M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Stephen's Queen, Eujlace his Son, and William d' tyres,
headed them, and marched to Winchejler with the utmoft
fpeed. They had like to have fui prized the Emprefs, who
fcarce had time to retire into the Caftle. As the Inhabi- fc-nwin.
tants of Winchejler appeared a little too zealous in her °' '}'■■
caute, the Bilhop, out of revenge, let fire to the City, c«"fk.
though the Capital of his Diocefe. Twenty Churches
were burnt to allies, with a Nunnery, which bore the
Name of St. Grind/aid (7).

The Bifhop's care to provide the Caftle well with Am- Matilda &~
munition, rendered the Siege very long and difficult. The-'' ■"' J:: ■''■■'
Befiegers applied themfclves clofely to it for two months ( 8), t/fi'i'ib.
in hopes of putting an end to the War at once, by takin
the Heads of the contrary Party. The fame reafon obli-
ged the Befieged to think of their fafcty. When they ^rttT and
found there was no poffibility of holding'out any longer,
they refolved to hew themfelves a pafTage with theu '*" ] '
fwords, and run all Risks to tecure the Emprefs's Perfon. ""'
To that purpofe they (allied out in good Order, Matilda
and the King of Scotland marching in the front (9), and
the Earl of Gloucejler bringing up the rear (10). They
were no fooner out, but the King's Troops clofely purfu-
ed, endeavouring by frequent Attacks to retard their
march, whilft the reft of the Army was advancing to fin-
round tiiem. Inall thefe little skirmifhes, the Earl of Gl.u-
cejler vigoroufly oppofed his Enemies, and gave fignal
marks of his conduit and valour. But his effbl I ,
which indeed were very ferviceable to Matilda, as they
gave her time to retire, proved fatal to himfejf. As the /v <
Emprefs's danger made him neglect his own Safety, he Gl ' ''■"J 1, '
would march thelaft through a narrow Defile, where his 'J '
Troops were hard profited by the Enemies, and hiorieif R- Diccto.
unfortunately taken Prifoncr (n). William de Yprcs, to Er - m F'-
whofe charge he was committed, ordered him to be forth-
with conducted to Rochejler in Kent, where the Kin"
had more Friends than in any other part of the King-

Mean time, Matilda making all poffible fpeed, efcared Matilda ef-
with a few Followers to the Caftle of LutgerfoalL, and^"^""
from thence to the Devizes. Here (he rcpofed hciTslf acmat "'
little, thinking (he had time enough to reach Glccejler.
But when fhe came to purfue her Journey, fhe had in-
telligence, the road was lined with the King's Soldiers.
If we may believe a Hiftorian, much given to the mar- Erompt.
vellous, (he efcaped their Vigilance, by being carried to p ' '' j1,
Gloucejler ma Coffin, which no body would ever have Knishton.
thought to fearch. Be this as it will, it is certain fhe
found means to avoid this danger.

Whilft the Emprefs was deviling Expedients to lefift 3*« *■'•" <'
her Enemies, the Bilhop of Winchejler and the reft of the ; ' '",'; ") " t
King's Friends, were endeavouring to difengage the Earl oY, \: '..'
Gloucejler from his Sifter's party. But all their folficita- [ ■■[•,

and the confie'eratic

of hi

Mate, could


tions, ana tne conuccrations of ms prc!ent outc, <-ouiu B .
not (hake him. He firmly perfiltcd in his Allegiance he Gems.
had fworn to her, and would not even diitemble to pro-
cure his Liberty. In fine, after fix months imprifon-
ment, Matilda, who had a tender Affection for him, and
very juftly, and befides could not well proceed without
him, contented he fhould be exchanged for the King (1 2).
In vain, were endeavours ufed on this occafion, to
make Peace between Stephen and the Emprefs. As the
thing they both claimed was of a nature not to admi: cf
Divillon, there was no poffibility of fucceeJing. The
Exchange therefore was all that could be done, each being
left at liberty to purfue the War.

