M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fuch numbers of the Clergy, that there was fcarce enough Bifhops, Abbots, Earls, Barons, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and
left unexcommunicated to officiate in the King's Chapel
Though moft were inclined to favour the Caufe he main-
tained, he was not fatisfied, but charged them with fliame-
ful prevarication, in not openly efpoufmg his Quarrel.



Aldermen of the principal Cities of the Kingdom. Before Henry tie
this numerous Affemblv he caufed Henry his eldeft Son to K '"."-
be crowned (8) by the Archbifliop of York, affifted by the hJ^J"""*
Bifhops of London and Durham (9). The next day the Brompt.
Htmy Henry, provoked at thefe proceedings, appealed to a future young King received the Fealties of all the Lords Spiritual '
drcaiaiubr Council, and fent the Pope word, that unlefs he immedi- and Temporal, and of the Magiftrates of the Cities and M " Para *



Pope, which
put: htm in
groat Per-
flcxity.
AQ. Pub.
T. I. p. z



ately difpatched Legates, with power to decide the affair,
he fliould take fuch meafures as would not be agreeable to
him. This pretence threw Alexander into great perplex-
ity, becaufe he could not help fearing the Union of the
King with the Emperor. On the other hand, he was fo



Legates.
Diceto.
Gen ale.



Aiulf.nds
tbem nciv
hfirudior..



Another

Conference



Counties, who were fummoned on purpofe to be prefent at
the Coronation. At the feaft, made upon this occafion,
the King himfelf would carry up the firft Difh, and (peaking
to his Son, told him, Never was Monarch ferv d in a more ho-
norable manner. Inftead of returning his Compliment, the Pride of tit
engaged in the defence of the pretended Rights of the young King, who was of a very haughty Spirit, cumin" > - : '".: "•".:•
Church, that he could not defift without great prejudice to the Archbifliop of York, who flood by him, faid in a lvl ' Vlrg '
to the Holy See. To free himfelf from this uneafinefs, he low Voice, It was no fuch great Condefcenfion in the Son cf
had recourfe to the ufual methods always fuccefsfully prac- an Earl to fcrve the Son of a King.

tifed by the Court of Rome on the like occafions. He This Coronation, performed with an univerfal appro- n ket's

bation, gave the King a double fatisfaction. He not only mortified.
by that means fecured the Crown in his Family, but
moreover extremely mortified Becket. Indeed that Prelate
was exceedingly vexed to hear that a Ceremony of that
importance was folcmnizcd without him ; being, as he
pretended, an Office annexed to the Dignity of Archbi-
fufficient to blaft all hopes of a fudden Peace, none being ihop of Canterbury (10).
more averfe to it than that Prelate. The King of France took great offence at his Daugh- L „. ,-

Some time after, the Pope willing to keep Henry ftill ter's not being crown'd with the Prince her Spoufe. This plains of
in a belief that matters might be amicably adjufted, de- difguft, joined to fome other Occafions of Quarrel, which Hcnr y-



feigned to be willing the affair fliould be tried in Eng-
land; and, to allure Henry with thefe hopes, fent away
Legates, who met the King in Normandy. But as they
were preparing to wait on him, they received fiefli In-
ftructions, forbidding them to give a final Sentence, with-
out imparting it to the Archbifliop of Sens. This was



are but too frequent among neighbouring Princes, caufed pX'v.r",
him to take up Arms (11). But this War was of fo Br ompt.
little confequence and fhort continuance, that it is entire- Hoved -
ly needlefs to defcend to particulars. It fuffices to fay in 77„ v an
two words, that it was almoft as foon ended as begun, Friends
by a Treaty of Peace between the two Monarchs. "&"'

Shortly after Henry was feized with a violent Fever at H r ,-•
Domfront, in the Province of Maine. He was fo dange-y;J"1^' "*
roufly ill, that believing he was near his End, he hafti- "•**" L "

Will.



