M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Queen Matilda died fome months after (11), lamented by Sax. Ann.
all the Englijh, as well for her merit as defcent from their Malmlt '
antient Kings.

Mean time, the King of France had ftill his former Lewis rt-
projecl in view. Henry neglecting to demclifh the caftle '" r - vs tbc
of Gifors according to the late treaty, Lewis toak occafion iyj a [ m j^
from thence fuddenly to invade Normandy, and commit
great ravages. However, henry remained quiet in Eng-
land (12), feeming to take no notice of this infult. All
the world was amazed at his carelefihefs. Nay, many
afcrihed it to want of courage. At length, one of his
courtiers taking the freedom to reprefent to him, how
much he wronged his reputation, he mildly anfwered, he
had learnt of the King his father, that the beft way to
vanquifh the French, was, to let them vent their firft:
fury. But to fhow his flownefs was not the effeft of
fear, he foon after pafied into Normandy (13) with a pow-
erful army, and offered his enemy battle. Lewis accept-
ing the challenge, the two armies engaged. During the ar.d is dr.
fight, a French cavalier, named Crijpin, perfonally at-fi-atedby
tacked the King of England, and ftruck him twice on the H °"^' j.
head with fuch force, that notwithftanding his helmet, r. Diceto.
the King was all over blood. However, he continued this Brompton.
fingle combat. The fight of his blood rouzing his cou-
rage, he difcharged fo furious a blow at his adverfary, that 0rd vital.
he tumbled him from his horfe, and took him prifoner. p . 858.
This action railed fuch emulation among his troops,
that at laft, after a fharp engagement, the enemy was
obliged to quit the field ( 1 4). The ftandard of France was
taken and fent in triumph to Roan (15). Some time after,
the two Kings came to a fecond battle ( 1 6), the fuccefs
whereof was doubtful, both fides pretending to the victory.
In a word, this war proved very fharp, and not a little
troublefome to the two Monarchs.

Whilft hoftilities were continued on both fides with e- mq,
qual warmth, Lewis endeavoured to take advantage of the Council of
refidence of Pope Calixtus II, then in Fiance, to embroil Rhcms.
his enemy in new troubles. He was in hopes, the Pope, 8S -.'
being of the houfe of Burgundy, would be tafilv induced
to favour his defigns. And therefore, without difcovering
his intentions, he prevailed with him to convene a council
at Rheims, to which the Englifli Bifhops were fummoned.
Henry not miftrufting any thing from that quarter, readily
permitted them to be prefent at the council. He only or-
dered them, when they took their leave, to falute the
Pope in his name, to hearken to his apoftolical precepts,
but to take care to bring none of his new inventions into
the kingdom. The council confifted moftly of French
Bifhops, fome of whom being intruded with their King's
fecret, made heavy complaints againft Henry. They even It is move*
propoied to excommunicate him, for unjuftly detaining the
perlbn and dominions of the Duke of Normandy his Bro- H e "nry,

to excommu-

(1) He failed from Portsmouth, Oilober II. 1114. Sax. Ann.

(2) He returned into England in July 1115. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. p. 237.

(3) Malm/bury fays, " All the Freemen of England and Normandy, of what foever Order or Dignity, or to what Lord foevcr they were Vaffals or
" Tenants, were made to do Homage, and fwear Fealty to William, Son of King Henry and Queen Matilda." But this is nothing like a Parliament.
Polydore Virgil, and from him Stow and Speed's Chronicle, commence the beginning of our Parliaments from this Affembly, but without citing the lealt
Authority for it. , * ,

(4.) In the Year 1116, after Eajler King Henry went over into Normandy, where he ftaid till November 1120. Sax. Ann. in Normannij toto hoc

tempore moratus. Malmfb. p. 165.

(5) And even Fulk Earl of Anjtm, thinking it hard that he Ihould be obliged to do King Henry Homage for the Earldom of Mure, entered into the
League : As did alfo Almeric de Montfert, who was difcontented becaufe Henry refufed to invert him with the Earldom of Evreux. As foon as the Conre-
deracy was formed, Levis fent to require Her.,y to fet Robert at liberty j which he refuting to do, the Earls of Anjou and Flanders advanced towards the
Frontiers of France, where they no fooner appeared, but William's Party rife up in arms, and proclaimed him Duke of Normandy. But what troubled
Henry molt, was, That a Confpiracy was formed againft him, wherein one of his Favourites, and fome of the Officers of his Bed-Chamber were concern-
ed. See P. Daniel, Vol. III. p. 205 212.

