M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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from whence he afterwards promoted him to the See of
Canterbury. Lanfrane's Credit, whicli was very great in
the Conqueror's Reign, declined under William Rufus, for
whom however he had procured the Crown. His Death,
which happened loon after in 1089, faved him, it may be,
Eater. a great deal of trouble. He re-built the Church of Can-
t- $• terbury, burnt by the Danes in Archbifhop E/phegus's

time, and fixed the Number of the Monks of St. Au-
gufiin at one hundred and fifty, which before was not li-
mitted. He gave them alfo a Prior, inftead of a Chorepif-
H. p. 9. copus. A famous Trial, wherein he got the better of Odo,
Biihop of Bayeux and Earl of Kent, put him in poflellion
of twenty five Manors, which that Bifhop had feized.
He palled for a great Statefman, as well as for an able
and learned Divine. His Commentary on St. Paul's
Epiftles, and his Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, which is not ex-
tant, were Works of great Repute. But of all his Wri-
tings, his Treatife againft Berengarius, concerning the Body
end Blood of Jefus Chrift in the Sacrament, was the molt
remarkable. Notwithftanding this teftimony of the
Conformity of his Sentiments to thofe of the Roman
Church, Gregory VII would fain have obliged him to
come to Rome, and give an account of his Faith. Nay,
he let him know, after feveral Summons, that he fhould
be fufpended, in cafe he came not to Rome within four
months. But Lanfranc never went, though he had time
enough for the Journey, for he did not die 'till eight Years
after ( 1 ).
Anfclm. Anfclm, who was Abbot of Bee before he was Archbi-

fhop of Canterbury, was the moll famous of all the Eng-
UJI) Bifhops, for his Contefts with William Rufus and
Eadmer. Henry I. The former of thefe Difputes being of little
confequence, I /hall not lofe time in defcending to par-
ticulars, having elfewhere related what is material. I
fhall only obferve one Circumftance, which fhows Pope
Urban 's Addrefs to get himfelf owned in England.
Eadmer. Clement the Anti-Pope being ftill alive when Urban II

t- *$• Was chofen, England refufed to acknowledge either of

the Popes. In the mean time, Anfclm falling at variance
with William Rufus, openly declared for Urban, contra-
ry to the King's Will and Pleafure. As their Quarrel
daily increafed, the King fought means to humble him.
To that end, he let Urban know, if he would fend him
the P<7// defigned for Anfclm, that the Archbilhop might
be obliged to receive it from him, he fhould be owned
p. 3*1 for Pope in England. Urban liking the Propofal, lent

the Biihop of Alba, to do as the King defired. However
this Nuncio, without faying any thing of his having the
Pall, only told the King, the Pope was ready to comply
with his Requeft, provided England would acknowledge
► 3*« his Authority. Upon this afl'urance, the King perform-

ed his Engagement, and then wanting to have Anfclm' s
Pall in his difpofal, the Nuncio told him, the thing was
impracticable, becaufe Anfclm refufed to receive the Pall
from the hands of a Layman. In this manner was the
King impofed upon, and forced to agree, the Archbilhop
fhould take up the Pall himfelf from the Altar, where the
Nuncio had laid it [by Confent.J He never forgave the
Archbilhop, who, as has been related, was obliged to go
to Rome, and afterwards to retire to Lyons, where he re-
mained 'till the King's death.
Ccr.irfthe- During Anfelm's ltay at Rome, he was prefent at a
ry'l'".Mi"" Council, where it was decreed, that all Ecclefiafticks, who
Mmal'jt.: for the future received the Inveftiture of the Benefices
Inveftitures. from the hands of a Layman, fhould be excommunicated,
j. jo— '-70. 1° obedience to thi'j Decree, after his return into England
by Henry's own follicitations, he refufed to do Homage to
that Prince, and confecrate the Bifhops inverted by the
King. This Refufal was the ground of a more important