lOnand' ^ lre ^ £ ^ e lwo Kings of England and France to confider

Becket to no of means to end the Difpute. Whereupon, Henry re-

farpiU: pairing to Paris, Becket was ordered to appear once more
' ans ' before thefe two Princes. This Conference, purpofely
intended to amufe Henry, fuccceded no better than the for-
mer (2). The Archbifliop, without yielding the leaf!
point, ftill infilled, that before a Treaty was begun, the
King ought to make entire Reftitution (3), to which Hen-
ry would not confent, without knowing firft the Terms

of Reconciliation. This was all Becket could have expec- ly made his Will. To Henry his eldeft Son he gave ■ 7/ '
ted by way of compenfation, in cafe he himfelf had made England, Normandy, Maine and Anjou ; and to Richard cT™.'
any Conceffions. But to pretend that the King fliould begin his fecond Son Guicnne and Poiflou. As for Geoffrey, he Hovc<i -
with condemning himfelf by this Reftitution, without any thought Bretagne fufficient for him, which he was to enjoy

(1) Near Paris, about the middle of November. R. de Diceto, p. 550. M. Paris, p. 116.
(-) It was held at .1 Plac c ifjed M is Martyrum. Genual, p. 1408.

(3) Becket computed his Loffcs at thiity thouland Marks ; and the King offered him ten thoufand for the Charges of his Journcv. Gervas. ib : d.

(4) In Lent. He landed aPortfrneutb, March 3, altera very bad Pali'.ige, one of his Ships bein- loft, and feveral of his great Men drowned. R. Dictttr.
p. 5S 1 - Brompt. p. ic6o. Gervau p. 1410.

(5) The Ccmmiluoners lent into the Counties of Kent, Surrey, Middle/ex, Berks, Oxford, Buckingham, and Bedford, were ; The Abbot of St. AmBix s
bbot of Cbcrtfcy ; the Earl of Clare ; William dt Alrancis ; Manejier de Dammarlin ; Ceroid Fitz- Ralph ; Gilbert dc Pinkcm; I.
'itz-Nigel; William FitK-Martiti ; Ralph de Heffital ; Ralfb de Dene ; and fo in the 1 thcr Counties. Gervas. p. iiio.



of Enquiry at large in Gervas. p. 1410, ar:d Tjml, Vol. II- p. 463, which give rr-;at



in Canterbury: the Abb,
Fllx-belt ; Wtliiam Fit-.

(6) Sheriff and other Officers. The Reader may fee the Artuiei
Light into the Miniflerial Pait of the Law in thofc Days.

(7) At Wind/or. Brompt. p. 106a. From thence he came to J/'elwin/ler, where his Son was crowned : At this Ccrcnaticn were prefent fi'li.'iam King of
Scotland, (who did King Henry Homage) and his Brother David, who was knighted by Henry. Hive J. p. 51S.

(S) With the AlTent and Confent of the Clergy and People. Clero & 1'cpulo conjenticnttbus (S ajjentimtibus. Hrvtd, p. 51S.
(9) And alfo thofe of Mocbejler and Salifbury. Hoved. p. 51S.

(ic) And therefore he defired the Pope to excommunicate the Archbifliop of York, and the four Bifhops th.it had been concerned in it ; which wis iccorcHnj]*
oVne. Hovcd. p. $18. £ 3

(11) Whereupon Kin£ tf«ry wea t over into Nfrmartdy Aoui Midfu&mcr. Bnmpt. p. 106I1

4 after



232



the HIST RY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



• 170. after the death of Duke Conan his Brother-in-law. As
for 'John his fourth Son, he was fatisfied with recommen-
ding him to be provided for by hiseldeft Brother.
Herefilmm Henry's indifpofition produced another confiderable ef-
Zanmwitb ^ e< -*' '^' ne a PP roucn °' death having raifed Scruples in
the King, to which he was a ftranger whilft in health,
he refolved to be reconciled, at any rate, with Becket, in
cafe he recovered. He confidered, the Archbifhop had
been fufficiently punifhed by a fix years Exile, during
which he had been deprived of his Revenues. Befides, he
was defirous, if God pleafed to prolong his days, to enjoy
himfelf a Repofe, which the Pope threatened continually



H;o,



Pecket.
Hoved.
P.iompt.
Cervale.



A Cor,/,

MontmiraU to ^ifturb, by thundering the Church's Cenfures againft

eamatam- him. Purfuant to this refolution, as foon as his Health



and the latter of cutting off the Tail of a Horfe that was
carrying Provifions to his Palace. This Proceeding was a
plain indication, he was nt-t humbled by his Difgrace,
but was ready to revive the Quarrel whenever he faw oc-
cafion. The truth is, had he intended to keep fair with
the King, he would not have excommunicated for fuch
Trifle?, two of the immediate Vallate of the Crown,
fuice that was one of the Articles which occafioned his
Conteft with Henry.

