M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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rhe Ki»g fat down before the Caftle on Chriflmas-Eve. (11) About Eafler. H:ved. p. 483 .

(12) The other Ringleaders, were, William Talcbct, who fei*ed the Caflleof Hereford; William Lui.il, who fecuredthat of Can (perhaps Care-.o Caftle in
PembrokeJhire;)Paganel, that of Ludlnt: ; William de Moun, that of Dun/lor ; Rcbert d' Niihtle. Ot Lintcln, Ifa-him Caftle ; EnjU'.t Fitz-Jcb*, that of
Melton; Willtam Fitx- Alan that of Shrew/bury. Hwt^gd. p. 388 : M, Psrii, p. -6.


Book VI.


1138. King returned him no anfwer, but confifcatcd all his
Begets pcf. Eftate in England (1).

^'i'lftoi Mean time, Matilda's Party daily growing ftronger by

Or.. Viul- the Junction of the moll powerful among the Batons, the
Gervas. £ ar i f Ql 0Uce Jler came into England { 2), and got pofleflion
of Brijhl (3). At the fame time other Lords (4) feized
upon feveral Caftles that the former Kings had caufed to be
fortified for the Security of the down, but which, on this
occafion, ferved only to put it in danger. Stephen finding
himfelf thus forced to wage War with his own Subjects,
retook and razed feveral of thefe Caftles. Though he had
great reafon to fear in this fo general a Defection, yet he
fupported himfelf with his Army of Foreigners (5) ; fhow-
ing on all occafions an extraordinary Courage, and a fteddy
Refolution to lofe his Life with his Crown. He thought
it ftrange, that the very Perfons who had fhown the moff.
zeal to raife him to the Throne, fhould be the firft to
pull him down (6). As one is always inclined to flatter
one's felf, he could not fee any thing in his Conduct that
defcrved this return, and therefore afcribed it wholly to
Malmib. the caprice and ficklenefs of the Barons. Neverthelefs,
their complaints were not entirely groundlefs. Befides
that the King had not punctually obferved his Charter,
the extraordinary Favours bellowed on the Foreigners,
particularly on William of Tpre his Favorite, gave his Sub-
jects a very plaufible pretence to complain. The Severity
alfo he ufed, upon the breaking out of the Rebellion, in
feizing the Perfons and Eftates of fomc of the Barons on
bare Sufpicions, added frefh Fuel to the Fire that was al-
MatSMaur- ready too much kindled. In fine, the diffention grew to
««*«,«-. that he ig ht hy mutua i Reproaches and daily A&s of Hofti-
lity, that the Male-contents fent Matilda word, they were
ready to own her for Sovereign (7), according to the Pro-
mife made the King her Father.
TliKwgof The King of Scotland fomented thefe Troubles in fa-
heahtbt vour or " tne Emprefs his Niece, though he was alfo Uncle
Peace to Stephen's Queen (8). When he found matters ripe,

S° ve ^ '.j ^ e once more entered Northumberland, and cruelly ravaged
M. Paris.' tnat County, which generally felt all the effects of the
Brompr. Quarrels between England and Scotland. As Stephen could
J. Hagulft. not t j )en ] cavc { | le j leart Q £ t jj e Kingdom, to go to the

relief of the North, Thur/lan Archbifhop of York un-
dertook to oppofe this invafion (9). He afTembled the
Barons and Gentlemen of the northern Parts, and repre-
fented to them, That in this emergency, they were to de-
pend upon themfelves, it not being in the King's power
to fend them Afliftance. This conltdciation having the
effect he expected, they unanimoufly engaged to exert
their utmoft to repulfe the Enemy. Shortly after, each
appearing with his Troops at the general Rendezvous,
they all ranged themfelves under the command of Walter
de Efpcc and William Eart of Albermarle ( 1 o), and advanced
as far as Alverton (11). Having refolved to expect the E-
nemy in that place, they fet up a Maff, on the top of
which they placed a Silver Pix with a confecrated Hoft,
and the Banners of St. Peter and St. John of Beverly, to
ferve as an Enfign where they were to meet again and
tit Way of rally in cafe of need. Hence this War was called the War
Ut&tmd- D j- t j 0( Standard. Ailred Abbot of Rieva/le has given a par-
Akei. ticular defcription of the Battle ; but, as it feems to me
of little moment, I fhall only relate the Succefs. The
Tie Scots an Scots, much fuperior in number, attacking the EngliJIj in
Aftated. t ] le ; r I n trenchments, were repulfed with the lofs of twelve
Hunt. thoufand Men (12). Though the King of Scotland and