(6) He was there already, and had been ever fince the Year II 16, after Eajler. Sax. Ann. (7) Alan. III. See P. Daniel, p. 209.

(S) He ftaid but one Night in Normandy. Sax. Ann. Huntingd. p. 380. Brompt. p. loc.6.

(9) The French Hiftorians make no mention of this Retreat, or of the Peace that followed it, and have confounded this War in 111S, with that which
was renewed the fame Year after the delivering up Gifors. Rapm.

(10) It does not appear that King Henry returned to England upon this occafion. Eadmer exprefsly fays, that the Legate waited upon the King at
Roan. p. 118. The Legate was Anfelm, Nephew to the late Archbifhep of that Name.

(11) She died the firft of May, and was buried in IVeflminfler Abbey. She was a pious and charitable Princefs. Among other Works fhe built an Hol-
pital for Lepers in London; and the Priory of Chrift Church within Aldgate. Sax. Ann. Brompt. p. 1007. M. Parts, p. 51, 56. Malmfb. p. 165.
Once as fhe was eroding the River Lea at Oldfird near London; fhe was well walhed, and in danger of being drowned: Whereupon file caufed two Stone-
Bridges to be built, in a place one Mile diftant from the Oldford; one over the Lea at the Head of the Town of Stratford, and the other over another
Stream thereof, commonly called Channel's-Bridge, and made the King's Highway of Gravel between the two Bridges. She gave alfo certain Manors,
and a Mill called ffiggon-Mitl, to the Abbefs of Barking, for repairing of the fame Bridges and Way. Thefe were the firft Stone-Bridges in England.
And becaufe they were arched like a Bow, the Town of Stratford was afterwards called Bow. Stow' s Annals, p. 139. HaywaidsLifeofHcr.ryl. p. 305.
- -This Year alfo died Robert Earl of Mellon the King's Counfellor. Huntingd. p. 380.

(11) This is a Miltake. He lay ftill at Roan Apud Ruthomagum fe continebat. Malmfb. p. 160.

(13) This likewife is a miftake. He was rherc already. (14) The French loft a hundred and forty Horfe. Ord.Vitalis.

(15) The King gave twenty Marks to the Man who brought it. His Horfe was alfo taken, and fent back to him next da) by Henry. Lewis was left
alcne, and loll himfelf in a Wood, from whence a Countryman conveyed him, without knowing him, xaAndsly, where the remains of his Army were
retired. Ord. Vitalis, p. 885.

(16) It docs not appear that it was any thing like a Battle, Lewis fent indeed and challenred Henry to a licond Figl.t, but he. did net think fit to accept
of the Challenge. See P, Darnel, p. 211,


Book VI.

3, HEN R Y I.



t egainjl it.


I 120.
li.»m dtoivn



Henry mar-
ries Adeliza

tlier, who as one of the Crufade, was under the Church's
protection. This motion would, doubtlefs, have been
approved by the majority, had not the Pope, who was
unwilling to break with Henry, evaded it, by undertaking
to exhort him himfelf to do juftice to his Brother. Some
time after, Calixtus came to Gifors, where he had a long
conference with the King, intimating, it was the coun-
cil's delire that Robert mould be reltored to his dominions.
Henry replied, He had not taken Normandy from his Bro-
ther, but from diflblutc Men and Robbers, that were con-
fuming the inheritance of his Anccilors, given up to
them by Robert. Adding, he had not proceeded of his
.own head, but by the follicitations of the Nobility, Cler-
gy, and People of Normandy, who earnefrly befought him
to prevent the utter defolation of the Church. He took
care to ftrengthen thefe reafons with magnificent prcfents,
which wrought fo upon the Pope and the Cardinals his
attendants, that at their return, they gave out, they
had never (ecn a more eloquent Prince. Thus Calixtus,
relinquishing the intcreft of the imprifoned Duke, ufed his
endeavours to procure a peace between the two (1) Kings,
in which he fuccecded the next year (:).

