M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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every Prelate was to take Place according to the Priority
of his Ordination. It was agreed, that in the Coun-
cils, the Archbiftiop of York fhould be feated on the
Right, and the Bilhop of London on the Left Hand of
the Archbifhop of Canterbury (2), and the Bilhop of
Winchejler, next the Archbiftiop of York { 3 ). Some Ca-
nons were alfo pafs'd ; the moft remarkable are as fol-
lows :

The Vth forbids all Perfons.; Bifhops and Abbots; ex-
cepted, to fpeak in the Councils without leave from the

By the Vlth, Marriage is prohibited to the feventh
Degree, for which the Authority of Gregory the Great is
vouch'd. But we have feen that, according to the tef-
timony of Bede, this Pope, in his Anfwer to Au/liris
Queftions, limits the Prohibition to the fecond Degree

The Vllth is againft Simony. This Canon, for fome
time, had pafs'd in all the Councils. In all appearance
this Diforder was become very common ; or perhaps 'twas
to prepare the way for the Prohibition of taking the In-
veftiture of Benefices from the Hands of Lay-men, to
which Simony ferv'd for pretence.

The VHIth is levelled againft Sorcery and Divination,
and the like fupcrftitious Practices.

By the Xlth no Ecclefiaftick is to give his Vote to ka-
tence a Perfon to die, or lofe his Limbs.

In the following Year 1076, the fame Archbiftiop con- Spelman.
ven'd a Synod on occafion of the Marriage of Priefts. r- "•

In 1094, a Synod was held at Rockingham on oc- s y lS S
cafion of the Contefl between U illiam Rufus and An- id. p. 16,

film. % c ;, im ,i

Eight Years after, in 1102, in the Reign of Henry I, l t "Jjf
Anfelm fummoned a national Synod, to which the tent- London.
poral Lords were invited, to he Witnefles of the Pro- £'°[ m W ' s '
ceedings. Some Canons were pafs'd, the principal of p. «.
which are : Eadmcr.

p. 67.

The Ift againft Simony.

The IVth forbids Archdeacons, Priefts, Deacons, and
Canons to marry, or to live with their Wives if alrea-
dy married. This was the firft, general Prohibition a-
gainft the Englijh Prielts keeping their Wives, which was
difapproved by many People.

(1) He vat a French Prl-ft, and had travelled in Pilgrimage to the Ihly Land, where he was extremely affected with the Miferies the Chriftians en-
dured. He pretended that our Saviour appeared to him in a bream, and commanded him' to go and engage tie weftcm Chriftian rtafce their Delivet
ance, promifing him Succefs.

(2), Bccauft he is Dean of the See of Canterbury.

Becaufrhci Chanto'r ol the fame. See. Gervafi, p. 14-29.


the Council
at Weilniin-

Cont. Flor.

Book VI.

By the Vlth, Sons of Priefts were not to fuccced to
their Fathers Churches.

The IXth enjoins the Priefts to have open Crowns,
that the Tonfure might be the more apparent.

TheXIIIth forbids the Abbots to make Knights, tho'
they had, 'till then, enjoyed that Privilege ( i ).

The XlVth declares all Promifes of Marriage made
without Witnefs to be void, in cafe cither of the Par-
ties denies the Engagement.

The XVth forbids Monks or Nuns to be Godfathers
or Godmothers.

The XVIItb confirms the Prohibition of marrying
within the feventh Degree.

TheXVIIIth forbids the Burying the Dead of out
thcii Parifh(;).

The XlXth thunders Anathema's againft fuch as fold
Men like Horfcs. Notwithstanding this Canon, the
Lords of Manors ftill retained the Right of Villanage,
that is, of felling their Villans, who were confidercd as
a fort of Slaves.

The XXth was againft Sodomy. 'Tis remarkable,
that Canons againft this Crime were never thought of
'till the Clergy were obliged to Celibacy, it being fcarce
heard of in England before.

S. Dunetm. I have fpoken elfewhere of the Council in 112;, on
occafipn of the Marriage of Priefts, in which Cardinal
'John de Creina prelided.

In 1 1 27 JVilliam Curboil, Arcbbifhop of Canterbury,
held a Synod at JVeJhninJlcr, where he prefided as the
Pope's Legate. The moft confiderable of the Canons
that were palled are thefe :

The Hid forbids the taking Money for the receiving
Monks and Nuns into religious Houfes.