Hovcd. Henry his Son gave on this occafion aftoni thing proofs of
their Valour, they could not prevent their Army from be-
ing entirely routed. It is faid a Bifhop's (13) Harangue to
the Englijh, promifing Heaven to all fuch as were flain in
the Battle, did not a little contribute to the Succefs of
that day.
Stephen «- Whilft his Affairs were thus profperous in the North,
duces the Stephen fpread the Terror of his Arms in the heart of the
Obedience. Kingdom. The Male-contents not daring to keep the
Hunt. Field, gave him time to reduce their Caftles one after


another without oppofition (14). Thefe Conqucfts joined 1138.

to his late victory over the King of Scotland^ aftonifhed

the Earl of Glocejhr. He expected quite another iffue of

this War, but when he faw his Party daily diminifhing,

he had no other refuge hut to go and foliicite the Emprefs

to come into England, and encourage her Friends by her


The Retreat of the Earl of Glocejl.r, and the Flight of//- mriii
fomc other Lords of his Party, procuiing the King fomc '""* '
refpite, he refolved to purfue the Scotch War, fo fucccfv / ,.'.'.
fully begun. To that end, he advanced towards the
North, and in his way took the Caftfc of Letdi , after M ' ''"'
which, he continued his march to Scotland*, where David
retired after his Defeat. His intent was to give the
Scotch King battle. But as David was unwilling to run
any hazard in his own Country, He carefully avoided all
opportunities of fightinc. However, fearing he might be
at length compelled to it, he refolved to fuc fa P ice,
At any other time, Stephen would have made him pay .:: ■, r,.- ■
dear for it, but at that juncture did not think proper to' ''' ' •■••
ftand off. The truth is, the Advantages he could expect: m " u
from that War were not comparable to the Mifchiefs. his
Abfence might occafion: And therefore he Concluded a
Peace with David (15), whereby Prince Henry of Scotland
was put in poffeffion of the County of Northumberland,
and Earldom of Huntingdon. In return for thefe Advan-
tages, David fwore never more to concern himfelf in the
Quarrel between Stephen and trie Ernprefs.

The War being thus ended, theKing returned, into n| .-■ 5 •
Dominions, attended by the Prince of Scdtl'unft, who bj '
his noble and generous Carriage, had Co won the heart of ' " ' ' -
Stephen, that he loved him as if he had been his o\vn
Son (16). The King's careflcs to the young Piinee railed ■' f-ngljh
the Jealoufy of the Ear! of differ and Fome other Lords, £jr ""'
who, on pretence that the King placed him above them at
his Table, retired from Court. But, fiipjJOfing Henry's
Birth did not require that diftinction, yet his Merit de-
fcrved the King's particular regard ; for, according to all
the Hiftorians, he was an accompli fhed Prince. Stephen Cre .
continued therefore, notwithstanding the Jealoufy of thegbvesrh*
Englijh, to fhow him marks of his Efteerrt, particularly in Sootcn
a cafe, which demonftratcd his Sincerity. This youne xZ"f "

nncc, who had accompanied the king to the Siege of Mark rtii
Ludlow, approaching too near the Walls, was like to have - 'fi-'-"-
been pulled from his Horfe by an Iron Hook at the end BromM.
of a Rope, if Stephen, with the hazard of his own Life, had Hovea.
not refcued him. An action which redounded as much
to the honour of the King as of the Prince for whom he
teftified fo great an Affection.

This fame Year Meric, the Pope's Legate in England, Theobald
called a Synod, where Theobald Abbot of Bee was elected ' lct! <4
Archbifhop of Canterbury, to the great fatisfaction of the $£j£*
Englijh who beheld the Metropolitan See vacant for two burft

Years. It. Hagulft.