After the Bifhop of Winchejler refolved to abandon the - " r r-
Emprefs, he writ to the Pope, to en:reat him to autL'
rize his Proceedings in behalf of the King his Brother. As
the Pope had no information of what pafted in England,
but from his Legate, he did not fail to anfwei him ac- '"""

(1) The Bilhop petitioned the Emprefs to confirm the Titles of Earl of Mortagne and Boulogne to Eujl.ue, whole Mother was Daughter and Hej of the
Earl of Boulogne. Malmjb. p. 107.

(2) She fled toOxfhrd, and from thence in a great Hurry went to Gloucejler^ where having conferred with Mih, the returned to Oxjerdi and, a*ter
fime time, advanced towards Winchejler, where (he came about Augujl 1 j but finding that Cay was agiinft her, ihe took her Lodging in til: Caftle.
Gervafe, p. 1355. (3) Gervaji lays, he knew nothing of it. Ignorante fr.itre fuo Roberto, p. 1355.

(4.) There was likewife with the Emprefs, Mih (whom ftie had lately made Ear! of Hereford) lur cmftant Fiiend, and who had born the Expellees
cf her Houihold from her firft coming to Ghu.ejler, which was then two Years : And this the Continuatjr of Florence of JVoreejUr lays he Lad IVura
his own Mouth.

(5) Or rather, after (he was got into the Caflle, M.'lmjh. p. 190. (6) Parabo me, 1 mill prepare my filf. Maltrjb. p. 190.

(7) Malmfhury lays, whilft the Emprefs was blocked up, Fir. was thrown from the Bifhop's Tower opon the Cit: e i's Hcufes, bei sufc chejr woe more
inclined to her than to him. This Fire took hold of a Nunnery within the City, and b-irnt it down, with the Abb. y called the Hide without the City,
and above twenty Churches. Mntmfb. igo. Gervofe, p. 1 3 56. This City was burnt down, Auguji 2. Gcrvap:, p. 1355. Anawer was abb burnt ; and
Whcrivell by William £ tyres. Ma/mfh. p. Igo.

(8) Seven Weeks. Gervafe, p. 1 3 56. (9) And Reginald Ear! of Corr.iual, her Brother, ihid.
(to) He went out another way, and was takenin a place called St:ubregge, with the Eail of JVarren, ibid.

(n) Milo the Confiablc eft.iprd, and came, almoft naked, to Matild.i at Gloucefler. Gervafe, 1356. This Skirmiih happened on the 14th of Ceftemie'.
Malmib. p. 190. (12) About the beginning of November. Id. p. 191.




Vol. I.


Syned at





where Ma-
tilda's Ad-
herents are
ex otnmutll-



I 142.
'Tic Earl of
demands Aid
of the Earl
of Anjou.
M. Paris.

Matilda it-

ficged in

M. Paris.
J. Hagulft.

She efcafes
noitb great

Di pculty.
M. Paris.
Gi 1 vale.

cording to his wifh. Hi? Anfwer was received a little
after Stephen's releafe. In this Letter he blamed the Pre-
late for neglecting fo long to replace his Brother on the
Throne, ordering him to try all ways for his reftoration.
To this he added an exprefs PermilTion to ufe both Tem-
poral and Spiritual Arms to accomplifh that end. Sup-
ported with this Authority, the Legate fummoned a
Council ■i.tlVeJhninftcr ( 1 ), where the Pope's Letter was
read. The King, who was' prefent, bitterly complained
of fome of his Subjects, who not content with waging
War againft him, had long detained him in a dishonour-
able Imprifonment. Then the Bifhopof Winchefter in a
Rhetorical Harangue, endeavoured tojuftify his late con-
duel: and the frequent breach of his Oaths. But he
would have found it very difficult to purge himfelf, had
he not been favoured by the prefent juncture. He con-
cluded his Speech with excommunicating all the Adherents
of the Emprefs as fo many Enemies to the publick Peace.
T he People were not pleafed to fee themfelves thus liable
to fuch oppofite Excommunications, according to the hu-
mour of the Legate. However no one dared to complain,
well knowing it would be to no purpofe. Only a Lay-
Meflenger of the Emprefs, by her order, charged the
Legate to his face, that it was by his invitation, fhe
came into England. He had even the boldnefs to tell
him, hii Brother's hard treatment in his Imprifonment
was owing to his advice. The Legate made no reply to
thefe Reproaches, but refolved to complete his Revenge
by entirely ruining Matilda's affairs.