The Vlth forbids a Plurality of Archdeaconries, un-
der pain of Excommunication. *

The Vllth makes it unlawful for Ecclefiafticks to turn

The Vlllth enjoins the punctual Payment of Tithes,
and calls them, the Demefnes of the moft High.

In 1 1 38, Alberle, the Pope's Legate, convened a Sy-
nod of feventeen Bifhops and thirty Abbots. But this,
which was fummoned only to chufe an Arcbbifhop of
Canterbury, and feveral others, in the Reign of Stephen,
aifembled for political Affairs, have nothing worth noting.

As, after the Conqurjl, we find the Names of fomc Bi-
fhopricks to difappear, and others, unknown in the Saxon
time, to arife, it will not be improper to mention thofe
Alterations, in order to avoid obfeurity.

In 107;, the See of Shirborn was removed to Salif-
bury ; that of Selfy to Chiche/ler ; and that of Lichfield
to Chejlcr.

In 1 092, in the Reign of JVilliam Rufus, the See of
Dorchrfter Was removed to Lincoln (3), and the See of
Wells to Bath. The Popes were not well pleafed with
thefe Removals, being done without their Leave. Paf-
chalU loudly complained of it to Henry I ; but as there
was then a Schifm on foot, he dared not to pufh the
matter any further.

In 1 108, in the Reign of Henry I, Ely Monaftery was
created into a Bifhoprick, with the Approbation of the
Pope, and Confent of the Bifhop of Lincoln, who re-
figned part of his Diocefe, for that nurpofe.

In this fame Reign Carlijle, called by the Romans, Lu-
guballia, which had been deftroyed by the Danes, and
re-built by William Rufus, was made an Epifcopal See,
Adehvall being the firft Bifhop. This Diocefe was taken
from that of Durham.

The State ff the C H u R C H.

Vol. II.
p. 39.


ej t! c See s.


Hy made

a Bijbofs


S. Dunelm,

and Carlifle.

ute a-
■ Qtmt Iran-

3 tion.


We find in Anglia-Sacra, and the Hiftory of the rtPpjeirtj
Church of Winchfler by Rudlurn, that in 1144, Pope '{, ,'^.£
Lucius fent the Pall to the Bifhop of Winchejler, King im a-,
Stephen's Brother, with intent to ereel that See into an **J .
Archbifhoprick, and annex it to the feven Dioc'efes uf the
Kingdom of WeJJ'ex. But this Proceeding being gene-
rally difliked, and the Bifhop fearing to meet with too
ftrong oppolition, deferred to another t me the execution
of his Project", which vanifhed by the Death of Lucius.

Battle-Abbey was founded by William the Conqueror, as/*
was faid in his Life. In iioi, Henry I founded the
Monaftery of Clerkenwell, and the Priory of St. Join
of ' Jerufalem. The Abbey of Reading was alio of this
King's founding (4).

Towards the end of the eleventh, or in the beginning ( f New ejr >-,
the twelfth Century, were inftituted the Orders of the e^Vi '"
Carthufidns (5), Cirflercians (6), Prammjiratenfet (7),
who afterwards fettled in England. To thefe may be
added the Regular Canons reformed by Ivo of Chartrcs
in 1098 (8).

Amongft the remarkable Occurences in the Church, D
during the four Reigns we are going through, the famous l
Controverfy about the Holy Eucharift is by no means,
to be pafTed over in filence. Though it made not fo much
noife in England as it did in France, yet being a Point
wherein the whole Church was, and ftill is, greatly con-
cerned, it will not be improper to give a brief Account of
the Rife and Progrefs of this Difpute.