As foon as the peace was concluded, Henry, impatient
to return to England, from whence he had been long ab-
fent (3), embarked at Barfieur (4) with a numerous re-
tinue of Nobles. IP illiam his Son, who was then fixteen
years of age (5), took with him in his Vefiel, all the
young Nobility, to render his paiTage more agreeable. As
he failed laft, he had a mind to overtake the King his Fa-
ther, and promifed the Seamen a reward if his Ship ar-
rived firft. This idle emulation was probably the caufe
of the misfortune that befell him. As the Pilot, in order
to get before the King, kept too near the fhore on the
coair. of England (0), the Ship touched upon a rock (7),
and fplit. In the fright caufed by this accident, the Sea-
mens firft care was to hoilf. out the Boat, in order to fave
the Prince, and indeed, by their diligence he was now
out of danger. But as he was making off, the cries of
Matilda, his natural Sifter, prevailed with him to row
back to take her in. His approach, giving others oppor-
tunity to leap in, the Boat funk with its load, without
any pofTibility of faving the Prince. Of all that ftayed in
the Ship, there were but very few (8) that efcaped by
fwimming. From thefe the circumifances of this tragical
accident came to be known. Among thole that periihed
in the waves, were, befides the Prince, one of his natural
Brothers called Richard, Matilda his Sifter Countefs of
Perchc, Lucia the King's Niece, the-Earl of Chcjler, and
feveral Lords, whole debauched lives, as is pretended,
but too jultly brought down this Judgment on their
heads (0).

This unexpected accident made fuch impreffion on the
King, that he v/as never alter feen to laugh. However,
his extreme defire to repair his lofs, made him refolve to
marry Adeliza daughter of Geoffrey Earl ot Louvain. But
he had not the fatislaelion he expecled from this marriage,
{he never proving with child.

The fame year the JP'elJh made an incerfion into Che- 1 1 zi.
J!, ire, under the conduit of Griffin Prince of North- War *»t
IVales (ro). They burnt feveral Caiiles, and committed p.p.
fuch ravages that they drew the Englijh arms into their chr 0/184,
own country. Henry, at the head of his troops, made
fome progrefs at firft, but one day, wanting to leize a
certain pal's, he fell into an ambulh, where he loft many
of his Men, and was (hot himfelf by an arrow on his
Breaft-plate. This accident, and the fear of not ending
the war fo fuccelsfully as he expected, preventing him
from proceeding any further, he made a peace with Griffyn.
However, he obliged him to give hoftages, and a tliou-
fand head of cattle, to defray the charges of the war.

Shortly after, death took out of the world Ralph Arch- 1 1 "•
bidiop of Canterbury (n). This Prelate was of an un-
blameable life, but fo great a Stickler for the prerogatives
of his Sec, that he could not bear the leaft infringement,
even in things of the fmalleft confequence. Por inftance, Eadmcr.
on the folemn fcftivals, when the King was wont to wear Iir " m i 1ton *
his crown, he would not fuffer him to put it on himfelf,
pretending that office belonged, on all occafions, to the
Archbifhop of Canterbury. The metropolitica! See con-
tinued vacant till the next year, when Corbet (iz), Ab- Sa*. Ann.
hot of St. Bcnnct's, was eledted by a Synod held at Win-
chejlir for that purpofe (1 ').

Henry imagined by the peace with the King of France, 1 rzj.

he had removed all occafions of war beyond Sea, and that Henij ;><-

none would dare for the future to dilpute with him the vn '" f *f*'

pofleffion of Normandy. Nevertheless, Robert de Mcllcr.t, .

Lord of Pont-Audcmcr created him frclh troubles, which S. Dunelm.

obliged him to pal's once more into that duchy (14). This 5?! ;,.. ,
T11 • i- • 1 1 r , OH. Vital.

