M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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bound to oblige the Queen fo far, he gave his word,
Matilda fhould be fafely conducted to Briftol ; which was
accordingly done (3). But he had too much reafon to
repent afterwards of his being fo generous. Matilda, after
fome (lay at Briftol (4), removed to Glocefter ( 5 ). Whilft
fhe remained in thefe two Cities, (he fo artfully managed,
in her favour, the Difcontents of the Clergy and No-
bility, that (he gained them both to her Intcreft, and by
their means, almoft: the whole body of the People (6).
There adhered to the King only a few Barons, and his
foreign Army, which though ill paid, ferved him faith-
fully (7).

I (hall not undertake to relate the Particulars of this
Civil War, which, like the reft of that kind, furnifhes
more Inftances of Treachery and Cruel^, than of glo-
rious Actions. I (hall content my felf with obferving
the principal Events. Whilft it lafted, the whole King-
dom was divided, every City, County, and Perfon fiding
with the King or the Emprefs, according as they were
fvvayed by Paffion or Intereft. The Lords, neareft in
Neighbourhood and Blood, fell upon one another in a
cruel manner, burning the Houfes, and pillaging the
Vaftals of each other, fo that a terrible confufion was
quickly fpread over the whole Kingdom. In this fatal
Anarchy, the Barons, acting as Sovereigns, grievoufly
opprefled the People, and were fo prefumptuous as to coin
their own Money. On the other hand, the King and
Matilda, inftead of redreffing, connived at thefe Proceed-
ings, fearing the calling their Friends to account would
make them change fides. Moreover, the foreign Sol-
diers, of whom Stephen's Army entirely conftfted, occafi-
oned ftill further Diforders. As the King was not able
to pay them duly, he was forced to fuffer them to plun-
der the Poor People (8), who, though innocent, felt the
greateft (hare of the Calamities fuch a War brings with
it( 9 ).

Mean time, the Bifhop of Winchejler, being at lad
fenlible of his Error, in raifing a Storm, which he forefaw
would infallibly overwhelm the King his Brother, fudden-
ly changed fides. He reflected, that being Brother to



Stephen, he himfelf would certainly be involved in the fame 11404
Ruin with him, and confequcntly, it was his Intereft to
fupport him, inftead of promoting his deftruetion. And
therefore, defirous of regaining the King's confidence by
fome important Service, he drew to IVincheJhr a good
number of Lords, Friends to Matilda, and detained them
Prifoners, till they delivered their Caftle to the King.

Amidtt all his difficulties, Stephen fhowed a Fiimnefs StepWi
that kept many from defcrting him, which, doubtlefs, "?*""" "'
they would have done upon the lc.ift Signs of Faint-heart-
ednefs. For it is always the cafe, when, on the like
occalions, Princes fecm to diftruft their Fortune or Abi-
lities. Inftead of being daunted at the violent Shocks
he received, Stephen daily endeavoured to remedy, by hi-,
valour and prudence, the Evils he fuffered by the re-
volt of his Subjects. He even hoped to put an end to tttttfaei
them at once, by laying Siege to Wallingford, where ™~
Matilda and the Earl of Glocefter were (hut up. But and ctar.?v
meeting with more difficulties in this Siege than he iina- iteSiqpi*n
gined, he turned it into a Blockade (10). He was no s 2X l" c £*' lc '
fooner retired, but the Earl of Glocefter got out of the Gervas.
Caftle, and went and feized Worcejler, whilft the Barons
of his Party ravaged the Counties of Chefter and Not-
tingham.