Mean time, the fufpended and excommunicated Pre-
lates were gone to carry their complaints to the King,
who was (till in Normandy (6). When they came into his -'-'•'



os ettvmr

wm'cattd



p'ain to the

prefencc they threw themfelves at his feet, and com- King,
plained, the Peace made with Bcckct redoubled the Ter- Br m ? t-
thing by ac- permitted, he held a Conference with the King of France rors and Troubles of thofe that had facrificed themfelves F " z '." t "
M. Paris at Mmtmraily where Bccket was prefent alfo. As the to his fervice (7). The Archbifhop of York added, as m. Paris.
King then (food difpofed, he agreed to almoft every thing long as Becket was alive it was impoffible for England to
required by the Archbifhop. But after all the Articles enjoy any repofe. Henry, exafperated by thefe corn-
were fettled, juft as Bccket was ftepping up to the King to plaints, and tired with being thus inceffantly plagued, by
give him the Kifs of Peace, he took it in his head to the Infolence of a Subjecl whom he had raifed from the
lay, that he was going to falute him to the Honour of duft, could not help uttering thefe words aloud : / am j„j;c. te1
God. The King, who was not thoroughly fatisfied of very unhappy, that among the great numbers I maintain, W rds f



p. 122.






his Sincerity, imagining there was fome hidden Myftery in there's not a Man that dares undertake to revenge the Af
that Expreffion, refufed to receive his Salute accompanied fronts I perpetually receive from the hands of a wretched



he ASjj
, Gervas.



with thofe words, which to him fcemed fuperfluous. The

Archbifhop on his part, infifting upon faying them, all

the Pains taken to adjult matters became of no effect, by

ThiSvarrtl j^g over-drained Nicety of both Parties. However,

is decided. T J . >

R. Dictto. tlenry willing upon any terms to get clear of this ouh-



Erompt
H veden.
M. Paris.



Priej}. Thefe words were not dropt in vain. Four of
the King's Domefticks (8) reflecting on the King's re-
proaches combined together to Iree him from this Enemy.
To this end, they came to Canterbury, where they agreed
upon the method to execute their Defign. One day, when F .



' + M



1 171.

our of the



nefs, ordered it fo that another Interview was agreed upon the Archbifhop was gone to the Cathedral (9) with few King's Do-

_ * A . t ' r s \ I .1 T^" • *- 7"» . . I I « . i I .1.1 S~M _ I I J m.'iirli t.lnf



^The revenge-
ful Proceed-
ing* <f Bee-
fctt.

K. Diccto.
Brompt.
Gervafe.
Hoved.
M. Paris.



Hoved.



Tynel.



Tie yiunp
King refufes
to fee him.
R. Diceto.
Gervafe.



He enters
Canterbury
in 'Triumph.
Hoved.



I7e excom-
municates
tiv> Barons.
Fitz. Step.
Gervafe.
R. Diceto.
Hoved.
AI. Paris.



at Amboife (1), where the King of France came attended
by feveral Princes and Lords. Here at length all Difficul-
ties were furmounted. Henry was fincerely reconciled
with Becket (2), and fwore to reitore him to the fame
ftate he enjoyed before his Banifhment; and likewiie
make reftitution to his Relations and Friends of all that
was feized fince his departure. Thus this Conteft fcemed
to be happily ended by the King's Generofity, who pro-
tefted, he heartily forgave all that was paffed (3).

But the Archbifhop was not fo eafily appeafed. Tho'
he obliged Henry to pardon all thofe that had offended
him, he himfelf could not refolve to forgive thofe whom
he thought he had reafon to complain of. He was
chiefly exafperated againft the Archbifhop of York, and
the Bifhops of London, Durham, and Exeter, who had
adled the moft openly againft him. Before he left France
to return into England, he obtained the Pope's Licence
to fufpend the firft, and excommunicate the others, and
accordingly executed it the moment he landed (4). He
had even no regard to the intreaties of the young
King, who having notice of his Delign, Cent Meffen-
gers to divert him from it. Though by this refufal
he gave that Prince juft Caufe to complain of him, he
would go and falute him at IFocci/hck, where he re-
fided. Some fay, the defire of paying his Refpedts to
the young King was not the principal motive of his
intended Vifit ; but his real aim was to make a tri-
umphant Entry into London, through which he was to
pafs. Be this as it will, he lodged in Southivark, with
defign to be at Wood/tack next day ; but he received a
Letter from the young King (5), ordering him to re-
pair forthwith to Canterbury. Though this was a great I fhall leave the Reader to make what Reflections he thinks