Lord, who was in great credit with the Normans, and

fecretly countenanced by the King of France, undertook to
reitore William Crito to his dominions. This project was
in fuch forward nefs, that the country was going to revolt,
if the King had not fpeedily repaired thither (15). On
his arrival, he laid fiege to Pont-Audemcr, and took it. M - Wcft '
After which, he added fome works to the caftles of Caen, ' ' 2 4-
Roan, and Arqucs, and reinforced the garrifons. Thel'e ^h,.,,,
precautions put a flop to the Normans, who did not think taken-
thcmfelves able to execute their defigns. However, Ro-
bert de Mellent, and the Earl of Montfcrt his aflociate,
kept the Field with fome troops. But being drawn into
an ambufh, they were both taken prifoners, and the rcit
remained quiet.

Whilft the King was in Normandy, Cardinal John de ' 12c.
Crcma, the Pope's Legate, came into Enrland. The de- V r p 'l " '

r A- • 1 1 , • r l Legate ar-

lign of his coming was to compleat the reformation 01 the ,,.",, ;„
pretended great abufe of the Clergy's marrying, which England.
they ftill did, notwithstanding all the precautions to the Sax ' An " -

T'L T • 1 • t "At !'g Q '

contrary. 1 he Legate was received with great pomp, -,-, p
though the people were little pleafcd with it, not being Sm >
ufed to fee Legates exercifing their authority in the king- '", ''"■*"
dom. A Synod being convened by the Legate at London, $.' bundm,
he caufed feveral rigorous Canons to be palled againft fuch
Ecclefiafticks, as perfifted in keeping their wives (16).
Thefe Canons however were not capable to ftop this pre-

(1) The Articles of which were, i. That all Caftles and ftrong Holds taken in the late War mould be mutually reftorcd, and the Prifoners on both
/ides let at liberty without ranfoni. 2. That Henry fhould do Homage for Normandy. But Henry thinking it a diminution of his Royal Dignity to do
this Homage in Perfon, he made his Son William do it ; who then received the Inveftiture of that Duchy from the hands of the King of France j and all
the great Men of Norm.mdy fwore Fealty to him. Ord. Vital. See Tyrrel, p. 165. P. Daniel, p. 212. S* Dunelm. p. 24.2. Brcmpt. p. 1012. Maltrjb.
p. 165 Prince William went, in the Year 1 1 19, in May, to his Father in Normandy, and there married, in June the fame Year, Matilda, daugh-
ter of Fulk Earl of Anjcu ; the Marriage was folemnized at Lijieux in Burgundy. Sax. Ann. Mahvjb. p. 165. Sandford, p. 29. Ord, Vital. Sec
Tyrrel, p. 157.

(2) Father Daniel fays, the Pope threatned Henry to excommunicate him, and did fo. But the Englijh Hiftorians fpeak in a different manner of this
Interview. Rapin. (3) Almoft five years; namely, ever fince after Eajler, in 1116.

(4) On the 26th of November. Ord. Vital. The 25th fays Malmjh.

(5) He muft have been near Eighteen, fince he was born in 1 102. Sandford, p. 28. S. Dunelm. p. 24.2. Hoveden, p. 476.

(6) It was in or near the Harbour of B arjleur. Chr. T.Wikes, p. 26. Ord. Vitalis. (7) Called Cbaterafe. Hweden, p. 476.

(8) All the Hiftorians agree there was but one efcaped, and that a Butcher. Malmjh. p. 165. S. Dunelm. p. 142. Eadmc, p. 135. Brcmpt.
p. 10 1 2.

(9) There pcrifhed in this Shipwrecks hundred and forty Officers and Soldiers, fifty Sailors, with the Officers belonging to the Ship; many of the
Nobility of both Sexes, c3*t-. about three hundred in all. Moft of them were drunk. See S. Dunelm. p. 242. Ord. Vitah:. This was looked upon as a
juft Judgment by our Hiftorians, for their being polluted with the Sin of Sodomy. The lofs of this young Prince was not very unhappy for the EngJiJb
Nation, it that be true which Brompton relates from Malmjhury, (though we can't find it in his Hiftory) that he had fuch an Avcrficn to the Englifh, that
he threatned, >f ever be came to be King, be ivould make than draiv tbe Ploi/gb like Oxen. By this fatal accident, the Perfcns, Honours, and Ef.atcs of the
Heirs of molt of the great Men were in Henry's Power ; by which means he ftrcngthncd his Intcreft in England by marrying their Widows, Daughters,
and Sifters, to his Courtiers and Officers. Ord. Vit. Brompt. p. 1012. Huntingd. M.Paris.