Mean time Matilda, being too clofely pent up in Wail- Matilda re-
lingford, found means to get from thence and retire to "^'°
Lincoln. As foon as the King had notice of it, he form- ™bm jh, it
ed the ilciign of furprizing her ; well knowing, Lincoln, bc f' ; g'd, but
where he had many Friends, could not be defended by the m^'A
few Troops Matilda had with her. He would have Hunt,
taken his Rival in that place, which held out but a few M - Pari*
days (11), had fhe not contrived to efcape, whilft the cTrofe.
Articles of the Capitulation were drawing. Stephen mif- Hoved.
fing his Aim, retired Without leaving a Garrifon in the
Town for fear of weakening his Army. He was hardly Ord. vital,
gone, when he was informed that the Earl of Chejler (12), f- * 21 '
Son-in-law of the Earl of Glocefter, was come thither
with his Wife and Brother (13), to keep their Chriftmas.
His great defire to have thefe three Pcrfons in his power, Stephen <*•
made him march back with fuch fpced that the Earl had fi'&" " '
but juft time to retire into the Caftle, which was im- Lmcohi.
mediately inverted. However, he found means to efcape
and get to the Earl of G/oceJhr, to defire him to come
to the relief of the Befieged, who could not hold out
Jong. The Earl of Glocefter, willing to deliver his own The Earhf
Daughter, drew all his Troops together, and marched to Clocciier
Lincoln with that fpecd, that he was like to furprife the r""J°"'
King, who never imagined him fo near. Having forded Battleof
the River Trent, a thing the King thought impracticable, Lincoln.
he came on a fudden fo clofe to the Royal Army, that MaJmsb!
neither Side could poffibly avoid fighting. The two Humingd.
Armies being drawn up, the Battle began, which for a ? ro „ pt ' lr ,
long time was fought on both Sides with equal bra- J ' a£u
very (14). But at length the King's Horfe, confiding of TkcKi-gt
Flemings and Bretons, giving ground, they were fo Vigo- Army „
roufly preffed, that they could never rally more. The "'•'"•
Earl of Glocefter improved this Advantage, not to purfue
the flying Horfe, who were incapable of hurting him,
but to fall on the King's Infantry, who being deftitute
of the afliftance of the Cavalry, took to Flight alfo.

Mean time Stephen, who could not bear the Thoughts Stephen
of flyine, was left almoft alone, and on foot, in themidft yhnPri-
of the Field of Battle, affaulted by Multitudes, but refilV X^L.,,
ing all their Efforts with an aftonifliing Valour. If
the Horfe had rallied in the mean while, he might have
freed himfelf from this Danger, to his immortal Fame.
But deftitute of all Afliftance, he was forced at length to
yield to Number^, being furrounded on all fides. How-
ever, it was not till the laft extremity ; for his Battle-
Ax breaking by the force of his Blows, he drew his
Sword, and defended himfelf for a confiderable time,
foaming with Rage to fee himfelf thus abandoned by his
Army. At length, after performing more than could
naturally be expected from a fingle Perfon in his Con-



(1) Aacliza, the beautiful Daughter of Godfrey firft Earl of Brabant, was Wife of Henry I. fourteen Years, who pave her in Dower the Caftle and
Parldnm of Arundel. She was afterwards marrrkd to William de Albtni, in her Right Earl of Arundel, by whom flic had JViltiam (and from him, by
the Fitx- Alans Earls of Arundel, Tbt.ir.ai Ihicard the prefent Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Arundel derives his Dcicei t) and Godfrey de Albini, and
Alice Wife of John Earl of Augie. Sar.tlford Ger.eal. p. 17.

(2) Being attended only by twelve Pcifons. Malnfb. p. 184.

(3) By the Bifhop of Wincbcjlcr. Gervafe, p. 1349* The Anonymous Author of this King's Actirms, fays Stephen, was perfuaded to it by the Bifhop of
Winchejler, for fear the Earl of Glueefter might fubduc great part of the Kingdom, whilft the Siege mould laft. This Advice, whether given fincejely or
to ruin the King, the Author does not determine, p. 947. (4) Two Months. Gervafe, p. 1349.

(5) Where (lie was received by Miio the King's Conftable, who was Deputy Governor of the Caftle under Robert. Malmfb. p. 1S4. It was in October.
Geri'afe, p. 1349. This Mill is called de Gloeeftria Comes Cor.Jiabularius ; and Regis Conflabularius. Con. Flor. Wig. p. O73.

(6) Not long after her Arrival, Brian-Fitz-Count declared for her, and victualled and fortthed the Caftle of Watlingfordc. Gefi. R. Steph.

(7) This Year, one Ralph, a Clergyman belonging to the Bifhop of Ely, formed a Confpiracy to kill all the Normans in England. R- de Diceto.
p. 50S.

(8.) W, Mahnjbury fays, that he was alfo forced upon that account to clip, or make the Money lighter, p. 185.

(9) Sec a difmal Account of it in .Sax. Ann. Gervafe, &c.