Upon Stephen'* recovering his Liberty, Matilda's party
declined fo vifibly, that the Earl of Gloucejler was afraid
it would come to nothing, unlefs fupported by foreign Aid.
This apprehenfion made him refolve to pafs into
Normandy, and follicit the Earl of Anjou (2) to maintain
his Wife the Emprefs's Right, which was alfo bis Son's.
But the Earl was too much embroiled in domeftick
troubles to fend any great Succours into England. The
Anjmnn IjTobility were diffatified with him, and the Nor-
ma in were not yet fufficiently fettled in his obedience,
for him to venture to remove from them, or leave their
Country unprovided with Troops (3). He contented him-
felf therefore with fending an inconfiderable Aid (4) to
Matilda, with Henry his eldeft Son, to try whether his
Prefence would have any influence on the Englifh.

During the Earl of Gkuceflcr's abfence, Matilda retired
to Oxford (5), where fhe thought herielf fafe, till the
Succours, expefted from Normandy, fhould arrive. The
King looking upon this as a favourable juncture, refolved
to lav Siege to that City, in expectation of having his
Rival in his power, before the Earl's return (6). The
Siege was carried on with all poffible vigour and dili-
gence, and maintained in the fame manner by the Em-
prefs, who had no other refuge, but a ftout defence, in
order to avoid the impending difafter. The approach of
Winter gave her fome hopes, the King would be obliged
to retire. But Stephen being refolutely bent to continue
his attacks notwithftanding the rigour of the Seafon (7),
ihe was at laft reduced to a necelTity of defiring to capitu-
late. As fhe dreaded, above all things, the fame lot fhe
had inflicted on her Enemy, fhe did not think fit to wait
the iflire of the Capitulation, which could not but prove
fatal to her. Whilft fhe amufed the King with Demands
that he would never grant, fhe took advantage of a
dark Night, and went out of the City (S), cloathed in
white, to deceive the Centinels, by reafon the ground
was then covered with fnow. She paffed the Thames on
the Ice, and walked above fix Miles on foot, with the
Snow heating in her face all the way. In fpite of thefe
difficulties, fhe came to Abingtsn, and taking horfe rid
that fame night (9) to JVallingford. The King was extreme-

ly furprifed to find himfelf thus difappointed. He did not
value the taking of Oxford, fince it put not Matilda in
his power. Mean time Prince Hemy and the Earl of
Gloucejler, who were juft arrived in England, being inform-
ed of the Emprefs' .5 happy efcape, waited upon her at
Wallingford, where the fight of her Son blotted out, for a
time, all remembrance of her Misfortunes. Here ends
the Hiitory of William of Malmsbnry, one of the moil:
exaft and judicious Writers of thofe days, and whom,
for that reafon, I have chiefly taken for my Guide.

In the beginning of the Year M43, the Legate fum-
moned a Council at London (10), where the King was
prefent. He made a long Speech tending to convince the
Bifhops of the neceffity of exerting themfelves more vi-
goroufly than they had hitherto done, in order to put a
fpcedy end to a War, fo prejudicial to the Kingdom.
He declared, he was ready to perfevere in expoling his
Life for the fervicc of the State ; but added, he could not
flatter himfelf with any hopes of Succefs, without the
Afliftance of his Subjects. And therefore required, thofe
that were able to bear Arms fhould attend him in his mi-
litary Expeditions, and the reft furnifh him with Money.
This was addreffed particularly to the Clergy, who, being
entirely guided by the Bifhop of IVineheJler, promifed to
grant an Aid (11). It was however upan this condition,
that the Church fhould be better protected for the future.
The King alluring them, it was his Intention, and that
the Canons fhould be ftridtly obferved, the Council pafied
two relating to the times. By the firft it was declared,
whoever killed an Ecclefiaftick, fhould not be abfolved
but by the Pope himfelf. The fecond ordained, that the
Husbandman and Plough fhould be under the fame pro-
tection as was enjoyed by thofe that were retired into a
Church or Church-yard.