Stephen's late Peace with Scotland, and his Advantages , r . g
over his domeftick Enemies, procured him a Tranquillity Tu /.W
which feemed likely to continue. And probably, it would/-"'"-'
not have been difturbed, if "an unfeafonable Quarrel with c/erl'
the Clergy, had not hurl'd him down from the height of Maimfl>.
Grandeur and Glory to the moft deplorable State a Sove- ° rd - vit
reign could poffibly be reduced to. The Bifhops had been ™ fc
very inftrumental in placing him on the Throne. From
that time their Power was fo much increafed, that it w.;s
no lefs dangerous for the King to make them his Enemies,
than it was advantagious to have them in his Intereft at
the time of his Election. Nevertiielefs, his Jealoufy of
their Power, fuffered him not toconfider, with his wonted
prudence, the danger he expofed himfelf to, in refolving to
humble them. Roger Bifhop of Salisbury had two Caftles jj,;,™,
as ftrong as they were ftately, one at the Devizes (17), and Pride.
the other at Sherburn, and was building a third at Alalmf- Malmft,.
bury. Alexander his Nephew, Bifhop of Lincoln, had built B^SSf*'
one at Newark, not fcrupling to declare openly, it was dc-
figned as much for the Security as the Dignity of his


(I) Andrazcdhis Caftles, but thofenf BriJIohni Meek. Matrrjb. (2) September 30 Malmib. p. 1S3.
(3) In whirh, and the othei Caftles belonging to him, he put ftrong Garrifons. Ger-vafe, p. 1345.

(4) Even Mile, the High Cenftable, forftck Kme,Srcpkcn. ibid. '') Of Fleming!, which were commanded by William d' Ipret. ibid.

(6) Upon the firft News of the Barons rifing, it is reported he mould fay, Since they have ctofen me their King, ivbj da they newfirfake ne r By tit
BirtbofGcd, (his ufual Oath) livill never be called tn abdicated King. Malmib. p. 102.

(7) Promifing to get her the Crown in five Months. Gervafe, p. 134.6.

(8) Mary of Scotland, Sifter to the Emprefs's Mother, married Evftace Earl of Bohgne, by whom (Tie had Matilda, Wife of Step! en. Rapin.
ft>) Hewjs the King's Leiutcnant inthofe Parts.

(lo)Theother great Men in this Battle, were, Walter de Cant, Robert de Bra!, Roger de Mvwbray , William ek Percy, Barnard de Baliol, Ricbs-ddt
Curcy, William F.Jj'ard, Rcbtrt de Stiitevilte, Robert de Lrf.y, William Pcveicl, Rant de Ferrer!, Geojhj lll/alir, &-c. J. HaeulJI. j. 262. Wi.'.'ia-. it
AlbemarU was created Earl of Yarkjhirt, and Robert do Ferrers Earl of Dtrbyfiire, for their Bravery in this Battle. J. Hagulft. ibid.

(II) Now North- Al/ertcn in Tort/hire.

' (11) Ten Thoufand, fays Brorr.pf-n, p. 10:7. GirwH. This Battle was fought Au-ufl 22. Huntingd. p. 329. limed, p. 4.S4.

(13) The Archbiftiop of ITork being difabled by Sicknefs, appointed Ralph Biftic-p of the Orcada to command in his ftead, who mide a long Oration agairfl
ihe Scottijh Barbarities, and at the Conclufion abi'olved all from their Sins that iliould chance to fall in Battle. Hunt. lLicd. The Orcaies were not then
under the Dominion of Scotland. Huntingd p. 38S. Brotnpt. pvteti.

(14) After Chriftmai he took the Caftle of S/ede. ibid.

(I This Pea c , was concludtd at Durham, April g. J- lUgulftad. p. 265.

( 16) He married, durine his flay in England, Ada Sifter of William Earl of Warren, ■ Walcra* Earl of Mcllcnt, and Robert Earl of Lticefter, by whom he
Jiad three Sons, Malcolm, William, and David. J. Hagulft. ibid.

(i7)_King Sfphen was informed they were fortifying that C:lV:eagamft, him, which was the Reafon of hi; filing it. Ccr~.it, 1345.


The H I S T R Y of E N G L A N D.

bis Court.