( 10 ) And went and laid Siege to Malm/bury, Tioubrtdge, and Cerne Caftics. Gervafe, p. 1350.
00 From Chrijln.-as till the beginning of February. Huntingd. p. 390.

(li) Ranulph de Genniis fourth Earl of Cbcjier. He is faid to be poilbned in 1155, by Maud his Wife, (youngeft Daughter of Robert Earl of Cbejier) and
William Pevcrcl Lord of Nottingham. (13) William de Romara. Sax. Ann.

(14) The King'schief Officers in thisBattle, were, Alan Earl of Richmond, Robert Count de Mtllent, Hugh Bigod, MttXSimen, the Earl of Warren, Earl of
. Albemarle, William of Yprcs. Gervafe, p. 1353. M.Paris, p. 7S.

N'lt. V01, I. F ff dition,



sotT

1 140.

Hunting.

Gervafe.

Hovcd.



Ihe. H1STO RY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



J in



dition, his Sword flying in pieces, and little more than the
Hi!t remaining in his hand, he was knocked down on
his knees with a Stone. Whereupon William de Kains
a valiant Knight ran in, and feizing him by the Helmet
prefentcd his Sword to his Throat, threatning to kill him
unlefs he yielded himfelf Priibner. Notwithftanding the
extreme danger he was in, he refuted to furrender to
any but the Earl of GlocrJIcr, who by good fortune was
near at hand. As foon as the Earl had him in his pow-
er, he conducted him to the Emprefs ( 1 ), who ordered
him to be confined in the Caftle of Brijlol, where he
was ignominioufly laid in Irons (2).

Whilft this unfortunate Prince was in fo deplorable a
condition, Matilda improved the Advantages lately gain-
ed by her Arms. All England defcrted the captive King,
except London and Kent, where he had ftill fome Friends
left by the means of the Queen his Spoufe, Eujlace his
?>m, and H iliiam de Tpres his Favourite. The Barons
that preferved their Allegiance, retired to London, where
they had Intereft enough to gain admittance, and prevail
with the Citizens to make a Confederacy with them in
favour of the Ki ng. Normandy foon followed the Example
■ ' : 's«of England. No fooner had the Earl of Anjou received



and
Irons.
Malmlb
Gervalc.



t I 4 I .
Mal'Jdi
matesa - at
i'f reft.
f I intingd.

B

M. Pjn>.



I I f



Main)
Gervafe,



17 e SiflOp
of W.n-
ch'/ r ter coma
cui.r n

'.]. u ', 'a.
G. R. S.

r 9 - 3-

Maim lb,
J. Hagulft.



' advice of the King's Imprifonment, but he repaired to
Kcnnandy, to caufe the Emprefs his Wife to be acknow-
ledged, which he easily accomplished. At the fame time,
the King of Scotland breaking the late Treaty, invaded
the northern Counties, under pretence of afiifting the
Emprefs, but in reality for his own private advan-
tage,

The Victory of Lincoln feemed at once to place Matilda
on the Throne ; but there was one Obttacle more to
furmount, before the could hope to enjoy the Fruits of her
Succefs, which was, to gain the Bifhop of JVincheJler.
This Prelate, who, by his dignity of Legate was at the
head off the Clergy, might potfibly fet that powerful Bo-
dy againft her, whefe Example had great influence upon
the Nobles and People. She deemed it necellary there-
fore to endeavour before all things to win him from the
King, and with this view went to him at IVincheJhr.
He made fome difficulty at firft to hearken to her Pro-
ppfals. But upon her offering him the difpofal of all the
Church-Preferments, he threw up the Caufe of the King
his Brother, and promifed to ufe his endeavours to pro-
cure Matilda the fuffrages of the Clergy. He even took
his Oath to her beforehand (3), but with this limitation,
that it mould be binding no longer than me kept true to
her rromiies. On the morrow, he received her with
great pamp in the Cathedral Church, where he folemnly
excommunicated all the King's Friends, and abfolved all
thofe that fhould abandon his Party and come over to the
Emprefs. Shortly after the Archbifhop of Canterbury
'{ y °"" fworc likewife to Matilda (4). But he was fo fqueamifh
as to procure the King's confent firft, which he went to
ask himfelf of Stephen in prifon.