Difpute than that with William Rufus, fince the Point in
qutftion was a Prerogative, which the King! ol England
had been long poflellcd of. However, Henry being wil-
ling to act with caution, at a time when the Court of
Rome was grown very formidable by prevailing over the
Emperor, confented that Anfclm fhould fend A enl to
Rome, whilft himfelf difpatched Ambafladors thither to
plead his Caufe, and perluade the Pope to leavi him in
peaceable poilbflion ol his Right. Pafchal tl fent Word, p 63;
he could not grant the King a thin 1, i ,:.':. I
bidden by feveral Councils. Notwithftanding this rcfti-
fal, Henry was firmly refolved to preferve a Pri il e
received from his PredecefTors. Accordingly, he com- p. 66.
manded the Archbilhop to do him Homa| e, and confe-
crate the Bifhops inverted after the ufual manner. An-
fclm made Anfwer, he could not obey the Kin'.' without
difobeying the Pope and the Decrees of the Synod of
Rome, to which he had himfelf given his Vote. ' mat's ;> <"}•
this to me, reply'd the King, is the Synod of iconic to de-
prive me of the Prerogatives of my Predecefpa 1 ? No, I
will never fuffer any Perfcn, who refit fes me the Securities
of a Subjcft, to enjoy Ejtatcs in my Dominions. And then
ordered the Archbilhop to do as he required, or depart
the Kingdom. Anfelm anfwered, he could do neither ;
but would go down to Canterbury, and there wait God's
good Pleafure. The King and the Lords of the Coun- p- 70,
cil were fhocked at this Anfwer. After debating the
matterj the Council was of Opinion, that the King
fliould not have fo great Regard to Anfelm or the Pope
himfelf, but fhould drive the one out of the Kingdom,
and difengage himfelf from all dependance on the other.
The King; not thinking it advifeable to proceed to
thefe Extremities, of his own accord, fummoned a gene-
ral Alfembly or Parliament. He reprefented to them the
Attempts of the Pope upon the Prerogatives of the Crown,
and the Arrogance of the Archbilhop, who behaved to
him, not as a Subject but as an Equal, or rather a Supe-
rior. Upon thefe Complaints the Aflembly agreed, that
Anfelm fhould be allowed a longer time for deliberation ;
that in the mean while the King fhould fend Ambaffa-
dors to the Pope, to try to perluade him to defift in an
amicable manner from his Pretenfions. The Archbifhop p. 72.
of Tori, and two other Bifhops were charged with this
AmbalYy, and accompanied with two Agents for Anfclm.
The Ambafladors had Initruclions to offer the Pope this
alternative ; either to relax in the point of Inveftitures,
or be contented with the Banilhment of Anfclm, lofe the
Obedience of the Englijh, and all the Profits accruing
from thence. When thefe Prelates had their Audience
of the Pope, they reprefented to him the Danger heex-
pofed himfeif to, in cafe he refufed to comply with the
King. Pafchal made anfwer, he would not only lofe P- 73>
England, but his Dignity too, rather than yield in the
leaft. Anfelm's Agents had likewife their Audience apart.
After which, the Pope fent two Letters by them, P- 74*
one for the King, exhorting him to defift from his
Claim to Inveftitures ; the other for Anfclm, enjoining
him to perfift in his fupporting the Caufe of Truth.
The King by no means relifhing this Letter, would not
communicate it to the Lords. But Anfelm caufed his te>
be publickly read.

Mean time, the King's Ambafladors and Anfelm's A-
gents differed very much in their Reports. Ti!e Bifhops
declared, the Pope at a private Audience told them, he
was willing to indulge the King the Liberty of Invefti-
tures, provided he would in return give him Satisfaction
in other Points : But that he durit not openly declare fo
much, leaft other Sovereigns fhould claim the fame Pri-
vilege. Anfelm's Agents, on the contrary, protefted, the
Pope laid nothing like it, and appealed for the Truth of
what they aflerted to the Letter fent to the Archbifhop.
What they alledged was the more probable, as the King
refufed to produce the Pope's Letter. Neverthelefsj there
was no queftioning the teftimony of the Archbilhop ot
York and the two other Bifhops, without accufing them
withal of falfhood and fhameful prevarication. Even
Anfclm was in fufpence, fince they appealed to the Pope
himfelf for the Truth of what they delivered. In this
uncertainty he thought it moft advifeable to prolong
the time, 'till he was better informed of the Pope's In-
tentions. To that purpofe, he offered to communicate
with the Bifhops who had received Inveftiture from the
King, which he had hitherto refufed, on condition he
fhould not confecrate them, before he had heard from
the Pope. This temper giving the King and Council
fome fatisfacftion, he had time allowed him to fend frefh
Agents to Rome.

