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much Care and Judgment. He is blamed for adhering lb fcrupuloufly to his Authorities, as fometimes to retain their Miltakis.

Eadmerus, a Monk of Canterbury, in his Hijloria Noverur/i, &c. publifhed by Mr. Seldcn, has given us the St.ry of the two Williams and Henry I. from
the Year 1060, to 1 122. Jt is a Work (as Bilfiop Nicbolfon obferves) of great Gravity and unquestionable Authority. Tho' he was intimately acquainted with
Anfclm, yet he has given a fair Account of the mighty D.lpute about Inveftitures. Seldcn fays Ins Stile equals Malmsbury, his Matter and Compolurc evict! h

Ordericus Vitalis was a Monk of St. Eurole's in Normandy, where he lived fifty fix Years. He wrote an Ecetefiafiical Hiftory in thirteen Books,
wherein he has intermixed a great many things relating to our Hiftory. He is faid to be immoderate in the Praife of his Friends, and the Dilpraife of his
Enemies j and to be too large in his Defcription of little Matters, whilft he paffestoo curforiiy over things of Moment.

William (Monk and Library-keeper) of Ma l m s b u r y, in his Account dc Ge/tis Return Anghrum in five Bocks, with an Appendix in two m ire,
which he ftiles Hlftoria Novella, has made a judicious Collection of whatever he found on Record, from the arrival of the Saxons, to the eighth Year of the
Reign of King Stephen, 1142. He has had the higheft Commendations given him by luine 01 cur bell Criticts in Englijh Hiftory- He is called Eh ant,
Learnedzni Faithful. Ujher ftilrs him the Chief of cur Hiftorians.

The mull noble Monument extant is the old Saxon Ch Ron icle, or Annals. It begins from the Birth of our Saviour, and ends with Stephen's
Death in 1 154. By the difference cf the Style, and other infallible Marks, it is plain thefe Annals were cprapgred at fevcr3l Times. To the Year 731, they
chiefly follow Bcde as to Church- Affairs: But their Account of the Wars between the Anglo-Saxons and Bhtons is borrowed frcm no Writer that we know
of, and therefore to them it is that we are indebted for the Relation of what paffed in thole Days. Afferius'% Hiftory of Alfred and the Annaii correfpond in fo
many Things, that the one feems to be a Tranflation of the other. In a Woid, they have been the Foundalii n of all cur Hiftories to the Woman C-nqucJl.
They were publiihed at Oxford in 1692, by Dr. Gibfon, the prefent Bifhop of Lend •■, who horn all the Manujcriptt has made up the Text as entire and com-
plete as poffible, with an elegant and proper Verjion, void of affected Strains and unlucky MiUkc. which ufed to abound in Works of this Kind..




No. XII. Vol. I.



Kkk



THE




THE



HISTORY of ENGLAND.



BOOK VII.

The Ref oration of the Saxon Line : The Reigns of H e n r y II. and Richard I.

Containing the Space of Forty Five Tears.



5. HENRY II. Sinmmed Fl ant agenet.




i>55

Me is CrtFWtl
td,

Gervas.



HE Englijh were too weary of the
Civil Wars, that had fo long af-
flicted the Kingdom, willingly to
run the Hazard of feeing them re-
newed. Though the death of Ste-
phen might have eafily furnifhed
an occafion for frefh Commotions,
they peaceably waited for the Duke
of Normandy, who could not come
into England, till fix Weeks after he had received the
News (1). During this interval, not a Man offered to di-
spute his Title. Befides, that Prince William, Son of the
deceafed King, was a Prince of little Merit, the late Pro-
ceedings ofmoft of the Barons againft the King his Father,
kept them from adhering to the fortune of the young
Prince, for fear of putting it in his power to be revenged.
Moreover, Henry was not only powerful beyond Sea, but
had alfo a great Party in the Kingdom, and the ftrongeft
Places were in the hands of his Creatures. And therefore,
fuppofing William had been willing to try to place himfelf
on the Throne, he would have wanted the neceflary Af-
fiftance to accomplifh his Defign(z).