There was nothing more wanting to Matilda but the
feal of publick Authority to be really Queen of England.
Bur, though fhe was fure of the Confent of the Temporal
Lords, fhe was apprehenfive of meeting with oppolition
from the Clergy, who probably, would be more i'crupu-
louson account of their Oath to the King. The Legate
taking upon him to accomplish this Affair, called a Coun-
cil at IVinclrJler, where all the Bifhops and Abbots
were prefent, with the Archdeacons as Representatives to
the Inferior Clergy. The day before the opening of the
Synod, the Legate privately conferred, firft with t: e Bi-
jh <!> , then with the Abbots, and laftly with tlie Arch-
deacons. It is not known what pafied at thefc private
Conferences, but it was plain, next day, what ufe the
Legate was willing to make of them. As foon as the
Council was afiembled, he made a long Speech, endea-
vouring to fhow that the Male-Adminiftration, Infinceri-
ty, and Tyranny of Stephen, had b"en the fole caufe of
all the Troubles in the Kingdom. He owned that indeed



Ihc Aribbi-



fweari ')

Matilda.

Malm'lb.

Gervafe.

The Legate

cal/s ,1 Sy-

r it at V/in

1

win clcSts

Matilda.

Malmflb.



Matilda, adding it was more reafonable to regard the 1 1 4 1 .
Orders of his eternal Father, whofe Will it was that
Juftice fhould be done the Emprefs, than the Interefts of a
natural Brother. Then he laid, he had done all that lay
in his power to make Stephen fenlible of his Errors, even
to the fuinmoning him before a Synod, but that all his
brotherly and kind Admonitions had proved ineffectual.
That this Obftinacy was a clear Evidence to the Englijh,
what Calamities they would have been expofed to under
the Government of fuch a Prince, if it had not pleafed
divine Providence to give Sentence againft him by furt'er-
ing him to be imprifoned. In fine, fince God's Judg-
ments were now fallen on the King whom they had elec-
ted, they were to atone for their Fault, by reftoring the
Crown to the Princefs, to whom of Right it belonged.
/ have therefore, continues he, convened you, by virtue of
the Apojblic Power committed unto me, to confult about the
means of appeafmg the Troubles of the State. This Affair
•was debated yejlerday in the Prefence of the greatejl Part of
the Clergy, who beyond all difpute have a principal Share
in the Election of the Kings. And therefore, after mature
Deliberation, we have determined to acknowledge Matilda,
Daughter to the incomparable King Henry, for Queen and
Sovereign of England ( 5 ).

Molt of thofe that were prefent, and not in the Secret,
were extremly furprized at this Speech ; and much more
to fee an Election tranfadted in private by the Clergy, af-
ter an unprecedented manner. Neverthelefs, every one
keeping a profound Silence, for fome were gained, and
others dared not to oppofe it openly for tear of not being fe-
conded, the Silence was interpreted for an approbation.
The Legate told them further, he had fummoned the
Magiftrates of London, and that they had promifed to fend
their Deputies. And indeed on the morrow the Depu- Defect
ties arrived, but inftead of confenting to what the f rom Lo*>-
Council had done, they declared they were ordered by %%£?£
the City and the Barons that were retired thither, to pe- King's Li-
tition the King's Liberty. The Legate replied, it be- b S r _'3
came not the Londoners to fide with the Barons, who
had bafely deferted their King in Battle, and were en-
deavouring to embroil the Kingdom in frefh Troubles.
This Anfwer, fo far from the point, not being Satisfac-
tory to the Deputies, they demanded one more direct,
but in vain. The Legate did not think fit to re-ex-
amine a thing, which he pretended was already decided.
Before the end of the Synod, a Chaplain to Stephen's Asdocubt
Queen (6), offered to the Council a Letter, which he %«».
delivered to thj Legate. But becaufe the Prelate, after
perufmg it himfelf, would not communicate it to the
Affembly, the Chaplain boldly took it out of his hand,
and read it aloud. This Letter, wherein the Queen ear- Stephen's
neftly intreated them to fet the King at Liberty, proving of Mbtrtatt
no effect, the Council broke up, after excommunica- "^J 1 " 1 '"
ting all Stephen's Adherents (7).

This affair being thus ended, the Emprefs wanted Limdon <&■-
only the Confent of the Londoners, in order to her darajbr

Matilda.