Whilft the Agents were at the Court of Reme, the
King, v/ho bore thefe Delays with impatience, fent to

(1) Lanfranr exempted all the Clerks, or Pariih Priefts of the Towns belonpng to him, or where he was Lcrd, cr prcfentcd to the laving in any
Dijccle, bmthi Juaifli&ion and Vifitation of the B/nops, which might be the Urinal of Peculiar 1. Eadaer, p. 12. £radj, p.215.




Vol. I.

p. 70.

I 103.



r. 80.

Iht King

and Anfelm

._ , , . p. $.:.

the Arclibifnop to confccrate the three Bifhops elect.
J 1 [dm aafwered, he was ready to confecrate one of the
three, who had refufed to be inverted by the King : But
for the others, he could not do it without the Pope's
Confent. Upon his declining Hie Office, the King com-
manded the Archbifhop of York to perforin the Solemnity.
But the Bifhops who were to be confecrated, renounced
the Authority, and would not tubmit to it. This Regard
for the Pope provoked the King to that degree, that he
conhYcated all their Eftates.

As foon as Anfehris Agents were returned front Rome,
the King went down to Canterbury, and lent to the Arch-
bifhop to give him fatisfaction, unlefs he would provoke
him to new meafures. yf/7/^7/«anfwered, he had receiv'd
a Letter from the Pope, winch was yet unopen'd ; that
he would open it in his prefence, and govern himfelt
according to the Pope's Directions. Henry, inraged at the
Preference the Archbifhop always gave to the Pope's
Orders, reply'd, The point in queftion was not to know
what the Pope enjoined, for he did not intend to fub-
mit his Prerogatives to his Determination. However,
the Archbiiliop was not to be prevailed with, but re-
mained him to his Rcfolution. At laft, Henry willing
to try all ways before he proceeded to other meafures,
advis'd Anfelm himfelf to take a Journey to Rome, to
fee if lie could perfua.de the Pope to relax. Anfelm was
very loth to go, but at length was prevailed upon, at
the requeft of the Bifhops and Barons, who reprefented
to him, that the Journey could not poffibly do him any

As foon as he was arrived in Normandy, he open'd the
Pope's Letters, where he found an abfolute Denial of all
that the King's Ambaffadors had reported. However, he
purlued his Journey to Rome, where he was quickly fol-
Jow'd by William tVarelwajl the King's Amball'ador, for-
merly employed at the Court of Rome by William Ru-
fus. The Ambailador being admitted to Audience, re-
prefented to the Pope, that he was in danger of lofing
England, if he periifted in depriving the King of his
jurt Prerogatives : Adding, his Maftcr was refolved to
lofe his Crown rather than part with tiie Right of In-
vertitures. And I, anfwer'd Pafehal, will fooner lofe my
Life, than fuffhr the Church' s Privileges to be thus ujurped.
This fo politive an Anfwer entirely breaking off" the Ne-
gotiation, the Ambailador let out for England, and An-
felm, who did not dare to return to his Church, went and
flaid at Lyons.