Towards the latter end of the eighth Century, Paf
chafius Radbert, a Monk of Corbcy, publifhed aTreatife,
aflerting that the Bread in the Eucharift was the fame
Body of Chrift that was born of the Virgin, and that the
Wine was the fame Blood which was fhed on the Crofs.
This Opinion feemed to be entirely New to feveral learned
Men, who vigoroufly and fharply wrote againft it. Jo-
hannes Scotus, firnamed Erigena, that is, of lrijh Extrac-
tion, Raban Arcbbifhop of Mentz, and Bertram the
Monk, were the principal Oppofers of this Doctrine.
On the other fide, there were fome that undertook its De-
fence. Without entering into the Arguments of both
Parties, I fhall content my felf with making two Re
marks. The firft is, If Chriftians had all along been
of Pafhafius's Opinion, it is hard to conceive, that fo
many Perfons of Learning fhould look upon his Doctrine
as a Novelty. In the fecond place, it muft be confef>'d,
Pafhafius's Notion prevailed in fuch a manner over the
other, after the eighth Century, that when the Contro-
verfy was revived two hundred Years after, the Doctrine
contrary to Pafchafm's, had generally the imputation of
Novelty fixed upon it.

This Difpute being at length ended, either becaufe
People were tired with it, or their Minds taken up with
other matters, it lay dormant for near two hundred Years.
In 103;, Berengarius Archdeacon of Angers, who had a
great Character for his Learning, perceiving Pafhafius's
Opinion gained ground, attempted to flop its progrefs.
He publifhed a quite contrary Doctrine, and was fuffercd
to ftrengthen himfelf in it for twelve or fifteen Years,
without any oppofitiuii. The firft that attacked him was
Adehnand, a Prebend of Liege, and afterwards Bedwin
Bifhop of the fame Church, who endeavoured to make
him alter his Sentiments.

Mean time, Berengarius held a Correfpondence with Bafnagc
Lanfranc, then Abbot of St. Stephen's in Caen. The fub- H;rt. d~
je£t of their Letters ran upon the nature of the Eucha- *
chirift. Lanfranc maintained Pafhafius's Opinion ; and Be-
rengarius, on the contrary, vindicated the Doctrine lately
publifhed by himfelf. One of Berengarius's Letters hap-
pening to fall into the Hands of Pope Leo IX (9), he
thought fit to call a Council upon that occafion. Beren-

(1) Brand Abbot of Peterborough, knighted his Nephew Herenuard, in the Reign of Pf'illiam the Conauercr. The manner was, by Cnnfefficn of his Sins,
and Watching, and Praying in the Church, the whole foregoing Night J then in the Morning before Mafs, he offered up his Swnld on the Altar, and after
reading the Gofpcl, the Pricft firft having blclled the Sword, put it over the new Knight's Nek, and fo lining commun catcd, he was ever after hef J
a lawful Knight. The word Knight, fignifies a Servant, Attendant, or Soldier ; henre Knights, and Knights Fees, for fuch as held their Efbtes by
militaiY Service, and were obliged to attend the King in his Wars. But the Honorary Knights were fuch as were Gladio Cinfri, as above. And we
rind not only Princes but Subjects, both Ecclefiajtical and Lay, had Power to confer Knighthood. Lanfranc knighted William Rufus, and Join Dake of
Bedford, gave the lame Dignity to Henry VI. As gilt Spurs were ufed on this Occafion, they w re Milites Aurati. See Seldcni Titles of Honour.

(2) In order to deprive the Minifter of the Par.fh of his Dues. Sfelman, p. 24.

(3) By Kemit'ius Bifhop of Dorehefter, who built Lincoln Cathedral. Hunt. p. 371. M. Paris, p. 10.

(4) For an Actountof the other Monasteries founded within this Period ; fee Dugdale\ Alma/lic. Anglican.

(5) So railed from Cbartreufe in Grenoble, where they were fuit eftablifhed in 10S6, by one Bruno of Cologr., Canon of Rhcinit. They are faid to fettle

Ul England in I 1S0. They followed St. Bcnnct's Rule.

(6) They had their Name from Cijlcrcium or Citcanx in the Diocefe of Chalons, where they firft aiTembled under Harding, an Englijhinan, in 1097.
St. Bernard was foon after received inro their Society, whence tiny were (tiled Bemaraines. Thefe refined alfo upon St. Bennet's Rule. They came
hither in 112S, being brought in by William Giffard, Bifhop of Wincbefier ; and were firft fettled in the Abb y of ffaverkf in Surrey. In 1151.
their Chapter made an Injunction, that there fhould be no more Monafteries of that Order founded ; there being already five hundred at that time.
M. Paris,' p. 83.