Malmfb.



Coronation. For that purpofe, fhe was obliged to enter
into a Negotiation with the City, which lafted fome
time. Mean while, 7 ' fatilda advanced as far as Read-
ing, where Robert d Oyly Governor of Oxford came
and offered her the K /s of his Caftle, humbly intreat-
ing her to henour that City with her prefence. She
readily complied with his requeft, and, after receiving
the Oath of the Inhabitants of Oxford, and the adja-
cent Country, emoved to St. Albans, where fhe wait-
ed for the Refolution of the Londoners. The City was
then over-run with troubles and confufion. Some were
for continuing ftedfaft to the King, though a Prifoner :
Others for giving way to the times, and recognizing
Matilda. Thefe laft prevailing at length, the Emprefs
came to London, where fhe was magnificently received
amidft the great numbers of Barons that attended her.
The City of London declaring thus for Matilda, there
was no farther oppofition, and now the Preparations for
he had pledged his Faith for him, when the Necefitty of her Coronation were begun. Mean while Matilda was



Malm lb.
Gervafe.
R. de Dicet.






Affairs had, as it were, compelled the Englijh to place
the Crown on his head : Adding, he was deceived the
firft, and with extreme grief faw himfelf obliged to revoke
his engagement. He infilled upon his former Oath to



every where acknowledged for Sovereign (8).

During this interval, Stephen's Queen came to the Matilda.
Emprefs, to try to prevail with her for fome condefcen- "-cats tie
fion to her Husband. As fhe defpaired of ever feeing him j?"^

Wig.
(1) Who v...,;h-n.il Gktirtjlcr, Ga-vafi, p. 13^4. This Battle was fought on Candkmai-day. Sax. Ain. The chief Perfons made Prifoners, were, Erompt.
IdeB . R 'cr de Mvuibray, Richard dc Courccy, William Voffart , Bald-am, Richard Fitx-Urftn, William Pevcrel, William Clcrfeiib, Sec. William Gervas.
Earl if Alb 1 , i.u dinting the Kght. 7. Hagulft. p. 269. Gervafe, p. 1354.

(!) "■ 1 1) . he was honourably ufed at firft, but at length, by the Inftigation of fume who pretended, he had been feen fcveral times beyond

0< Bounds of his Confinement, he was put in Irons. Malm/b. p. 187. He was not laid in lions till after Matilda\ Flight from Oxford. Gervafe.
M. P iris, p. -S.

(3) And likewife Matilda herfelf, Robert Earl of Glouce/ler, Brian Fitx Count Marquefs, i.e. Governor of Wallingfird, and Milo (afterward; Earl of Hcrc-
ford,) ,S;o bound themielves by Oath to die Biihop of Winchcjler, that he mould li3ve the chief Management of Affairs, the Difpofal of Church-Preferments,

C5*. . For tliis Purpofe there was a Convention in the Fields near IVinchcjlcr. Malmjb. p. 180.

(4) Waiting upon h?r at Wilton. Gcrvafc, p. 1354.

(5) Fiiiam picifki Regis in Anglis Normanniieque dominam eligimus, & ei (idem & manutenementum promittimus. Malm/b. p. lSo,«

" NiliK&Chri/fiai:, Maf-fi. p. 1S9. (7) Particularly William Martcl Sewer to the King, ibid.

[8] She made Robert dc Sigilh, a Monk of Reading, Bilhopof London. R. dc Daeto, p. 508, Gcrvafc, p. 1355.

on






Book VI.



STEPHEN.



» 141.



Mutiliifalts
tut with the
Wlx>p ?/
Wjnchefti r,
M.i'm'b.
Cerafe.
J. Hagulft.



mttd llkewijc
vvilb the
Londoners,
Biompt.
Dervafe.
C. R. S.



mho lay a
Plot 1. feisst
her Pa-pa.
Sax. Ann.
Brompt.
Gervale.



The Legate
confer! -with
the teTueen
bis Si/ler^
in-lww.
Malmlb.