The reft of this Year's Occurrences confifts only of a
tedious account of the Civil War, which laid wafte the
Kingdom. We meet with nothing but taking and
furprifing Caftles (12), fome little Skirmifhes of noconfe-
quence, and many Barbarities committed on both fides.
Not to tire the Reader with the recital of Matters of no
moment, I (hall only obferve, that in this and the three
next years, Stephen's Party vifibly prevailed. To which
the Death of the Earl of Gloucejler ( 1 3 ), and of Milo Earl
of Hereford (14), her shief Councilors and moft faithful
Friends, greatly contributed. After the lofs of thefe two
Earls, Matilda feeing no way to defend herfelf any longer,
left England and retired to Normandy, where fhe had al-
ready fent the Prince her Son. The Earl of Anjou his
Father had earnestly defired it, perceiving he fruitlefly
expofed himfelf to continual Danger, to wreft from a
Prince a Crown, on whoie head it feemed to be too firm-
ly fixed.

Upon the Emprefs's departure, Stephen finding himfelf
in peaceable pofTeiTion of the Crown, thought of means to
fecure it, after his death, to Eujlaee his eldeft Son. For
that purpofe, he caufed fome of the Barons to take the
Oath to him, imagining that Precaution capable to lead
him to the end he propofed. But his own Experience
fhould have taught him the infufficiency of that means.

Towards the latter end of the Year 1 147, he kept his
Chri/lmas at Lincoln, where he affected to wear his Crown,
notwithstanding a certain Prophecy, foretelling great mis-
fortunes to the Kings, who fhould venture to appear
crown'd in that City.

Whilft Stephen was enjoying the repofe procured by
Matilda's retreat, the Zeal of the Chriftian World rou-
fing itfelf again, a frefh Crufade was undertaken againft
the Saracens. Lewis the Young, King of France, fignali-
zed himfelf in this Expedition, by the great number of
Troops, he led in Perfon to the Holy-Land (1 5). He was



1 H3.
A Synod j f
grant* the
Ktni a Sub-


Hunt. 1. 8.
M. Paris.

p. 279.
M. Paril.
p. 79.

of the War,

I I44.
I I45.
I 146.

Death of ' tbt
Earl of
J. Hagulft.
goes into
Sax. Ann.

Mahnfb. p. 191. Stephen about this time built a Caftle at Wilton, but was foon beat out thence by Matildas Party. Hun-

(1) About the end of Novembei
■■ 1 i. p. 39:.

>•-) Hi fe.it Amkifladors before in Lent ; but the Earl of Anjou refufed to treat with any but th? Earl of Cloucrjter ; fo he went over about Midfummer,
and embarked at Warhami In his Ablencc Kins' Stephen burnt that Town and feized the Calrle. Mahnjb. p. 193, 194.

;) The Karl of Anjou had taken Advantage of the King's Imprifonment, and conquered the greatcfl Part of Normandy. Ord. Vital.
4, Eetwcen three and four hundred Men in fifty two Ships. Robert landed at Warhan, which he retook. Maltnfb. p. 194. Gervafe,

[5] About Michaelmas, Gervafe, p. 1357.
I II.. burnt that City, Stpttxi. z6. and then laid Siege to the Caftle. Malmjb. p. 194.

{7) Hebefieged it from Michaelmas to Chriflmas. Erov.pt. p. 1032. Gervafe.

| 8; At a Back-gate attended only with fi ur Perfons, MtUjl. p. 195. The Sax. Ann. Civ, (he was let down from a Tower by a Rope.

(9) The Sax. Ann. lay, ihe went on foet.

(:c) In Lent. 11. Paris, p. 79. This Year King Stephen feized Geoffrey de Magnaville, and before he would releafe him, made him furrender the

Tew 1 it London, and his Call s of Walden nd Plaiffeisc, Huntingd. p. 393. R. de Diceto, p. 508. Brompt. p. 1033. Hoved. Gervafe fays, he did it out of
Neceffity; lor it he had not fecurcd him, lie would have been deprived by him of his Kingdom, p. 1360.

In" It doe: not appear whence Rapin had this Particular, for no Hiirorian mentions any Scutages, Subfidics or Taxes during this Reign ; both Armies
;iving by Plunder, and maintaining thi mfelves dm fly by the Ruin of their Advcrfaries, their Men .and Tenants.

(12) In 1144, King uphen tried to lake Lineth, but was rtpulfed. Hunt. Brompt. In 1145, he took the Caftle of Farringdon. Gervafe.