Henry then was crowned (3) the next Day after his Ar-
. rival, purfuant to the Agreement made with Stephen, of
which all the Barons of the Realm were Guarantees (4)
It was with extreme Satisfadion, that the Englijh beheld
on the Throne, a Prince defcended by his Mother from
their ancient Kings, and who gave the Crown a brighter



Luftre than ever. He added to it, as fo many new
Gems, PoiSfou, Guienne, Saintonge, Maine, Anjou, Tou- B ro mpt.
raine, and Normandy, of which he was in actual poffef-
fion. Mean time England., the mol» confiderable Part
of his Dominions, ndured fuch violent fhocks in

the late Reign, thai 1 ider to recover its ancient Splen-
dor, fome Reff. was entirely necelTary. The mod proper
means to that end, was the putting it out of the power of
the Factious to excite new Troubles. Accordingly Henry
made That his chief bufinefs from the firft hour of his
Reign. He began with demolifhing the great number of,, , ...
Caftles that were fortified in Stephen's Reign, and lerved ,u Caftia.
only for Sanctuaries to Robbers, and Difturbers of the Brompt.
publick (5). The Bifhop of Wincbejler alone had fix of °^f-
the moft confiderable, which he forfeited for going out of r. a e Diccto.
the Kingdom without Leave. This firft ftep, which M - P*™-
demonftrated to the Barons the King's Refolution to keep
them in Obedience, was followed by another no lefs bene-
ficial to the Kingdom ; and that was, the fending away
the foreign Troops entertained by Stephen. Thele Sol- fj^^a^j,
diers, known in the Englifl) Hiftorians by the name of the foreign
Brabanfons, and in French by that of Routiers or Cotteraux, Troops.
were a mixture of People from feveral Parts of Europe, Br e ™ s t '.
and particulaily from Germany and the Loiv-Countries. m. Paris.
As they piofeiTed themfelves independent of any particular Hoved.
Prince, they ferved indifferently whoever had a mind to
employ them, provided they found their account in it.
Not to be regularly paid they even confidered as an Ad-



(1) When he received the News he was befieging a CafUe in Normandy ; and, though perfuaded to dn it, would not quit the Siege till he had reduced the
Place. After that he came to Barbfeet (now Barf cur) where he waited above a Month for a good Wind. Brompt. p. 104.3. Gervas. 1376. R. Dictlo,
p. 519. M. Paris, p. 92. He landed at Hoftreham. Gervas ibid.

(2) After his Landing, gathering together his Attendants that had been difperfed by a Storm, he came to Wincbtfter, where he received the Fealty of the
great Men, who came to wait upon him there. Gervas* Col. 1376.

(3 ) By 'Theobald Archbifhop of Canterbury, on the nineteenth of December, in the twenty third Year of his Age, at Wejitninjicr. Some Hiftorians fay,
he landed December the 7th, and was crowned the 19th. R. Diceto. p. C29. M. Pari!, p. 92. At IVcJt. p. 24.6. But, according to Gcrvafe, he landed the
8th, and was crowned the 17th. p. 1 376. His Queen Eleanor was crowned with him Id. p. I 377. Roger, Archbi/hop of Y*ik, was nu at the Coronation.
Diceto. ibid.

(4-) He was chofen by all with common Confent, and anointed King. R. Diceto. p. 529.

(5) Hcrefcrved however a teWj that had been built by peaceable Men. and kept them in his own hands, Brompt, 1043. HwcJ. p. 411.

2 vantage,



Eook VII.