This Attempt not fucceeding, Henry fent another Em-
bafl'y to Rome. But as nothing new was propofed, it
ferv'd only to exafperate the Pope, who excommunicated
the Earl of Mellent and fome other Lords of the Coun-
cil. He even threatned Henry with the Church's Cen-
fures, but however declin'd pronouncing any againft him.
Mean time, Anfelm perceiving the Pope dilatory in his
Proceedings, grew apprehenlivc, lie might long continue
in Exile, and, fooner or later, the Pope and King come to
an Accommodation, of which he might well be the Victim.
Wherefore, he refolved to ingage the Pope fo deeply in
the Affair, that there mould be no poffibility of draw-
ing back. For that purpofe, he went and made a Vifit
to Adela, Countefs of Blois, Henry's Sifter, and told her,
that after a great deal of Patience he mull now be fore'd
to excommunicate the King, unlefs he would forthwith
defift from his Pretenfions. Adela being extremely troubled
at this Menace, endeavour'd to procure an Accommoda-
tion. To that end, fhe defired the King her Brother,
who was then in Normandy, to come to her at the Caftle
of I'Aigle, where fhe defigned to bring Anfelm, that they
might confer together. At this Interview, things began,
by means of the Countefs of Blois, to be in a better
way. The King fearing the Archbifhop's Threats, treat-
ed him very civilly. Anfelm in return fhew'd greater
Refpect to the King than he had hitherto done. They
were not long together before they perceived in each
other an equal Delire to put an end to the Conteft in
an honourable manner. Thus difpofed, they amicably
fought means to adjuft the Affair to their mutual fatis-
faction. As foon as an Expedient was agreed upon,
Henry fent TVilliam de JVarelvuajl to the Pope for his Ap-
probation. Pafchal's Affairs were then in fuch a fitua-
tion, that he did not care to break with England. He
was hard preffed by the Germans, who fhortly after com-
pelled him to fly for refuge into France. Matters
therefore were accommodated upon thefe Terms ; The
King was to renounce the Right of Inveftitures, and
the Pope to give the Bifhops and Abbots Leave to
do Homage to the King for their Temporalities. Thus
the Pope and King equally got clear of this trouble-
fome Builnefs, by a method as jurt as it was natural,

and which fhould have been taken at firft, if both had
acted fairly and honeftly. This will evidently appear, if
we impartially inquire into the State of the Queftion,
which perhaps may not be amifs, fince this Affair for-
merly made fb great noife, and Anfelm was fo much
concern'd in it.

In the firft place, I fhall lay down what feems to me 7J " w»
undeniable, that ever fincethe time of Charles the Great, o"Ig,-„ t ' '
Sovereign Princes had enjoyed the Right of Inveftitures
to Bifhopricks and Abbeys, by the delivery of the Ring
and Paftoral Staft'(i.) Gregory VII was the firft that at-
tempted to deprive them of this Privilege, about the latter
end of the Xltli Century. The Popes, his Succeffbrs,
purfued the execution of this Project with the fame
earneftnefs. It muft be confefs'd, the Kings themfelves
gave the Popes but too frequent occafion to exclaim againft
their Abufe of this Prerogative. Under pretence, that the
Bifhops and Abbots could not take pofleffion of their Be-
nefices before they had received Inveftiture, the Princes
publickly fold the Bifhopricks and Abbeys to the beft
Bidder. I fay, fold them ; for, though the Elections
appeared Canonical, yet the Sovereigns over-ruled them,
by having it in their Power to refufe Inveftiture to thofe
they did not like. This alone was fufficient to obtain the
Election of fuch as they recommended, no Ecclefiaftick
deiiring to be Bifhop or Abbot without enjoying the Tem-
poralities. It was neceffary therefore, in order to be elec-
ted, to have the King's Confent, after which, the Bifhop
or Abbot, even before Confecration, received Inveftiture
in the manner above-mentioned. But belides that Simony
had too often a place in thefe Elections, there was ano-
ther reafon, which feemed to juflify the Popes in their
Attempts to abolifh Inveftitures ; namely, the Princes,
by inverting the Ecclefiafticks not in the fame manner as
the Lavmen, and even before their Confecration, feemed
as if they affumed to themfelves a Power to grant Spiri-
tual Jurifdiction. And this the Popes reprefented as a
clear Ufurpation of the Church's Privileges. And indeed,
it looked fomething like it, becaufe of the two Characters
which were confounded in the Prelate elect ; namely, as
Minifter of the Church, and as Temporal Lord of the
Lands annexed to his Dignity. If the Pope's and Princes
had acted fairly, they would have carefully diftinguifhed
thefe two Characters ; but, on the contrary, each thought
it his Intereft to leave them undiftinguilhed. By that
means the Princes over-ruled the Elections, and the
Popes took occafion to difpute with the Sovereigns the
Right they were poffeffed of. For want of diftinguifhing
therefore, arofe all thofe Contefts between the Princes and
Popes. The former declared, they would never fuffer
any Perfon to take pofleffion of Lands, held of the
Crown, without receiving Inveftiture at their hands.
The Popes, on their part, maintained, it was unreafon-
able, Princes fhould interpofe in Elections, or pretend to
convey a Character, which the Church alone had Power
to confer. Thus both fides equally deviated from the
true State of the Cafe. For it was very poffible for a
Man to be a Bifhop or Abbot, without being poffeflcd of
the Lands held of the Crown, in which cafe the Prince
had nothing to do. On the other hand, Princes would
have received no manner of Detriment from any one's
conveying a Spiritual Character without their Confent, as
long as it was in their Power to fecure themfelves, before
they put the Prelates in pofleffion of the Temporalities.
But there was no poffibility of bringing them to this
Point, whilft both fides remained inflexible. Thus, it is
manifeft, the Expedient practifed by Pafchal II, and
Henry I, was very reafonable, and not at all prejudicial to
the Church's Rights, or the King's Prerogative. But in
all appearance, this Affair would not have ended fo hap-
pily, if the Pope's Circumftances had not forced him to
relax. This may be inferred from his Behaviour to the
Emperor on the fame occafion, to whom he could ne-
ver be brought to grant, what he had now yielded to the
King of England.