(13; I icv. is Sun oi Nefla, Daughter of Rhees Princeof South-Wales. King Henry I, his Father procured him in Marriage Mabel, or Maud, the Heirefs of
Rottrl Fitx-IIamen, r.ordol Cariulin Normandy, Cardiff in South-Wales, and Te wiflury in England. By her he had William, Earl of Gloucejier, after him,
S ge, Bifliop t>\ Wonefier, R. ..:.;•./ Euli.jp of Noyon, Hamn, Mabel, Wife of Aubrey de Verc, and Matilda of Ranu'pb Earl of CkeJIer. Earl Robe rt died of a
Fever itGliuccfter, O.'lcbcr 31. 1 1 17, , Gervafe fays in November 1146. p. 1362.) and was buried at Brijlotia St. James's Monaftery which he built, and alfo
Cardiff Caftle,

' '■)) U'"-.' (lain ■Dftar&r 24, with an Arrow at a hunting Match. J. Hagulftad. p. 273. Mih was created Eari of Hereford by Patent from Matilda,

' |1 " firft of that Kind that we know of. It n to be feen in Rymer's Fcedera, Tom. I. p. %.Rapin. The Patent begins thus : Matilda imperatrix Hairifi

regis Fih.1, .<■ An-lour.i Dorm ua, Archiepilcnp s, Epikop , Abbat bus, Cimitibus Baronibus, &c. falutem. Sciatis me fecilfe Mihnem de Gloerjh-ia Ccmitem de
Uerejord, Si J dill'c ei t tarn Hrreflrd, cum toto Caltello, in feodo & lia-reditatc libi & hsredibus fuis ad tenendum de me tc haredibus meii. Dcdi etjam ci tcr-
tium denarium reddirvisBurgi Hereford, Sec. Vide A' /,/.- l. : l C s of H.nour, p. 681.

(1 I Hcirai art nd. 1, among' others, I". William Earl of Warren, who was (lain in this Expedition ; and Roger it Mxcbray, who f.gnalizei himfelf in
it- j ■ Hagutjt. p. 27 ;, 276.




the tvbale





He nucars
lis Croiutt
at Lincoln
Jlar.ding a
certain Pro-
phecy againft


A new Cru«
fade, ivbere-
in Lewis
of France


Book VI.



Fails out
tvith bis


I I 49.


forms a De
yign ofaf-

Jt'tiny bit
Claim to


accompanied by Eleanor' of Guyenne his Queen, Heirefs of
the Houfe of Pointers, with whom lie hud the Earldom
olGuyenne with its Appurtenances, and all Poiilou. During
the voyage, which lalted near two years, Lewis fell out
in fuch a manner with his Queen, upon Come Sufpicion,
well or ill-grounded (1), that he refolved to divorce her
as foon as he returned to France.

Since Matilda had in a manner relinquifhcd all prcten-
fions to England, Stephen thought only of reaping the fruits
of his Labours, and repairing the mifchiefs the Kingdom
had fufrered by a long war. But a new Rival, who was
preparing to difpute the Crown with him, foon made him
fenlible, he was (till far enough from the tranquillity he
had flattered himfelf with. Henry, eldcft Son of Matilda

caufe his Son Eujlece to be crowned before-hand (g).
But he met with unexpected obftacles, The Arch-
bifliop of Canterbury flatly refufed to comply with his
requeft, and his reafon was ilill more offenfive than the
denial itfelf. He told him, the Pope had exprefly for-
bidden him to crown the Son of a Prince, who, contrary
to his Oath, had ufurped the Kingdom. It the Pope
really gave any fuch Orders to the Archbifliop, his fenti-
ments were very different from thole of his Predecef-
for Innocent II. lint, very likely, this Prelate, as well
as the red: of the BiftlOps, made ufe of this pretence to
cover their Engagements with the Duke of Normandy.
Be this as it will, the King, incenfed [at the obftinate
denial of the Bilhops, caufed them all to be (hut up in


by the Earl of Anjou, a young Prince of fixteen years of one Houfe, refolving to keep them there till they com

plied with his Will. This was a very extraordinary

He nnftri

tvith the
King of
W. Neub.
J. Hagulft

1 1 c;o.

