs, took the opportunity to profecutc, with
the utmoft rigour, the Priefts who obftinately perfifted in
keeping their wives. His dilgrace and long ablence made

them hope, they fhould at length be freed from his perfe- enjoined the execution of what v\-is efiabjifiied. So that
cutions. But he quickly let them fee, that, when once the Clergy were obliged to obferve a feeming continency,
he begun a thing, he never left it unfinished. Some time
after his return, he called a Synod (2), where at his in-

ftance, Severe penalties were decreed againft all clergymen
who lived in the ftate of matrimony. There were even
fome that were deprived of their livings. But fo far was
this rigour from having any good effect, that it only pro-
ved the occafion of the Clergy's committing real crimes,
in order to avoid the pretended excefs they were ingaged
in before.
The Kir.f of The King did not much concern himfelf in this rcgu-
F ranee has a lation of the Synod. It was indifferent to him, whether
the clergy married or lived fingle. And therefore he left
the Archbifhop to act as he plealed, without interpohng in
an affair that concerned him not. He was going to have
another upon his hands more worthy his regard. Lewis
the Grrfs, King of Fn

defivn up'



Or.i. Vital.



jy being debarred from marrying. But the}- privately
made themfelves amends for this reftraint, in the com-
mission of the molt enormous crimes. At leaft, this is
what the authors of that age make no fcruple to lay to
their charge.

The year 11 10 was memorable for the revival of iiio.
learning at Cambridge (S), from whence it had been lon^ '
banifhed. According to the general opinion, Edward the \
Elder had formerly founded an univerlity there. But the Bchard! B '
town had fullered fo much by the Damjh wars, that learn- ''• Bkfenfi*.
ing fell to decay, and never flourished again till the time
we are fpeaking of (9).

The following year Henry crofted the Sea (10), to flop , r , , _
the progrefs of Fulk Earl of Anjcu, who had earned the Benrj futt
city of Conjlance in Normandy to revolt. Ellas Earl of ''', : L -" : F
Maine, having efpoufed the interelt of Fulk, and beu&fa™'

ance, who had juft fuccecded his Fa-
ther Philip, looking upon Henry, fince his acquifition of taken prifoner in a battle, was put to death (n). Henry H
Normandy, as a very formidable neighbour, was
means to humble his overgrown power (3). T
this project, hedefigned to make ufe oflf'illiam, firnamed
Crito, Son of Robert, a young Prince of great hopes, but
under age. How careful foever he was to conceal his de-
Signs, Henry had notice of them, and palled fuddenly into
Normandy ; where he ordered his Nephew to be taken in-
to cuftody (4), to prevent any infurrection upon his ac-
count. Lewis, by this proceeding, perceiving his defign
had taken air, deferred the execution of it to a better op-
portunity. Mean time, the young Prince having made
his efcape, by means of his Tutor, was carried to Paris,


s Seeking thought this inflance of leverity neceilary to ftrike a dread J*"* ,"t' J *
o execute into the Normans, whole revolt he was apprehenfive of j
Well knowing, .France would be ready to protect them.

Before the King went to Normandy, he admitted into mz,
England great numbers of Flemings, who by the inunda- Henr) ra-
tion of the Sea in their own country, were compelled to'''"',' i; ' v
iesk for new habitations. He planted them at f.rft in the % Wale's? 88
wafte parts of York/hire (12). But upon the complaints MalmOn
made to him after his return, he removed them to the Er0B1 f u
country conquered from the IVelJlj, about Res and Pem-
broke. Their potterity continue there to this day, retain-
ing fo much of their old cuftoms and language, as diftin-

and other courts, where he in vain follicited for affiftance guifhes them plainly from the l'/eijh, and fhows they are
to recover the Duke his Father's dominions. The neigh- of foreign extraction.

bouring Princes ftood too much in awe of Henry to in-
gage in fuch an undertaking. As for the Normans, though
many of them were well inclined to the Son of their So-
vereign, and feveral even contributed privately towards his
maintenance, they durft however not openly declare in his

Henry had not time to make a long ftay in England (13).
The year after, he was obliged to pal's into Normandy, #> „ CJ J.
where the King of Fiance had kindled a frefh war, by gain into
perfuading the Earl of Anjcu to take up arms aeain. This Kc y-
war gave him fome trouble, but he happily formounti.il all ,
difficulties. Lewis had even the mortification to fee the ' '

1 109.

married to
the Emperor
Henry IV.
M. Palis.