U 39 . Church, Nig?!, Bifhop of Ely, another of Roger's Ne-
phews, imitating the ftate of his Uncle and Coufin, af-
fected a magnificence in his Retinue and Houfe, that ex-
cited the Envy of fome, and the indignation of all. When
tliefe three Prelates came to Court, they were attended
with many armed Followers, as if they defigned rather to
VheBng brave the King, than to pay him their refpects. This
.''""" M''- Pomp and Grandeur procuring them abundance of Ene-
*"' mies, there were fome that took occafion to whifper in the
King's ear, that lie could not be fafe as long as the Bi-
fhops were fo powerful. His Sufpicions were further con-
firmed by the Rumour of Matilda's preparing to come
into England, where fhe had a ftrong Party. Though
the Bifhop of Salislury had been a principal Inftrument of
Stephen's Election, yet he fancied him gained by Matilda ;
and in this belief fon»ed a defign to humble the Pride of
the Bifhop and his Nephews. It was not long before an
t'Pcn a opportunity offered. In a general Anembly held at Ox-
^ujrrtlut ford ( 1 ), the Retainers of the Bifhop of Salisbury quarrel-
Oxford, rfe ling withthofeof///o«of Bretagne, Earl of Richmond, one
wmX'm n °f 'he Earl's Knights chanced to be killed in the fcuffle,
appear at and many wounded on both fides ( 2 ). The Bifhop!s Men
had the advantage, being affifted by thofe of the Bifhops
of Ely and Lincoln, and of the Chancellor, who paffed for
Roger's Nephew, though in truth he was his Son (3).
MilmA. The King, willing to improve this occafion to mortify the
whole Family, fummoned them all four to appear at his
Court, and anfwer for this Riot of their Domefticks.
This Summons was juft and legal, but the fatisfaction de-
manded by the King was exceffive. He was not content
with the penalty enjoyn'd by the Law in the like cafes ;
but infilled upon the Bifhops delivering into his hands all
their Caflles, as a Security for their future Allegiance.
This Demand feeming too exorbitant to the Prelates, they
defired time to confider of the matter. Whilft the King
waited for their Anfwer, the Bifhop of £/yabfented him-
felf, and retired to Roger his Uncle's Caftle at the Devizes.
ttrliixn This Flight breaking off the Accommodation, the King
their Cafila. went immediately and laid Sieirc to the Caflle, where was
Ord. vital. alfo MatUda ^ Wife or Concubine of the Bifhop of Salif-
bury. This Place being very ftrong, the King, who fore-
faw the difficulty of the Siege, bethought himielf of an Ex-
pedient to put an end to it without lofs of time. He or-
dered the Bifhop of Salisbury and the Chancellor to be
led up clofe to the Wall ( 4 ), and fent word to Matilda, unlefs
flie delivered up the Caftle, the Chancellor fhould he im-
mediately hanged, neither fhould the Bifhop eat or drink
till it was furrendered. Thefc Threats producing the effect
he expected, fhe delivered up the Caftle (5), where he
Hunti found forty thoufand Marks in ready Money. The Bi-

•Gcrvafc fhop of Lincoln purchafed his Liberty, by furrendering to
the King his Caftle of Ska ford. Shortly after, Stephen be-
came matter likewifc of the Caftles of Salisbury, Malmf-
Brompton. & ur y and Sherborn. 'With the Money, found in thefe
Places, where the Bifhops kept their Treafures, he pur-
chafed the Fricndfhip of the King of France, and made
XuftaccWs an Alliance with him. This Alliance was cemented by
Son warned. tne Marriage of Eujlace, Son of Stephen, with Conjlantia
Sifter to Lewis the Young, who fucceeded Lewis the Cros,
his Father.
fleClergy The King's Severity to the Bifhops very much dif-
arcJij/htif- p] ca f e j a ]] tne Clergy, who made loud complaints. The
Ma'lmsb. Archbifhop of Roan, being then in England, was the
Biompt. only one not offended at it. He was of opinion that,
without ftriking at the Immunities of the Church, the
King might difpoffefs the Bifhops of their fortified Caftles,
which concerned not their Privileges as Churchmen. But
TtrBifh'.p the Bifhop of lllnchejler, lately made Legate for Eng-
cieltc" '«.- l<">d, was not of his mind. This Prelate was fecretly
•sVrMi.-' tic difpleafed with the King his Brother, for not admitting him
ffi'^'ni int0 tllc atlm i n 'ft rat ' on of Affairs (6). He expected
ciSstie" othcrwife, when he laboured fo heartily to place him on
Kixgkfin the Throne. But finding there was no likelihood of his
1,\ <i having for the future any fharc in the Government, he
Hoved. eagerly embraced this opportunity of creating him
M. Pari'. Trouble, under pretence of maintaining the Rights of
the Church. 'Fo that purpofe, he called a Synod at IVin-
chejlcr, and fummoned the King to appear and give an