Attendants, they entered the Church armed, and came »5*^'^*«
up to the Altar where he was ftanding. They began ^kit,
with outragioufly upbraiding him for his Pride and Ingra- R. D.ceto.
titude : To which he returned Co refolute an Anfwer, 5 erv "'
as gave them occafion to execute their Purpoie. As they „„/ m l r Ja-
were not there with intent to reproach him only, they hi « at the
broke his Skull with their Clubs (10) in fo violent a manner, A
that the Blood and Brains flew all over the Altar. After
committing this a&ion, they peaceably retired, no body
offering to ftop them (11). The Refolution, Becket fhov/ed
on this occafion, the Zeal he expreffed by recommending
to God, with his laft breath, the Caufe of the Church,
the time and manner of his Death, aggravated the guilt of
his Murderers, and gained him more Friends after he was
dead, than ever he had during his life.

Thus died this famous Archbifhop, whom (bme have K-yrVf.,,
ranked among the moft illuftrious Martyrs, whilft others •■> *<« Ciu-
believed they might, without any injuftice, deny him the" 1 ''"'"
Character of an honeft Man, and a good Chriftian. A-
bout fifty years after his death, it was the Subjedl of a
publick Difpute at the Univerfity of Paris, whether Becket
was in heaven or hell, fo ambiguous a point was his Sanc-
tity. Some alTerted, that for his extreme Pride, he de-
ferved to be damned. Others on the contrary maintained,
that the Miracles wrought at his Tomb, were undoubted
proofs of his Salvation. This laft Argument indeed would
have been unanfwerable, if thefe Miracles were as evi-
dently proved, as induftriouflv fpread. However this be,
it is confeffed Becket fuffered Martyrdom ; but it remains
to determine, whether it was indeed for the Caufe of God
and Religion, or only for that of the Pope and Clergy.



mortification to him, he thought fit to obey the Or-
der. Accordingly he fet forward for the Capital of his
Diocefe, where he made his entry with the Acclamations
of the meaner fort of People, whilft the more confiderate
were forry to fee him thus triumphant ; who, far from
being humbled by his long Exile, was grown more proud
and haughty. This they had quickly reafon to perceive
more particularly, when mounting his Archicpifcopal
Chair on Chrijhnas-Day, he folemnly excommunicated
Nigel de Sackvil and Robert Brock, both diftinguifhed by
their Birth and Stations. He accufed the former of urt-
juftly detaining a Manor belonging to the Archbifhoprick,



proper on this fubjetft ; whilft I content my felf with re-
lating the Confequences of this Prelate's death, which are
no lefs remarkable than the incidents of his Life. He had
deferved too well of the Court of Rome, not to have a
place in the Catalogue of the Saints. There were many
in that Lift, who, in the opinion of that Court it felf, were
not fo worthy of the Honour, as one that had fpilt his
Blood in defence of the Church. He was therefore ca-
noniz'd two or three years after his death. However de-
firous the Pope was to fhow his Gratitude to the memory
of fo faithful a Servant, the world muft be firft convinced
that the Caufe he died in, was approved by God ; other-



(1) Hoveden fay;, this Interview was October 12. upon a Hill between T-urs and Amboife, called Mens Laudatus. p. 51c. Brompt. p. 1062. But Gerzafe
fays, it was July 22. near Mans, in a Meadow called the Traytors Meadow, p. 1412.

(2) Chiefly through the Means of Rotrou Archbifhop of Roan. R. de Diceto. p. 552.

(3) And held Becket's Stirrup, wh.lil he was getting on Horfeback. Gervas. p. 1412.

(4) Several Perfrns went to uppofe his landing in England, bee Ccnas. p. 1413. He landed at Sandwich, Non-ember 30. ibid. Roved. 520. M. Pa, it
lays, it was December j. p. 122.