5. HENRY II.



1155. vantage, becaufe they took occafion from thence to plun-
der the Friends as well as Enemies of thole that entertain-
ed them. So that ufually the Alliftance of thefe Troops
became very burtbenfome to the Princes themfelves for
whom they fought, as the Englijh had frequently experien-
ced. Henry, willing to eafe his people of this dead weight
which had fo long opprell'ed them, difmifled all the Fo-
reigners, without flittering fo much as one to remain in the
Country. William of Tpres, their General, did not ftay
to be order'd to depart ; the cold Reception he met with at
Court, having already convinced him, his Abfence would
be very acceptable ( 1 ).
Hi recalls the Had the new King flopped here, he might have been
Grants made j u ft]y fuppofed to have no other view but the Welfare and
j&omrt. Tranquillity of the Kingdom. But he plainly difcovered,
Mat. 1 mis. he was fwayed by more felf-interefted Motives when,
fhortly after, he revoked all the Grants made by his Pre-
deceflor, and refumed all the Lands, alienated from the
Crown. The Poffellbrs were extremely mortified, and
loudly murmured, affirming, it was very unjuft to deprive
them of the Reward of their Services (2). Thofe, efpe-
cially, that had fided with the King and the Emprefs his
Mother, were filled with indignation, to fee themfelves
thus confounded with Stephens Adherents. Thefe laft,
on the other hand, maintained, that in ferving the King
who was actually on the Throne, they had done the part
of faithful Subjects, and in depriving them of their EHates,
a Precedent was eftablifhed, which might one day be very
prejudicial to the reigning King. There were feveral that
even refilled to comply ; but upon the King's approach
with an Army to compel them, they were unable to
M. Paris, refill. Only Hugh Mortimer prefumed to hold out one of
his Caftles, which coft him the lofs of all his others (3).
William s :n jyUUam of Blois, Son of King Stephen, fared no better
isdi^MMd tnan tne re ^ - -^^"^>' defpoilecJ him ot whatever was given
Hkctbinft. him by the King his Father (4), and of all his Lands, left
c. Neub. n j m none but thofe that belonged to his Family, before
Wat Weft, gfgpfa's acce flion to the Crown. And yet, he had an
inconteftable Title by the Agreement of the King his Fa-
ther made with Henry. But of what force are Treaties
againft Breach of Faith fupported with Power ? Thus the
Nobility, enriched by the Liberality of the late King, or
of the Emprefs Matilda, were fuddenly impoveiifhed by
Henry's Policy, who had frequent occafions to remark,
M. Paris, how arrogant their Riches had made them. Henry fhowed
alfo, that he afted from a principle of Revenge, in de-
priving the Barons of the new Creation, of the honorable
Titles conferred on them by Stephen, on pretence they
were bellowed, as a recompence for favoring an U-
furper.
He ebufes a After the King had taken all the Precautions he thought
dtmal. proper for reftoring Tranquillity in the Kingdom, he
chofe a Council, of the moft eminent Perfons as well of
the Clergy as the Nobility. Theobald Archbifhop of Can-
terbury; ThomasBecket Archdeacon of the fame See, late-
ly made Chancellor ; Robert Earl of Lcicejler, Chief Judi-
ciary of the Realm, were the principal. At the head of
the Cabinet-Council was Matilda his Mother, whom long
Experience and her own Misfortunes had rendered wife at
lie Banns her coft. Thefe two Councils being effabhfhed, Henry
fwear Fealty convened an Aflembly-General or Parliament at Trailing-
Sent' K '" S % f or d-> where he cauied the Barons to take the Oath to
Genafe. JVilliam and Henry (<;) his Sons, the firft of which died a
Moved. few days after this Ceremony. Before the Afiembly
p ' 491 ' broke up, the King confented that the Laws of Edward
fhould be in force, and, of his own accord, confirmed
the Charter of Henry I, his Grandfather. Thefe firfl
Proceedings of the new King gave great hopes to the ho-
neft and peaceable, whilft they ftruck the wicked and in-
jurious with Terror, who tound themfelves obliged either
to abandon the Kingdom, or behave very differently from
what they had hitherto done. They were very fenfible,
they had to deal with a Prince, who was fully refolved
to root out the Licentioufnefs introduced in the late Reign.
Adrian IV. Pope Anajlafius dying this Year, AdrianW , -mEngliJh-
F 'f"- tnan, fucceeded to the Papacy (6).

V As foon as Henry had fettled his AfFars in England, he

Htn ' croffed the Sea, to do Homage to the King of France for
■m Nor- the Provinces he poflefied in that Kingdom (7). Thefe



mjiidy. PolTelTions rendered him the moft powerful Valla! of the
Crown of France, and almoft equalled him to the Sove-



Howd,
Dictto.



223

reign himfelf, whofe Demefns were inconfiderable, in com- 1 1 ;6.
parifon of what they were afterwards. As the Dominions,
Henry and his SuccelTors were pofleiTed of in France, proved
the occafion of numberlefs Wars between the French
and Engli/lj; it will not be improper briefly to explain,
wherein confilled at that time the Strength of the Kings
ot France. Hence we fliall be able to form a juft Idea of
their Power, and fee withal the wide Difference, in that
refpect, between the firft SuccelTors of Hugh Capet, and
thofe who, in thefe latter days, have fwayed the Scepter
of that Kingdom.