(10) Being encouraged thereto by the Death of Ricbard Earl ot'Cbefter, drowned with Prince William.

(11) He died the twentieth of O&ober. Sax. Ann. S. Dunelm. p. 246.

(12J All the Hiftorians call him William de Curboil, cr Curbuil. See Sax. Ann. Huntingd. p. 3S2. S. Dunelm. p. 247. And then he was Prior of
Cbicb, or St. Ofitb in Ejfex, not of St- Bennetts. Herveden, p. 477. R. de Diceto, p. 504. Brcmpt. p. 1014.

(13) At Gloucejier. See Sax. Ann. The fame year King Henry cut a Dike from "Torkjcy to Lincoln, between the Wither: and the Trent, feven Milea
in length. It is called Fefs-Dike. S. Dunelm. p. 243. Camden. And the fame year Ralph Bifliop of Durham laid the Foundations of Ntrbam Caftle,
upon the Tweed. S. Dunelm. ibid.

(14) The firft that declared for William Crito was Almcric Earl of Mcntfort and Eitreux ; who was ioined Iv Waleran ajod Robert, the Sons of RSert Earl
of Mellent, William de Romara, Hugh de Montfatt, Hug b of Neivc a/tie, ~W ill. am hup ell, Baldric de Br aye, ' Pagan de Gifors, &c. Ord. Vital. Sax. Ann,
P. Daniel, p. 214, &c. King Henry, finding that thel'e Barons were fupported by the King of France, decbrtd War againft him ; and not long after both
Armies came to an Engagement near the Village of'Tenudc, about two or three Leagues from Rcan p on March 26 ; wherein the French were round. Eail
Waieran, Hujb de Montfort, and Hugh of Nezvcajlfe, with eighty other Knights, were taken Prifonors. Againft whom King Henry proceeded with great
Severity, notwithstanding the lntercelTion of the Earl of Flanders, who was then at his Court. The Earl of Mellent was forced to furrenicr hts whole
Inheritance to H-nry to lave his Life ; though he was reftortd to it in 1129. Hugh of Neivcafile was kept a Prifoner five Years; and Hugh cf Mcntfort
eighteen at Gkucejler. Geoffrey deTcurnjiile, Odard de Pine, and Luke de Bane, had their Eyes put out. Thefe that fignalized themfelves in this Battle,
were, Eudo de Barling, William dc 'Fane a rvi lie, King Henry's Chamberlain, William de Grande ourt, Sec. Ord. Vitalis. Sax. Ann, S. Dune'irr.. p. 250.
P. Daniel, &c.

(15) He fpent his Eajler zt Winchcfler, and from thence went to P 'or ■tfmoutb, where he remained all fVbitfun-'Week, and then palled into Norrr.arJ, .
Sax. Ann. S, Dunelm. p. 250. Brompt. p. 1014.

(16) The Legate having feverely inveighed againft the Priefts marrying, alledged, It itras a horrid Sin f.r a Priejl to rife fron the Side of a Harlot, and
then t<j wake the Body of Cbnjl ; yet the next Night, (having faid Mafs that very Da>) he himfelf was taken in Bed with a Wbare. Huntingdon, who «£•
himfelf 2 Prieft and the Son of a Prieft, and living at this very time, (after an Apolugy for making fo bold with the. Fathers of the Church,) is the fitft
(hat gives us this Story at large, and concludes, that the Thing was too notorious to be dciitd, neither ought i: t; he copce-sled, p. 3S2. See Brcmpt. p. 101 -.

N'10. Vol. I.

D d d


r 9 :

7/ 1 King

■ ■ .:'

' t ■■'■


Vol. I.

Henry gets
Matilda ac-
bit Heir.
Sax. Ann.

tended Licentioufnefs, though the King ftn£Hy enjoin'd
their obfervance. But Henry's aim was not fo much to
prevent the Clergy from marrying, as to obtain of the
Pope, by this f'eeming zeal, a power to execute the de-
crees of the Councils on this article, as it happened in the
year 1 1 29. When once he was invefted with this autho-
rity, he save the Priefts leave, without fcruple, to keep
their wives, upon payment of fo much money lor a dif-
penfation (1).