(?) This Oiler was founded by St. Norbrrt of a noble Family in Clogn, in 1 120, at a Place faid to be pointed out to him by the Biffed I'lrrir,
th'-nce called Preeircn/lratum, that is, Foref/jo-.un. They were brought into England in 1 146, and fettled at Kcwhcufc in Lt-.cc.'n/hire. They followed.
the Rule of St. Auguftin. Brompt.

(3) The Canons were diftinguifhed into Regular and Secular ; the firft reforming upon the laft, gave them that Name by way of Reproach. They

pretended to receive their Rules from St. Auguftin. In this Reign alfo was founded the famous Order of Scmpringba":, whole Ongin was this:

Joccline, a Knight of Lincolnjhire, having a Son named Gilbert, whom, for fome imperfection .n his Limbs, he thought unfit for the World, he made
him a Prieft, and gave him a Benefice in a Town of his in Lincolnjhire, called Scmpringbam. This Gilbert was Founder of the Order of the Gdbcrlir.es,
or of Sempringham. Hj inclofed within one Houfe both Men and Women ; but feparated them with Walls, that they might neither fee, nor hear one
another. This Order in his Life-time increafed to ten Houfes, containing in all U:\-ssi hundred Brethren, and one thoufand five hundred Sifters. 5r.su/'s
Chron. p. 144. See alio Monaflic. Anglican. Vol. II. p. 669, &c.

(9) It was directed to Lanfranc in Normandy ; but he being gone to Rime, it was fent by fome Adverfary to the Pope,

Vol. I. N? u.




Vol. I.

.gar'tus was condemned for differing from the common
Opinion, and for alledging, in his Letter, the Argu-
ments, formerly ufed by Scotus againft Pafchafius. Lan-
franc, who was prefent at the Synod, was obliged to
purge himfelf of the Sufpicion of holding too clofe a Cor-
refpondence with this pretended Heretick. However, as
Berengarius was condemned unheard, the Pope held ano-
ther Synod at I'erceil, and fummoned him to appear. He
came not in Perfon, but lent two Ecclefiafticks to make
his Defence, who, as Lanfranc teftifies, gave up their
Mailer's Caufe. Berengarius was therefore condemned a
fecond time, and Status's Book, from whence he had bor-
rowed his Arguments, involved in the fame Sentence.
Inftead of fubmitting to the Decifion of thefe two Synods,
Berengarius wrote in Defence of Scott/ s, and dropped fome
iatyrical Expreffions againft Pafchafius, the Pope, and the
Church of Rome. His Arguments appeared fo convincing,
that feveral openly declared for his Opinion, and even wrote
in his favour. It is true indeed, all thofc Writings were
fuppreffed ; but the Fail:, for all that is not the lefs
Sigtbot. certain. An antient Author remarks, all France was in
combuftion on account of Berengarius ; many learned Men
dilputcd for and againft him, both by word of mouth and
in writing.