When Hugh Capet ufurped the Crown upon the Houfe *{/&#»« m
of Charles the Great, he thought the beft way to fix him-^'/ST*
felf on the Throne was to make the late Revolution turn /Franaf
to the advantage of the French Nobility. To engarze
them therefore to fupport his Ufurpation, he granted "the
Provinces, of which they were only Governors, to them
and their Heirs, by the Name of Fiefs. Thefe Grants he
confirmed by authentick Charters, ftipulating, that the Fiefs
fhould devolve to the Crown in default of Heirs. More-
over, he referved the Right of conlifcating them for Re-
bellion and other Crimes fpecified in the Charters. By
this immenfe Bounty, he filled France at once with great
numbers of powerful Lords, or rather Princes; who
holding their Lands by Hereditary Right, became fo many
Sovereigns. The Crown therefore had nothing left, but
the Governments Hugh Capet was polfelTed of befoie he
mounted the Throne. But thefe Demefns, to which he
added fome vacant Governments, were very conliderable,
becaufe his Family was grown exceeding powerful upon
the decline of the Houfe of Chirles the Great. I am well
aware, that all are not agreed Hugh Capet firft changed
the Governments into Fiefs ; that fome make this Altera-
tion more remote; and others affirm it to fpnng f.om
fome of the firft Kings of that Race. But, befides that the
Opinion I have followed, is the moft probable, the diffe-
rence of a few Years, more or lefs, is of no moment with
regard to the General State of France, of which I mean to
fpeak.

Among thefe Fiefs, there were fome diftinguifhed for
their great Extent, which were ftiled Peerdoms. Of this
fort there were fix Ecclefiaftical, and fix Lay. But as
the firft have little Relation to the Englijh Hiftory, it will
be needlefs to mention them (8). Of the fix Lay-Peer-
doms, three were Dukedoms, viz. Burgundy, Normandy,
Guienne; and three Earldoms, namely" Flanders, Thou-
loufe, and Champagne. Each of thefe fix Peers had ValTals
which held their Lands of him, in the fame manner as
he himfelf held his Peerdom of the Crown. For inftance,
the Duke of Normandy had for VafFal the Duke of Brc-
tagne, by the Conceffion of Charles the Simple, who an-
nexed this Right to the Giant made to Rollo. Hence
we may fee, how naked the Crown of France was, and
how inconfiderable its Revenues, in companion of what
they were afterwards. To the Time of Lewis VII, fir-
named the i'oung, who reigned in France when our Henry
mounted the Throne of England, the Kings of France
haJ not yet united any of thefe great Fiefs to their
Demefns. It is eafy therefore to perceive, that the new
King of England, who held the two moft conliderable
Peerdoms, bclides many other Provinces, was pofTefled of
as much, or more Lands in the Kingdom, than the Kino;
of France himfelf. But, notwithltanding the narrow Ex-
tent of the Demefns of the Crown, the King of France
was a very potent Prince, by the Aids fie received from
his Vafials ; Aids that were furnifhed fometimes out of
duty, and fometimes voluntarily. When the Kinodom
was engaged in a War, with the Advice and Confent of
the States, each Vaflal was obliged to find a certain Num-
ber of Troops ; and then it was, the Sovereign appeared
at the head of a formidable Army. But when the Kino-
undertook a War of his own accord, or for his own pri-
vate Intereft, the Vafials were at liberty to fupply or re-
fufe their Quota of Troops. Nay, they looked upon
themfelves as privileged to take up Arms againft him,
in cafe of Oppreffion, or even for a bare denial of Juftice.
Such being the nature of the French Conftitution, it is M.zcrai.
no wonder, that in the Hiftory of that Kingdom, we
find their Kings marching one while with very incon-
fiderable Forces, and another while at the head of nume-
rous Armies. Their main Strength confifted in the Aids



(1) This Year William Pen/erel was difinheritcd for poifoning Ranulph Earl of Cbcfier : he turned Monk, to avoid the Punifliment he il
Diccto, p. 53 r. Gervas. 1377.