(i) By Gtxelin, the Queen's Br thcr. Hoved. p. 521. (6) At Argcnt.n Diccto. p. 556.

(7) Whereupon Becktt was ordered not to ftir out of the Bounds of his Church. Brompt. p. 1062. Gervas. p. 1 + 1+.

(8) Fitx-Sttfbau calls thein Barcnsand Servants of the BcJ-crumber ; Brampton, four Knighis, belonging tu the King's Hnulhold. p. 1063. and Hovt '.'..
Men eminent for their Birth, p. 52 r. Their Names were Reginald Fitg-Ur/e, William -Tracy, Richard Britt.n, and Hugh Moriill. Diccto. p cue.
Hovedcn. p. 52 I.

(9) They went rirft to his Heul'e, and expoflulatcd with him about the cxo.mmunicated Bifliops, fife, ifter which they retired. The Archbiflirp in th?
mean while going into the Cathedral to Vcjptrs, they followed him there, &c. R. Dictto. p. C55. Girvas. p. 1415. Bromptoit fays, they directly went
into the Church, where he was. p. 1062.

(lOI They ultd only Swords. See Gervas. p. 1415, 14.16. Brompt. p. 1063, &c.

(11) Net daring to return to the King, thty wuit and itaid a Year at Kr.arejbonugh Caftlc in Torkjhire, belonging to Hugh Mor-ai I! ; (A/. Paris calls it
a Cartle of the King's, p. 125.) after which, Hoiedcn fays, they went to Rome for Abfolution, and were enjoined to go to Jerufalcm and do Penance on the
Black Mountain for Life. We have an Account of the Manner of the Archbilhop's Death at laige, by Gervafe of Canterbury, and Edic-ard Ryme, who were
Eye-Witnc(Tes. This laft had his Arm almoft cut oft'by receiving the firft blow that was made at Becktt'i Head, cccafroned, as he fays, by the Archbilhop's
calling Fitz-Urfe, Pimp. The Manul'cript Relation of the Life and Sufferings of this ArchbihVp, written in a Hand of that Age. ls prefervod in the Ll •
brary lACrftam-Colitoe. He was airaliinatcd 111 the fifty thud Year of his Age, on the 30th of December, 1171. reckoning "1 he Beginning of the Year
from Clnjlmas-Day. Gervas. p 141S. Brompt. p. ^64. Some Chroniclers fay, that all who were concerned in Becket'sMmltia, died mi'erably in
three or four Years. See Af. Wifim. p. 250. But the Annotator on Mr. Camdtn well obl'crves, that this is felfe: for William Tracy reiiied. twei.ty three



Years after the Fact, to Mwt in D:i 'n;h



See Camdtn in Dcvonjkirc,

4



wife,



Book VII.



HENRY II.



m



1 171. wife, his Canonization might have been objected again ft. him. But, as he was not above twelve Years old the \\~i.

Nothing was more proper to infufe this Belief into the King his Father took the Guardianfhip upon himfelf, and

Abundance of 'minds of the People than Miracles. Accordingly, fuch went in Perfon into Bretagne, to receive the Fealty of the

','; ' ( multitudes were forthwith wrought at the Tomb of the Barons.

new Martyr, that in any other Age, the number and Thefe are the moft confiderable Events, during the

nature of thefe Miracles, inftead of fatisfying the World, Difference between the King and the Archbifhop oi^Can-

would have had a quite contrary effect. Neither Chrifl tcrbury. I proceed now to what followed upon the Death

nor his Apoftles worked the like, or fo many, to prove of that Prelate.



:o him aft.
hit Death.
C ■
X. Direco



the Truth of Chriftianity, as this new Saint did to autho-
rize the Privileges and Immunities of the Clergy. It was
not thought fufficicnt to aflert his refforing dead Men to
life ; but it was farther affirmed, he raifed the very
Beafts. It was given out for certain, that being expofed
to view in the Church before he wai buried, he rofeoutof



Henry being freed from the difturberof his Quiet, was '
in hopes to enjoy fome tranquillity. But he found that tSSeiu^
Becket, when dead, created hin: no lef, Trouble than when
alive. His Enemies the chief of whom were the King of Dkt '"-
France, and Archl.ifhop of Sens, omitted not this oppor- fi, v ™f'
tunity to raife him new Disturbances. They boldly
his Coffin, and went and lighted the Wax-Candles which charged him with being; the Author of Becieft Murder
had been put out. It is faid alfo, after the Funeral Cere- and endeavoured by all forts of means to itir up the Pope