The King had now, for fix years, been expeflmg in
vain that God would blefs him with children by his ic-
cond wife. When he found, after fo long a time, there
was no likelihood of obtaining what he defired, he was
quite out of hopes. However, to fecure the fucceffion in
his family, he rlfolved to have his daughter Matilda,
who fince the Emperor's death was returned to England
(2), acknowledged the prefumptive heir to the crown.
The advantage this Princefs had, of being defcended by
the Mother's fide from the antient Saxon Kings, endeared
her to the Engli/h, who were not yet inured to the Nor-
man yoke. On the other hand, for want of a Prince of
their own nation, it was the intereft of the Normans to

took to reduce to obedience, by a Siege which lafted long 1 128.

enough to give his Rival time to come to its relief.

William having intelligence of Theodoric's approach, went Brompt.

to meet him, and gaining a compleat victory, returned

to carry on the Siege. The defeat of the Landgrave of Is fain at

Alfatia would have difabled the Befieged to hold out any '** ^"£ c c f

longer, if in one of their rallies William had not received s. Dunelm.

a wound (7), of which he died in a few days. This Huntingd.

young Prince was endued with courage, ar.d feveral other

good qualities. But, to avoid the misfortunes the Duke

his Father had drawn upon himlelf by his profufenefs, he

ran into the contrary extreme (8). This failing, joined

to fome a£ts of violence committed by him in Flanders,

and his immoderate love oi women, gained him the hatred

of the Flemings, and difpofed them to liften to the follici-

tations of the King his Uncle. The unlucky accident of

this Prince's fudden death, and the prefence of the Englijh

army in France, obliged Lewis to defift from his projects,

and conclude a peace with Henry. From that time to

the day of his death, the King had no more quarrels with

France. Neither do we find in the refidue of his reign,

which lafted fix years longer, but very few occurrences


married to





M. Paris.

place oil the throne a grandaughter of William the Con- worth notice, the principal of which I am going to re-
qucror, to whom they were indebted for all their poffeffi- late,
cms in England The cafe (landing thus, the King was In the 30th year of his reign, being like wife the 30th 113°.
in hopes to fucceed in his defign, and affembled all the of the Century, Henry went over to Normandy, where he JJ^nfJ*
immediate Vaflals of the crown (3.). Among the Lords, fpent the bell part of a year. His main bufinels was fm Pcfe .
prefentat this great council, were, Stephen Earl of Bou- an interview with Pope Innocent II. whom at length he Malmfb.
logne the King^s Nephew, and David King of Scotland owned for the true Pope, though Anacletits his rival was
U) on account of the Fiefs he held in England ( 5). All mailer of Rome. The chief difficulty of this affair,
the' members of the aflembly confenting to the King's pro- confilled in the Acknowledgment of Innocent by France,

and, in Henry's inclining, tor that reafon, to Anaclctus.
But Innocent managed him fo artfully, that he was owned
by him for Pope, which did not a little turn to his advan-

Henry, when he returned to England (9), brought with """"' f e '
him his daughter Matilda, who upon fome difguft was oati to
parted from the Earl her Husband. Upon his arrival, he Matilda.

(Tembly confenting to the King's pro-
pofal, David and Stephen were the iirlt that took the oath
to Matilda, in cafe the King her father died without iilue

This affair being tranfacled to the King's fatisfaclion,
he married the Emprefs to Geoffrey Plantagenct, Son of
Fulk Earl of Anjou (6), who had refigned his dominions
to his Son, in order to go and take poffeflion of the
crown of ferufalem, upon the death of Baldwin II. his
Father-in-law. The King, in making choice of Earl

called a General Aflembly (10), where the oath of fealty Malmfb.

it 1 r ■ 11 Huntingd.

to the Emprefs was renewed, alter which the went back

Geeffrev for his daughter, confulted his own intereft more to her Husband, who defired her company.

Ihe Barons
• diflhtis •

than Matilda's inclination. This Princefs, widow to an
Emperor, thinking it a difparagement to marry the Earl
of Anjou, very unwillingly gave her confent, and not
without fome compulfion from her Father. As he was in
continual apprehenlions that IVilliam Crito, his Nephew,
would take Normandy from him, he thought he could not

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