(2) William Earl of Albemarle very unwillingly refigned to him his Caftie of Scarborough. Brompt. p. 1046.

efter, Bridgnorth, Wigmore, and Clcoberi, or Colcburgb. R. Dictto, p. 531, PA. Well

&r_ T..rr,L n. inn



(3) Thofeof Gl'.rcjicr, Worcefiar, Bridgnorth, Wigmore, and Clcoberi, or Colcburgb. R. Dictto, p. 531. ']>{. WcH p •'J.C

(4) The Caftie of Norwich, &c. Tyrnl, p. 299.
(i) This Prince was bornthis Year, Fib. 28, in London. M. Paris, p.94. Ger-vaje fays, it was in March, p.I - i.

(6) His Name was Nicholas Break-fpear, faid to be the Son of a Bondman, belonging to the Abbey of St. Albans, where being rein: i
he went beyond-Sea, and improved fo in Learning, that the Pope made him Bi/hcp of Alva, and his Legate to Germany, and ..
Weftm. fays, he was defended of a noble Family, in the Territory of St. Albans, p. 246. He proved a fteut and active Pope: Thi ugh
but tour Years, he put the City of Rome under an Interdicl, for intuiting one of his Cardinals, and excommunicated William King •:»

(7) Normandy, Ajwtain, Anjo:i, Maine, Touraine, with all that belonged to them. Hovcd. p. 491.

(8) They w.-retheAichb.(hopricksof Rbeims, Laon, and Unjcs, and the Bifhopricks of Beauvois, Nytm, and Cbahns,



illy defemd. R.
1378- M.Paris.



be made a Monk,
a Cardinal. M.

he held the Chair
Brompt p. 104-,



they



2 24
n 5 6.



The H I S TO RT of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



Henry

tva^ts 11 JJ

•with bis

Brother

Geoffrey.

Gervas.

Brompt.



they received from their VafTals. But matters were other-
wife, when fome of thefe large Dtmefns, granted in Fee,
came to be united to the Crown. Then by degrees they
found means to abolifh the Diftinetion between a neceiTary,
and an unneceflary War. Without regarding the appro-
bation of the States, they obliged their Vaflals to furnifh
them with Aids at all times, confounding inceffantly the
private Views of the King, with the Intereft of the Pub-
lick. They even made ufe of fome of their Vaflals to
opprefs the reft. This, added to the Opportunities that
offered of courfe, to unite feveral Provinces to the Crown
for want of Heirs, fo encreafed their Strength, that they
were able at length to keep Great Men in obedience ; but
it was by degrees, and after a long fpace of time, that
they arrived at this height of Power.

The defign to do Homage to the King of France was
not the fole motive of Henry's croffing the Sea. His chief
aim was to recover Anjou, feized by his Brother Geoffrey,
upon the following Claim. Geoffrey Plantagenet Earl of
Anjou, Father of thefe two Princes, ordered by his laft
Will, that Henry his eldeft Son fhould inherit the Pof-
feffions of Matilda their Mother, which included Nor-
mandy, and her Right to England. To Geoffrey his fecond
Son, he left Anjou, Touraine, and Maine ; and to a



Brompt.



mitted to him. As this Event had very remarkable Con- 1.156.
fequences, it will not be improper to clear this matter a
little. Conan the Grofs, Duke of Bretagne, had a Son
named Hocl, and a Daughter called Bertha, married to
Eudo Earl of Pontievre her Relation, by whom fhe had a
Son called Conan, from his Mother's Father. Some Su-
fpicions, well or ill-grounded, inducing Conan the Grofs
todiibwn anddifinherit his Son, Eudo, Husband of Bertha,
got pofleffion of Bretagne, after the death of his Father-
in-law, notwithftanding Hod's Efforts, who had only the
City of Nantes from him. Bertha's death, four Years
after, was the occafion of frefh Pretenfions. Conan her
Son, firnamed the Little, pretending Bretagne was his
Mother's Inheritance, to which Eudo his Father had no
manner of Right, affirmed the Title of Duke of Bretagne.
Eudo on his fide, refolving to keep pofleffion of the Duke-
dom, there arofe between the Father and Son a War
which lafted many Years, and ended in the entire Defeat
of Eudo, who was obliged to fly for Refuge to the Court
of France.