The Doctrine of Berengarius muft needs have fpread it
felf in feveral places, fince Viclor II, Leo's Succeffor,
thought it neceffary to hold another Council at Tours, to
decide this Controverfy. Berengarius not being able to
avoid appearing at this Synod held in his Neighbourhood,
it is pretended, he durft not maintain his Opinion, but
acquiefced in the Deciiions of the two former Councils.
But we have only his Adverfaries word for this. How-
ever, if he did recant, he repented of it afterwards, and
continued, as before, to maintain his Opinion. Where-
upon he was cited by Stephen X, to a Council held at
Rome in J 059. Berengarius appeared, and if we may be-
lieve the remaining Hiftorians, moft of whom were his
bitter Enemies, he durft not defend his Caufe. Nay,
he fubferibed a Writing, wherein he is made to fay, that
the Body of Jefus Chrift was handled in a fenfible manner
by the Priejls, and ground by the Teeth of the Commu-
nicants. Afterwards, he was compelled by threats, to
burn with his own Hand Scotus's Book, from whence it was
pretended, he had fucked his Errors. It muft be obferved,
that though fome fay he durft not defend his Caufe, yet
others affirm, he difputed a good while with Lanfranc and
Alberic a Monk of Mount Cafftn. However, his figning
the Writing was not fo much owing to his Adverfaries
Arguments, as to his being over-awed by their Threats.
Tou did not do it (fays Lanfranc to him in one of his Let-
ters) for the fake of Truth, but to avoid the Death you were
threatned with. Accordingly we find afterwards his Heart
confented not to what his Hand had done, fince, notwith-
standing his many Recantations, he perlifted in his old
Opinion to his dying day.
1063. In 1063, a Council was held at Roan upon the fame
occafion, and another at PoiEliers in 1075. Berengarius
was prefent at the latter, and even ran fome rifk of
his Life, which ferved only to give him a worfe Opinion
of the other Party. At laft Gregory VII, coming to the
Papacy, and being defirous by all means to end this Af-
fair, which was fo often renewed, held a Council at
Rome in 1079. Before the opening of the Synod, he
proclaimed a Faft for thirty days, to befeech God, that
he would be pleafed to grant this Council the Grace to
difcover the Truth. It is fomewhat ftrange, after fo
many Decifions, conformable, as it is pretended, to the
Doctrine of the Church in all Ages, they fhould ftill be
in fufpence what to believe in this matter. Berengarius
made his appearance, and figned a Recantation more full
and explicite than any of the former. He declares, that
the Bread and Wine in the Sacrament, are fubjlantially
changed, by the miraculous Operation of the Words of our
Saviour, into the true, vifible, and living Body of Jefus
Chrift, not figuratively, and facramentally, but truly, properly,
and fubjlantially. This Recantation was as far from caufing
him to alter his mind, as the others. This appears from
his being cited once more to a Council at Bourdeaux,
where he came and was condemned. He paffed the reft
of his Life in Retirement [near Tours,} where he died in
peace in io38.

Kejuaimt Thefe particulars afford matter for feveral Reflections.

enrbu Dif- j n tne faft p] acCj jf tne D ft r j ne f Berengarius was ma-
nifeftly contrary to the Belief of the Univerfal Church,
fince the time of the Apoftles, it muft be furprifing, there
fhould be occafion for fo many Councils on this Subjact.
In the fecond place, the great Number of Councils, is a
clear evidence that Berengarius's Opinion was fpread far
and wide, fince fo much pains was taken to flop its Pro-

grefs. Thirdly, it is no lefs flxange, that neither Berenga-
rius, nor any of the Bifhops and other Ecciefiafticks his
Friends, were ever deprived. If Berengarius had fincerely
recanted, it would be eafy to guefs the Reafon of his bein^
fo favourably dealt with by the Popes and Councils. But
befides that thefe frequent Recantations were a preemp-
tion, that the laft was no fincerer than the former, there
are very ftrong Proofs of his dying in his old Opinion.
And indeed, notwithftanding his recanting, Lanfranc al-
ways cor.fidered him asa Schifmatic. An Amnymous Au-
thor, who wrote eight years after his laft Recantation,
calls him a Heretic (1). An evident Sign that he went
out of the World in his pretended Error. It is true
Malmsbury affirms, Berengarius died a Catholick, that is,
in the Sentiments of the Church of Rome. B :: he was
led into this Miftake, either by believing his lait Recanta-
tion real, or from the honourable Epitaph Hildebrand,
Bifhop of Mans, made for him after his death (2).
Without doubt Malmsbury, who has inferted his Epi-
taph in this Hiftory, could not imagine that a Bifnop
would beftow fo great Commendations on a Man that
was actually a Heretic.

Laftly, It may be further obferved, that although the
Account we have of Berengarius, is from his Adverfaries,
feveral of them could not forbear mentioning the prodi-
gious Progrefs of his Doctrine in Germany, Italy, and par-
ticularly in France. As for England, it is no wonder, this
Controverfy made lefs noife there than elfewhere. The
late Revolution in that Ifland kept the Englijh intent upon
other matters. I fhall clofe my Remarks with obferving,
that Berengarius's frequent Recantations were extremely
prejudicial to his Doctrine. In an Age like that, few
Perfons being capable of judging for themfelves in fo in-
tricate a Cafe, Example and Precedent fwayed more in
this matter than Knowledge and Conviction. Now it is
certain, the Appearances were againft Berengarius, becaul'e
it was carefully given out, he recanted upon feeing hisError.
Not a word was faid of the Threats that extorted his Re-
cantations, though nothing was more certain, as we have
feen, by the Teftimony of Lanfranc himfelf.