Henry having fpent the Winter and part of the Summer Earl of Anjcu defert him, who, by that defection, reaped j(^"i

Money re.
to pay he,
p. 270.

in Normandy, returned to England { 5 I, where foon after
ambaliadors came to him from the Emperor Henry IV, to
demand his Daughter Matilda in marriage. He very joy-
fully received the propol'al, and as foon as the articles were
agreed upon, the wedding was celebrated by proxy. But
as the Princefs was very young, fhe continued in England
till the year following, when ihc was lent to the Emperor
her Spoufe with a magnificent retinue, and a very confide-
rable Sum for her portion.
ifed The neceility of paying his Daughter's marriage-por-
tion, furnifhed the King with a pretence to lay a tax of

Ord. Vital,

the advantage ol marrying his daughter to Prince U ilham, Malmlb.
Son of King Henry. During the King's ftay in Xa : . .-
dy, he had the Satisfaction of having his molt inveterate
Enemy Robert de Belefme fall into his hands, who was
fent into England, and kept prifoner all his life (14).
Thele troubles being over, Henry returned to England [1 ),
where he lived in peace the five following years, without
any disturbance, except from the Ifel/h, who now and
then made fome incurfions.

During this calm, the Pope and Clergy ^'16) at hit pre- , , , ,
vailed upon him to permit the vacancies in the Church to .v. •'.::■, up

tl : 1'j.Ji:-

died£*w King of Sc.t.'j-d, and wai*!t"V**

. : . P.

Sax. Ann.

(1) Counterfeiters of Money were punifhed with Lofs of Eyes and Genitals, Eadmer. in the Year no

fucceeded by Alexander. Sax. Ann.

(2) Or rather a great Council, at London. Sec Eadmer, p. 94., 9^.
(3} The Fortrefs of Gi/om was the Occafion of the War between the two Kings. See P. Daniel, Vol. III. p. 19- 102.

(4) He 01 dered Robert Beauchamp, Vifcount d' Arches to do it. Ord. Vital. (>) i"> <r.lidc. Sax. Ann.

(6) This was one of the antient aids due to the King from all his Tenants ; and was pra&ifed in Afa , where the A
fettled. It was no other wife introduced by Henry I, but as he happened to be the hrft Acrman King that married his eldeD D.c hter.

(7) He died March 22. Sax. Ann.

(5) Or rather full Inftitution. See Pctr. B/efenJis, p. 114, 1 1 .-. And above, p. 112, Note (6).

(9) This fame year King Henry m/ tried Robert his natural Si n to Mated, Daughter and Heirt f Rt&ert Fitz bfiyuwt, late Earl of Glouccjitr, and th.-n
inverted him with that Earldom. He alio held his C. urt at Ai-.f Wtndjor which he had built, and there d;I.nh AiKd .-' - . . , Mallet,
and William Bainard, becaufe they had lidcd with Heiias Earl of Maine. Huain -J. p. 3-9. Sax. .in::. Branpt. p. 1004.

(10) In Augujl. Sax. Ann.

(11) He being put to death in 1 1 10, Fulk Earl of S.'rjai, who had marriej £/mi': only daughter, turd up^n the E-iidcm, and rcluf-d to do Henry
Homage fork. Huntingd. p. 379. Brtimpt. p. 1004.

(t2) Many of them hocked o\er in the Reign of King U illiam his Father, and alfo lately in hii own ; as they came in very g ret Swarms, the; be-
came a Burthen to the Nation : Whereupon Henry at firlt planted them in the Malic parts cr Northumberland, and all n i them into Wales
in the \ear nu. What drcu them over here, was thai Queen Maud; Henry's Mother, was daughter to £ V •• The Flamues-


y, a Work ot theirs, is to be feen in P.mbnkjktre, cxtcndinc through a long Traft of Land. Mi
I13 t does not appear he was in injaid uom Au-.-uli mi", t >/»llll, See Sax. jinn,
(14) In the Cattle of IVartant. Sax. Ann. Htmlingd. p. 3S0.
[t6j Eadmer fays, he did it by the Peifuafion at his Buhop's and Great Men, /». no.

1-5 ^:-

I t.r. H :±- Gamdeiu

■S. Duncm. $. 256,





Vol. I.

Henry in-
•vadei the
Sax. Ann.

S. Dunelm.

II 15.