Conan the Little was no fooner in pofleffion of Bretagne,
but he undertook to reduce to his Obedience the City
of Nantes, which, fince the Death of Conan the Grofs,
made a feparate State under the Dominion of Hod.



third Son named William, gave only the Earldom of When the Inhabitants of Nantes efpoufed the Caufe of



Mortagne. But, as it was unieafonable the Emprefs his
Wife fhould be deprived of her PoiTeffions during her Life,
or Henry made to wait for her Death without any In-
heritance ; he added another Claufe in his Will, namely,
that Henry fhould enjoy, till the Emprefs's Death, the
three Earldoms affigned to Geoffrey, referving to this laft
the Cities of Lodun, Chinon, and Alirebcl, till his elder
Brother fhould refign him the paternal Eftate, when in
pofleffion of Normandy. To fecure the performance of
this Will, the Earl caufed his Barons folemnly to fwear,
never to fuffer his Body to be buried, till his eldeft Son
had taken an Oath to execute his laft Will. It was with
great difficulty, Henry was perfuaded to take this Oath.
He was of opinion, the Earl his Father egregioufly wronged
him, in depriving him of thefe three Earldoms, which,
according to Cuftom, ought to devolve to the eldeft Son.
However, rather than leave his Father's Body unburied,
he fwore to execute his Will. Some time after, his Mo-
ther Matilda refigning Normandy to him, Geoffrey thought
he might juftly take pofleffion of Anjou : but, as was re-
lated before, Henry drove him out of that Province. As
foon as his Brother was on the Throne of England, Geof-
frey renewed his Pretenfions, and, whilft the King was
employed in his Ifland, once more took pofleffion of An-
jou. The Anjcvins efpoufed his Caufe, chufing rather to
have a private Earl, than be in dependance on the Crown
of England. Befides he was affifted by the King of
France, who was ever ready to leffen Henry's Power,
whom he looked upon as a very formidable Neighbour.
When the Earl of Anjou made his Will, there was little
appearance of his eldeft Son's ever mounting the Throne
of England; for Stephen's Affairs were in a profperous
Condition. For this reafon he confidered that Kingdom,
only as a thing to which indeed his Son had a Right to
afpire, bt c from which he was very remote. It was not
reafonable therefore that Henry, whilft he waited for the
Emprefs's death, fhould be deprived of his Father's In-
heritance, and This was the ground of his Father's leaving
him the three Earldoms during his Mother's Life. To
confider only the intent of this Will, it was manifeft,
that as foon as Henry was in pofleffion of Normandy and
England, he fhould have refigned Anjou to Geoffrey, efpe-
cially as he had bound himfelf by Oath. But he affirmed,
the Will was void, and his Father had not power to de-
prive the Firft-born of the Patrimony received from his
Anceftors. His Oath therefore was the only thing that
c:ave him any trouble. But he found means to free him-
ielf from that Scruple, by the Pope's Difpenfation, which
he very eafily obtain'd. As foon as he faw himfelf fup-
ported by this Authority, he immediately refolved upon a
War with his Brother, the profecution of which was the
chief motive of his leaving England. After doing Homage
to the King of France, he marched towards Poiclou, and
took from his Brother the Cities of Mirebcl, Chinon, and
Geoffrey of Lodun ; then entring Anjou, notwithftanuing Geoffrey's re-
fiftance, he became malter of all the fortified Places, and
drove him out of the Country (i).

The difpoflefled Prince would have been in a wretched
Condition, had not tortune thrown in his way the Earl-
dom of Nantes, the Inhabitants whereof voluntarily fub-



Henry </;/-
t'M"



Anjou,
R. Diceto.
M. Paris.
M. Well.
The Again
^"Bretagne.



Hod, they did it from a motive of Juftice, being per
fuaded, the Duke his Father had wronged him very much
in difinheriting him. Afterwards, they found themfelves
fo deceived in the good Opinion they had entertained of
him, that they expelled him, believing him incapable of
defending them againft Conan, who was preparing to at-
tack them. From that time, Hod is no more mentioned -
in Hiftory. Mean while, the People of Nantes, not be-



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