# Matilda tries
in vain to
Jeixe the Le-
gate.

Milmfii.
Brompt.



on the Throne again, fhe defired nothing more than his
Liberty. She promifed, in the name of that unhappy
Prince, that, content with living as a private Perfon, he
would renounce the Crown, and to remove all fufpicion,
depart out of the Kingdom, and pafs the refidue of his
Days in a Monaftery. He even offered to fwear never to
return more, and give Hoflages for the performance of
his Promifes. But fuch were the times, that there was
no reliance on Winds or Oaths, there having been fo many
late Inftances of the ready Violation of both. According-
ly Matilda rejected all thefe Proposals with great haughti-
nefs, forbidding the unfortunate Queen ever to come into
her pretence again.

The Bilhop of Winchejler became alfo a Petitioner to
her, but had as little reafon to be fatufied with her Ge-
ncrofity. He imagined, the Service he had lately done her,
highly deterred fomc return. Accordingly, he dcfncd
fome Favour for Eujlace his Nephew, which was proudly
denied hirn ( 1 ). This was fufEcient to itir up the Bilhop
to a Revenge. He was in hopes, the new Queen would
be guided by his Councils ; but plainly faw, (he looked
upon him as an Enemy. His turbulent and vindictive
Temper not fuffering him to reft under thefe Circurnflan-
ces, he began from that inftant to plot againft Matilda,
burning with Dell re to make the ungrateful Princefs
know, it was no lels in his power to pull her down, than
to fet het up. But perhaps he would have found it diffi-
cult to accomplifh his Project, if the Emprefs herfelf had
not furnifhed him with the means, by her extreme Pride,
which made her regard her Subjects as fo many Slaves.
Fatal Policy ! Which created her many Enemies, at a
time when flic ought rather to have laboured to gain the
Englijh by mild and popular methods. She drew upon
herfelf chiefly the Hatred of the Londoners., by refuling
to grant the only thing they petitioned, and which the
King her Father had pofitively promifed, namely, to mi-
tigate the Severity of the Norman Laws, and revive thofe
of King Edward. This ill-advifed Princefs thought
herfelf fo far above all contradiction, that (he neglected
to imitate the Conduct of her Predeceflors, in amufing
her Subjects with Promifes at leaft, till her Authority was
more firmly eftablifhed. Her haughty Carriage foon wrought
a great change in the Minds of the Englijh. They be-
gan to be fenllble what Danger they were in, of being un-
happy under her Government, unlefs timely care was
taken to prevent the impending Evils. The Bilhop of
Winchejler cherifhed, to the utmoft of his power, thefe
Difcontcnts ; and by fecret Emiffaries at London, ftirred
up the Citizens to revenge the Contempt Matilda had
(hown them. His Cabals were carried fo far, that he
drew therri into a Plot to teize the Emprefs's Perfon.
What care foever was taken to conceal this defign, fhe
had timely notice of it, and left the City in fuch hafte
and in fo great a fright, that her Palace and Goods were
expofed to the Fury of the Popidace (2). Though the
legate milted his Aim, he thought, he had not a little
forwarded the execution of his Project, in ingaging the
Londoners againft Matilda. Secure of their Affiftance,
he privately concerted meafures with the Queen his Sifter-
in-Law. After which, he tent word to Enjlace to be ready
to march with the Kcntijb-men, prorhifmg him, he fhould
foon be at the head of a more confiderable Army. Ha-
ving taken thefe meafures, and fecretly gained to the King's
Party feveral Lords that were difpleafed with the Emprefs,
lie ordered the Caftle of Winchejler, and fome others that
were at his difpofal, to be ftored with Provifions and
Arms.

As all this could not be tranfacted without Matilda's
knowledge, file put herfelf at the head of her Troops,
attended by the Earl of Gloucejler ( 3 ) and the King of Scot-
land, who was come into England to affift at the Corona-
tion (4). As foon as (he approached Winchejler (5), fhe
tent the Bifhop word, (lie had fomething to communicate
to him, and therefore defired him to come to her. The
Prelate fufpecting fhe was informed of his Proceedings,
eafily perceived this was only an Artifice to enfnare



207



him. Accordingly, inflcad of waiting upon her, he tent 1141.
her an ambiguous Anfwer (6). At the fame time he ftole HedrantM
out of the Town at an eppofite Gate, and drew his ,f^"'- > ' -'"
Friends together, who only waited his Orders to put them- Cerrafi.
felvcs in motion. As they were all ready, they were "' "
quickly in Aims. The Kentijh-men joining the Londoners, L'!



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 86 of 360)