Marl cf An
jou dies.
Sax. Ann.
J. Hagulft.
C en' ale.


Lewis di-
vorces Ele

age, and of a lively and enterprifing Genius, thought he
fiiould not be dlfcouraged by the Difficulties which the
Emprefs his Mother met with in England. He did not
queftion but the Perfons that fupported the Right of the law-
ful Heir, would always continue in the fame mind, and a
new Leader of more youth and vigour infpire them with
freih Courage. In this belief, he refolved to go to the
King of Scotland his great Llncle, and concert meafures
with him to accompliih this dehgn (j). David, having
notice of the Prince's coming, met him in Northumber-
land (3). After conferring with him about their affairs,
he knighted him according to the cuftom of thofe days,
when this Ceremony was deemed neceffary for all that
took upon them the profeffion of Arms (4). Mean time,
Stephen, who had received intelligence of this Interview,
fearing they had fomc deiign upon York, fpcedily marched
thither and reinforced the Garrifon (5). Upon his ap-
proach the two Princes parted, David returning to Scot-
land, and Henry to Normandy (6). He was fcarce arrived
at Roan, when Geoffrey his p'ather departed this Life (7),
leaving him the Earldom of Anjou, till the Emprefs his
Mother's death fhould put him in pofl'effion of Nor-
mandy, after which he was to refign Anjou to Geoffrey
his younger Brother.

Lewis had deferred parting with Eleanor his wife on-
ly till he had brought her back to France. Immediately
after his return, he put his refolution in practice, and
generouily reftored to her Guyenne, Poiclou, Saintonge, with
all the Dominions fhe had brought him in marriage,
Henry tales providing alfo for the two Daughters he had by her. As
thelitkof ibon as this Divorce became publick, Henry, who with his
Nornund Mother's confent had afl'umed the Title of Duke of Nor-
and mame's mandy, confidered how to fecure the pofleffion of this
*"■• rich Heirefs (8). Matters were carried on with fuch fe-

C™rv?re. crecy, that the firft News Lewis heard, was, that the
Lewis and Duke was gone to the Queen at Bov.rdeaux, where their
Stephen Nuptials were folemnized with extraordinary magnificence.
IfHcn'ry."" This was a great mortification to that Monarch, who
could not bear to fee another deckt with his Spoils, though
voluntarily relinquifhed by himfelf. Befides, he was fen-
fible how formidable Henry would he to France, in cafe he
fhould one day add to his prefent Dominions the King-
dom of England, to which he had fo juft a claim. On
the other hand, this fame Marriage made Stephen no lefs
uncafy, who could not behold this increafe of Power in
his Rival without dreading the confequences. This jea-
loufy of thefe two Monarchs being roufed on this occali-
on, it was not long before they made an Alliance, the
deiign of which was to humble a Prince who was grown
very formidable to both. Louis raifed him difturbances
in Anjou by means of Geoffrey his Brother, who thought
he had a Right, by virtue of his Father's Will, to take
pofleffion of that Earldom. At the fame time he inverted
once more Eujlace, Son of Stephen, with Normandy ; that
Henry, attacked from two Quarters, might afford the
King of England time to eftablifh himfelf in the Throne.
On the other fide, Stephen took all the meafures he thought
capable of ruining the Duke's Party in England, in order
Stephen tria to deltroy his Hopes of ever coming to the Crown. The
to get its moll propbr means to this end was, in his opinion, to

Sen crowned.

way to obtain his defire ; accordingly it proved unfuc-
cefsful. The Houfe, where the Bifhops were detained,
not being carefully guarded, the Archbifliop found means
to cfcape and fly into Normandy. By his flight, the
King's project 1 entirely vanifhed.

Stephen was extremsly offended with the Clergy's pre-

emption, who claimed


re re ft


Power of making and un- '■'- '
making Kings as they pleafed, or as it fuited with the in- ''■'''

of fuch as governed

the reft.



hlitt tit

nut (,.


J-.e did
queftiun but the Duke of Normandy had gained
Bifhops to his party, and did not dare to attack them [j
directly, he thought to bring them back to their duty,
by feizing fome Caftles, ftill in the hands of the Duke's
Friends, in order to deprive the Clergy of that Protects n.

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