I have dwelt the longer on this part of Anflm's Life, Anfelm'i
becaufe it difcovers the Character of this Prelate, who was I $ i £z u
honoured with the glorious Title of Saint, as all were Eadmer.
that zealoufly adhered to the Court of Rome. He was P- '-• '3«
born in the Year 1033, at Aojl, a fmall Town in Italy,
belonging now to the Duke of Savoy. At feven and
twenty Years of Age he turned Monk in the Abbev of
Bee, of which Lanfrane was Prior. When Lar?franc was
made Abbot of St. Stephen's at Caen, Anjelm became Prior,
and afterwards Abbot of Bee, from whence he was pro-
moted to the See of Canterbury. He compofed feveral
Theological Treatifes, of which Father Gerbercn publifhed
the largeft Edition in 1676. His Writings, according to
the teftimony of du Pin, are full of Metaphylical

( ' ) Sigeoert of Otmhlourl (ad At. 773.J relates that Pope Adrian I, at a Council of one hundred and fifty three Bifhops and Abhors, granted Charter, the
Great the Privilege of electing the Pope, and the Right of Inveftitures. Baroniut and Peter de Mana den) - the Authority of this CouncJ, and affirm, it was
forged by Sigeiert to fcrve the Intereft of the Emperor againft Pafebat II,

i Queftions,

Book VI.

7%e State of the Ckurc h.






Brora pt.

Queftions, argued with the appearance of a great deal of
Looic. The fame Author obferves, that An/elm's Letters
are written in a lefs elaborate Style than his other Works.
He is alfo the firft who compofed long Prayers, in the
form of Meditations. He paffed for a Prelate of great
Learning and an unblameable Life. He has been much
applauded for his Firmncfs in bis Contefts with William
Riifus and Henry I. But this fame Firmnefs in maintain-
ing the Caufe of the Pope, which was gloried in for fo
many Centuries, would not meet with that appiobation
at prefent. Jnfdm died in i 109, and was canonized in
the Reign of Henry VII, at the inftancc of Cardinal Mor-
ton [then Archbifliop of Canterbury.']

Gilbert Biihop of London, was famous in the Reign of
Henry I, chiefly on the account of his Learning, which
gained him the appellation of Univerfalift. Thefe kind
of Names were much in vogue at that time, as Marks of
Honour for fuch as were diitinguifhed in the Sciences. He
wrote a Commentary on David's Pfalms ; and an Expofi-
tion on the Lamentatiom cf Jeremiah, which are ftil] ex-
tant in Manufcript.