The Nor-
mans take
t]'c Oath to
Sax. Ann.
and /ikcwife
the Englifll.

I I I 6.


Henry 11 re-
venged on
creating him

Ord. Vital.
Sax. Ann.
M. Paris.

Lewis inve/ls
Crito with


be filled, particularly the See of Canterbury, the revenues
of which he had now enjoyed five years. As foon as he
had given his confent, a Synod was convened, where
Ralph Bifhop of Rochejler was un.tnimoufly chofen Arch-
bifhop, to the great fatisfadlion of the people, by whom
he was very much efteemed. Thurjlan one of the King's
chaplains, was nominated to the See of York. At the fame
time all the other vacancies were filled, but with fuch par-
tiality to the Normans, as gave the Englifll juft caufe to

The JVcljh growing more and more troublefome on the
borders, Henry determined not to chaftile them only, but
root them out entirely. To execute this barbarous refolu-
tion, he entered Wales with a numerous army, divided
into three bodies, in order to furround them on all fides.
But upon his approach, they having retired to their moun-
tains, it was not poJTible for him to attack them. How-
ever he kept them long inverted, but at laft finding there
was no drawing them from their retreat, confented to
make peace. At h'is return to London, he received news
of the confummation of his daughter Matilda's marriage,
and her coronation at Mentz.

Shortly after, Henry paiTed once more into Norman-
dy ( 1 ), where he caufed the States to fwear fealty to
Prince William his Son, who was then twelve years of
age. The next year (2), he took the fame precaution
with regard to England in order to fecure the crown in his
family. To this end he fummoned a General Aflembly at
Salisbury, where all that were prefent promifed to acknow-
ledge Prince William for their fovereign, after the death of
the King his father, and accordingly took their oath to
him. From this Aflembly, fome pretend to date the ori-
ginal of the right of the Commons fitting in Parliament.
They maintain, that in imitation of what was practifed
in Normandy, Henry fummoned the Commons as well as
the Nobility and Clergy ; and that this was the firft time,
the reprefentatives of the people were admitted to fit in
Parliament (3). Others afRrm, the general aflemblies of
the nation had been difufed before this. In fine, there are
who allure us, this aflembly was the firft that was ftiled a
parliament. Of thefe three opinions the firft can never
be proved, the fecond is evidently falfe, and the third very
uncertain (4).

Ever fince Lewis the Grofs came to the crown of France,
he had never ceafed to dirturb Henry, either by counte-
nancing the Male-contents in Normandy, or ftirring up
the neighbouring Princes againft him. Though he gene-
rally took care to a£t underhand, yet Henry was not igno-
rant that this Prince was the fole fupport of all thefe little
troublefome enemies, and therefore to be even witli him,
undertook to combat him in his own way. Theobald Earl
of Bhis, his nephew, Son to his Sifter Adela, being difplea-
fed with the King of France, Henry excites him to re-
venge; and perfwading him to take up arms, lends him a
powerful aid. Lewis, on his part, inverted William Crito,
Son of Robert, with the Duchy of Normandy, promifing
to aflift him with all his forces to take pofleiTion. Sup-
ported by France and Baldwin Earl of Flanders, the young
Prince attempted to wreft Normandy from the King his
Uncle (5). Lewis did not now proceed underhand, but
openly. He claimed, as fovereign Lord of Normandy, a
right to difpofe of that Duchy, and efpecially in favour of
the only Son of Duke Robert, unjuftly detained in prifon.
His army being reinforced by a confiderable body of troops,
brought him by the Earl of Flanders, he entered Normandy
with defign to put William in pofTeflion.

As foon as Henry was informed of his enemies project, 1 1 1 S.
he made great preparations for the war, of which the Henry /«»
Englifli were obliged to bear the whole charge. When all 'j^'ka'peaet
was ready, he crois'd the Sea (6), and joining forces with with Lewis,
the Duke of Bretagne (7) and Earl of Blois, he advanced Huntingd.
towards the enemies to give them battle. But Lewis not IomI> "
thinking proper to expert him, chofe to retire (8), covered
with confufion at his own ill meafures, and the ruin of
his projects by Henry's diligence (9). Inftead of main-
taining what lie had undertaken, he fent propofals of peace
to Henry, which were accepted on condition he reftored
Gifors, then in his hands. After figning the treaty, Henry
fpeedily returned into England (10), to prevent the en-
trance of a legate, fent by the Pope without his permiflion. Matilda din.

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