Vol. I.

account of his Actions. At the opening of the Synod, 11 39.
he agguivated in a virulent Latin Speech all that Stephen
had done againft the three Bifhops. He exhorted the Pre-
lates vigorouily to maintain the Rights of the Epifcopal
Dignity, and the Privileges of the Church ( 7 ) ; protefting
he would put in execution the Decrees of the Council,
though it coft him the Friendfhip of the King, the Lofs
of his Eftate, and even Life itfelf. Stephen had lent to M. Paris,
the Council fome Lords, with Jlberic de Fere a famous P- 77-
Civilian (8), As foon as the Legate had ended his Speech,
thefe Lords demanded, why the King was fummoned
thither. The Legate anfvvered, to give a reafon of his
imprifoning the Bifhops, and defpoiling them of their
Eftates ; a Crime, added he, hitherto unheard of in the
Chriftian world. Alberic, taking him up, faid, the
Prelates were punifhed not as Bifhops, but as the King's
Servants. The Bifhop of Salisbury not relifhing that
Diftinction, roundly told him, the Bifhops could not, in
any refpect, be coufidered as the King's Servants. The ji,eUijhop
Majority of the Synod being much of the fame Opinion, °F&a*&
the Archbifhop of Roan, who thought, the Epifcopal Dig- ?£*«£
nity did not render a Subject independent, endeavoured ta
fet them right. He demanded, whether they could clear-
ly prove by the Canons, that Bifhops ought of Right to
have fortified Caftles ? But, juppofe (fays he) you can
prove fuch a Right by the Canons, ought you not to commit
your Cajlles to the King's difpofal, when the Kingdom is
threatned with an Invafton f Is it not the King's Bufinefs
to take care of the Safety of the State ? And can Subjects
refufe to admit him into their Cajlles without incurring the
Guilt of Rebellion ? Thefe Arguments not prevailing with 77,,. Legate
the Bifhops to defift from their Pretenfion, the Legate p^pofeito
moved to excommunicate the King, and fend Deputies to '^™t~"""
Rome to carry their complaints to the Pope. Then the King,
Lords fent by the King, thought it time to fpeak in a
higher tone. They declared, if the Synod offered to ex-
communicate the King, the Bifhops would foon have
caufe to repent ; and if any prefumed to go to Rome, on
fuch an occafion, their return would be very difficult.
This Declaration made fuch impreffion on the Bifhops,
that none of them were willing to expofe themfelves to
the King's refentment, to gratify the Legate. Accor- Deputation
dingly, the Synod being fatisfied with ordering a Deputa- '■ tb: &*£
tion to the King to demand a fuitable Reparation, broke "**

up (9) after a three day's Seffion. Purfuant to this refo-
lution, the Legate and Archbifhop of Canterbury went to
the King, and earneftly befought him to prevent a rup-
ture between the Ecclefiaftical and Secular Powers.
Which was, in plain EngUJhy requiring him to make
ample Satisfaction to the Clergy, otherwife a rupture was
unavoidable ; for this was the real meaning of their
Words. It cannot be conceived on what other Foun-
dation the Clergy then pretended to be independent of
the Crown, than their being grown fo powerful that
they thought, the King could not ftand without them.
Formerly, during the Empire of the Saxons, the Bifhops
thought it an Honour to be ranked with the Thanes, that
is, with the King's Servants. After the Norman Conquejly
William I. threw the Bifhops into Prifon upon bare Suf-
picions : Some he banifhed, others he deprived of their
Bifhopricks, without any one's daring to ftir, and the
People looked on unconcerned. But in the Reign of
Stephen, it was an unheard of Crime to difpoffefs the Bi-
fhops of their Caftles, and an unpardonable Rafhnefs to
flile them the King's Servants. For fome time paft,
the Clergy had eftablifhed it as a Maxim, that the main
of Religion confifted in upholding the Church in all the
Privileges and Immunities fhe herfelf was pleafed to

Be this as it will, the People were all in combuftion 77, p te pi f
upon this occafion, as if themfelves had been deprived of Jide witl tb*
their Liberties. The whole Kingdom fwarmed in an in- XfiF'th
ftant with Male-contents, who only wanted a Leader to ord. Vital,
command them. In fine, the Clergy's Faction was fo Matilda
ftrong, that mod of the Lay-Lords came over to their £™Yand"
fide and efpoufed their Caufe. The Emprefs thinking Ord. Vital
this a favourable juncture, refolved to improve it and so Brompt.
into England ( 1 o), though fhe had but one hundred and \™_

(l) Atigujl ly. M.ilmib.y. 1S2.