Ofmund Bifhop of Salisbury, by birth a Norman, was
Earl of Dorfet, and Privy-Counfellor to William the Con-
queror, when he was made a Bilhop. As in thofe days
every Dioccfe had a different Liturgy, Ofmund undertook
the correcting that which was ufed in his. He render'd it
more pure than it was before, by difcharging a great many
barbarous and rude Expreflions, and digefting the whole
in a more commodious method. This Liturgy, Secundum
uftim Sarum, with thefe Emendations, was quickly receiv-
ed in the other Diocefes, and at length became common
to all the Churches of the Kingdom. It is affirmed, that
after Of mind's death, in the Year 1099, there were feve-
ral Interpolations thrown in, which are by no means ap-
proved of at prefent.


Florence of


Saxon Cluo

Malachy Archbifliop of Armagh in Ireland, is f<
mous for his Prophecy, concerning the Popes which ' H "^ li "
were to fuccecd to the Papal Chair after his time.
Thefe Predictions are flitl extant (1), and are a fort of
Riddles, of which endeavours are ufed to give fome
Interpretation. He died in 1 1 50, at the Monaftery
of Clareval in France. St. Bernard has given us his

Ingulphus was known to William the Conqueror, when In £ ul P h «
that Prince, then Duke of Normandy only, came into
England to vifit King Edward. He attended him into 'npilph.
Normandy as Secretary; but, fome time after, refigning p ' 7 '"
this Office, went in Pilgrimage to Jerufalem. At his
return, he turned Monk in the Abbey of Fontevraud,
from whence he was fent for, and made Abbot of Croy-
land, by William the Conqueror. He died in 1 1 ,9, af-
ter writing the Hiftory of his Monaftery, which is in-
ferted in the Collection of the antient Englijh Hiftori-

'J offr id Abbot of the fame Monaftery, and immediate J"™'' 1 '-
Succellbr to Ingulphus, was the firft, as fome pretend, that P • 8leIillG *
erected Schools at Cambridge, where he fettled four of his
Monks as Profeflbrs. If this be true, that famous Univer-
fity falls very fliort of the Antiquity generally afcribed to

it (3).

Godfrid Prior of Winchejler, was one of the beft Wri- Codf.il.
ters of his Time, if we may believe William of Malmf-
bury, who affirms, he writ with great Elegance and Po-
litenefs. He compofed, amongft other Things, a Pane-
gyrick upon the Englifli Primates. But what is more con-
fiderablc, he reformed the Breviary, by difcharging all the
barbarous Terms ; and making the Style more pure and
neat. Alford conjectures, this Prior had a principal Hand
in correcting the Liturgy of Sarum, which went under
Ofmund' s Name (4).

(1) They were published by ArnoldrVyon.

(2) Publiihcd by Dr. Gale. Ingulphus was born at London in 1030. His Father was one of King Edward the Ctatfeffor t i Courtiers. He was the firft
our Englijh Hiftorians after the Conqueft. In his Hiftory of Croyland, he has cccafionaliy intermixed the Story of our Kings from the Year 664, to icol.
Bifhop Nicboljon oblerves, that the Relation he hore to the Conqueror, manifeitly bialfes hiro in the ill Account he gives of Harolds

(3) This Joffr 1 d, about the Year 1 1 14., began a Cuftom which was afterwards pracnled by all the Monks. Upon Gad-Friday , dripping himfelf every
Year to the Wafte before all the Convent, he was feverely feourged. This was done as a Fenancc for their Sins, and to make a deeper Imprellion oi our Sa-
viour's Sufferings.

(4) The principal Writers during the four firft Norman Reigns not mentioned by Rapin, amongft his Perfons of Note, are :

William of Pol ct i ers or Pi ct a v i e n s is, who, though a Foreigner, and Chaplain to the Conqueror, has given us fo fair an account of the
Norman Revolution, that he has found good Credit with mod of our Hiftorians.

Florence, a Monk ofWoRcESTER, wrote a Chronicle, which ended with his Life, in I 1 19 ; but was continued fifty Years farther by another
Monk of the fame Monaftery. He epitomized or tranferibed Marianas, adding very many Collections out of the Sixon Chronicle, and other Writers with

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