To finifh what I have to fay concerning the State of the M_n n-.t-.i
Church, during the four firft Nor?nan Reigns, nothing re- f: ''f j: :J "
mains, but to fubjoin a brief Account of the moft noted
Bifhops and other Ecclefiafticks.

Aldred Archbifhop of York, who crowned William the Aldred.
Conqueror, was a good and pious Prelate. He had been
Bifhop of Gloucejler, where he built the Cathedral. Af-
terwards he purchafed feveral Eftates in the Neighbourhood
of York, and annexed them to his Archbifhoprick. He
was likewife a great Benefactor to the Abbey of Be-
verley (j).

Tho' Stigand, according to the Pretenfions of the Court Stigajid.
of Rome, intruded himfelf into the Archiepifcopal See of
Canterbury, and was for that reafon fufpended by the Pope,
he performed however the Functions of a Metropolitan,
during the Reigns of Edward and Harold. If William the
Conqueror refufed to be crowned by his hand, it was purely
to avoid a Conteft with the Court of Rome ; for otherwife
he treated that Prelate at firft with great Diftinction.
When Stigand attended him into Normandy, the Clergy
there, without regarding the Pope's Cenfures, paid him all
the Refpect due to his Rank and Dignity. Afterwards,
the Conqueror had quite other thoughts of him, and caufed
him to be deprived by the Council of ll'inch.jhr. As foon
as this Prelate was removed from his Dignity, the King no
more regarded him, but threw him into Prifon to force
him to difcover. his hid Treafures, which were very con-
fiderable. But nothing being able to wreft this Secret from Malmfb.
him, he ended his Days in Prifon. After his Death a E ^=-?t.
little key was found about his Neck, with a Note direc-
ting to the place where his Money was lodged, which was
all feized to the King's ufe.

Marianus Scotus, born in Scotland in iozS, being thirty Mariamn
years of Age, retired to a Monaftery at Coign. He Scots*.
was afterwards removed to the Abbey of Fulde, where he
wrote a general Hiftory of Europe from the Creation to the
Year of our Lord 1082. He died four Years after in
1086. The Scots were at that time very well received in
Germany, where a Prince of that Nation, who had ferved
under Charles the Great, founded fifteen Monafteries,
whofe Abbots were all to be Scotchmen.

Wuljlan Bifhop of Worcejler, had a great Character for Walton,
his Pietv, which fome have carried too far. It is pretend- s - Dunclm.
ed he wrought feveral Miracles, as well in his Life-time
as after his Death. It appears however, that Lanfranc, Brompt.
Archbifhop of Canterbury, had no great Opinion of this
Prelate's Merit, fince he would have had him deprived by
a Synod for Infufficiency and want of Learning. This
gives room to fufpedt ffuljlan's Virtue conftited in a great

(1) Burcvix; call* him a Uiltm Htrtlic. (2) He gives him a great Chancier for his Learning and Morals.

(3) He wait in Pilgriroage through Hungary to JcrufMtm, whish no Englijh Biihop was ever knuwn W have done. S- Dur.ilm. g . 1S9.

Kmtd. p. 444.

Book VI.

Tie State of the Church.

2. I 9

Simplicity, which is induftrioufly made to pafs for an ex-
traordinary Sanctity. Malmsbury, who has writ his Life,
relates a Circumftance, which plainly (hows this Prelate's
great conceit of his own Merit. As the Monks, who
fto< i;l by at his Death, exprefled great Sorrow for the Lofs
of him, he comforted them by alluring them, they fhould
have in him a more powerful Patron after hia Death than
during his Life.
I-rinnc. Lanfranc, whom I have had frequent occafion to men-

tion, was born at Pavia. After linifhing his Studies, he
•Mi •■> ■■ turned Monk, chilling the Abbey of Bee in Normandy,
where he taught Logick, and gained a great Reputation;
His frequent reproaching the reft of the Fraternity for
their Ignorance, was the caufe of his Fortune. The
Monks preferring a Complaint againft him to William the
Bajlard, who was then only Duke of Normandy, he was
obliged to go to Court to juftify himfelf. In his Conver-
fation with the Duke, that Prince was fo charmed with
.his Merit, that inftead of punilhing him, as his Accufers
expected, he made him Abbot of St. Stephen's at Caen,

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