(:) Gemjafe give? this Account of rhe Matter, The King, when he heard that the Caftle of Deiixes was fortifying againft hirn, fends for Roger Bifhop of
Salisbury to fome to him at Oxf.tJ. The Biihop lulpecruig the King mcjnt bim no good, brings along with hun his two Nephews, the Bifhops of Lincoln
mi Ely, and a very large Retinue well-armed. The King, upon their approach, being afraid of fome Treachery, orders his Men to Hand upon the Defective.
Whilft the King and the Bifhops were conferring together, a Quarrel arofc between the King's and the Bifhop's Attendant , fire. p. I3+5.

(3) Roger the King's Chancellor, was the Bi/hop's Son by Maud of Retmcibury his Concubine. Tyirct, Vol. II. p. 210.

(4) The Bifhop was unbound, but the Chancellor was led in Fetters with a Ha ter about his Neck. Malmsb. p. 1S1.

(e)M,md delivered up the Keep or chief Place of Strength, and fo forced the Biihop of £7v to furrender the whole Callle, in confidciatiun he might have his
Liberty. Ord. Vital, p. 92c. Nigel was banifhed. R.'de Dicetc. p. 508.

f6) Or rather, becaufe he had not been made Archbifhop of Canterbury. Genial, p. 1348.

(7) He infilled chiefly on the Bifhop of Salisbury being fcized in the very Chamber of the Court or Great Council, and the Bifhop of Lincoln in his Lodg-
ing. M.ilms. p. 182. (8) Anccftorof the Earls of Oxford.

(9) September I. M. Paris, p 77.

(10) Injfu/y, Gen/as. She haded at Portfmoutl', Srptemb. 30, Malmtb, p. 183. Brempten and Cervajc fav, that fhe landed with a great Arfny, p. 1019,


Book VT.




Get'. .i!s.
M. Paris.


1 U befiegedby
the King in

CM It,

*nd KnduEl-
edfafely to

Malm, ibid

gains both
the Noblct

tint/ Clergy.

G. R. S.

I 140.
A Civil
Sax'. Ann.


The Bijhep



ivith the



forty men to accompany her. This was a very inconfi-
derable Troop for the undertaking, (he was meditating ;
but flic relied on a powerful Aid from the Male-contents.
She took up her firft quarters at the Cattle of Arundel,
belonging to the Queen Dowager, as part of her Dow-
ry ( 1 ). The Earl of Glocefter, who came with his Sifter,
thinking her fafe in a place where fhe was received with
all rhc refpect due to her Rank, left her and went to
Briftol (2). Mean while, Stephen, who was bcfieging
Marlborough, being informed of Matilda's arrival, fud-
denly raifed the Siege and marched towards Arundel.
Upon the King's approach, the Queen Dowager repented
of admitting Matilda, fearing it might occalion the lofs
of her Caftle, With all the Privileges flic enjoyed in
England. On the other hand, Honour and Honelty would
not fuffer her to deliver her Gueft into the hands of her
Enemy. To get clear of this perplexity, (lie fent the
King word, if he infilled upon the delivery of the Em-
prefs, (lie was no lefs bent, on her fide, to protect her,
till fome or other came to her relief. But withal defired
him to confider, (he had not entertained her as an Ene-
my to the King, but as her Daughter-in-law, Widow of
a great Emperor, to whom fhe could not be excufed
from paying the Refpect due to her. That her intent
was not to countenance her defigns again (I him, but
only to prevent any 111 from befalling her whilft under
her roof. In fine, fhe propofed to the King that Ma-
tilda might have leave to retire to fome other place,
where it would be as eafy to befiege her as in Arundel
Caftle. That by this Generality he would oblige a
Queen, Widow of a great Monarch, his Uncle and Be-
nelactor, without the Ieaft detriment to himfelf. Whe-
ther Stephen was fenlible it was not in his power to take
the Caftle before it was relieved, or thought himfelf

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 85 of 360)