He h earn

viXid.



mony was over, he held up his Hand to blefs the People.
To all thefe Miracles, many others are added, equally be-
coming the Majefty of God. Mean while, they were
fpread with that confidence, that not a Man was found
hardy enough to (hew the leaft fign of Doubt. The Pope's
Legates, lent fome time after to examine thefe matters,
found the People of Canterbury fo perfuaded of the Truth
of all thefe Facts, that, upon fuch publick Evidence, his
Holinefs thought he fhould run no great Hazard in cano-
nizing Becket by the Name of St. Thomas of Canterbury.
The Tomb of the new Saint was at firft adorned with few
Ornaments ; but fifty years after his Death, his Body was



Though it ;; "•

- - tntendi to



to revenge the Death of his faithful Servant,
was difficult to prove that Henry had any hand in thc°Af-"
faffination, Alexander was willing however to believe him w$
guilty, that he might have occafion to humble a Prince
that all along ftoutly oppofed him. He was fenfible,
this was a favourable Juncture to procure Advantages which
that Monarch could never be brought to yield at any other
time. Wherefore lie threatned to excommunicate him,
and put the Kingdom under an Interdict, unlefs he gave
marks of a fincere Repentance. Had this Prince been Henry aSi
more weak, or lefs able, he would never have got clear of *"'* u .'-/'
fo (lippery and dangerous an Affair, But his Refolution '.'.''
laid in a Shrine , inriched with a prodigious Quantity of on this occafion (5), his Prefents to the Cardinals (6), and B
precious Stones. As a farther Honour to his memory, the his repeated Pi otcftations, to fubmit to the Sentence that*'.
Pope ordered every fiftieth year a Jubilee to be fulemnized fhould be pronounced in England, averted this terrible m '
in the Church where he lay. From thenceforward Mi- Blow (7).

racks became fo common at his Tomb, and their fame Whilft this Affair was tranfacVmg at Rome, Henry re- Hi firm tU
fpread fo far, that they drew Votaries from all parts of fumed the Project of the Conqueft of Ire/and, formed fome D ^' g " &
Chrijlendom, who came to Canterbury to obtain the Inter- years before, but deferred on account of his Quarrel with h-eCnd.""
ceffionof this new Saint. In 1420, they kept an Account of Becket. The Irijh taking fome Englijhtrttn Prifoners, and c ' r ™pt.
above fifty thoufand Foreigners, of all Ages and Sexes, that afterwards felling them for Slaves, furnifhed him with a m"p"-
came in Pilgrimage that Year to this renowned Tomb. Pretence to form this Enterptize. But the real motive

To avoid interrupting the Narrative of this famous was the Defire of enlarging his Dominions by the Conqueft
Conteft, I was obliged to defer 'till now to fpeak of cer- of an Ifland adjacent to England (S). Two favourable
tain Occurrences which happened in that Interval, the conjunctures induced him to think of this Conqueft. In
moft remarkable whereof were as follow : the firft place, he was at Peace with all his Neighbours.

Matiikfaf'if I n ii6 Sj during the heat of the Difpute, the Arch- And fecondly, AdrianlV, a native of England, being Tbi, Pr-.-e.l
King', bifhop of Cologn came into England, to conduct Matilda then Pope, he hoped eafily to obtain his Approbation. Wi '"^,
the King's Daughter to the Duke of Saxony, to whom flie Though the Outrages committed by the Irijh upon his aEiIV;
was betrothed. As all the Princes of Germany were then Subjects might be one reafon of his intended Expedition,
for the Aniipope Pafchal, they were confidered as Schifma- that was not the thing he alledged to the Pope to obtain
ticks in all Places where Alexander was acknowledged, his confent. The Glory of God and the Salvation of
This is the reafon, why after the departure of the Arch- Souls, plaufible Pretences, but which rarely fet Princes
bifhop, the Churches, where he and the Priefts that at- upon Projects of this nature, were the Arguments he urged
tended him faid Mafs, were all re-confecrated. The King to prevail with Adrian to approve his Defi<rn. To thefe



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 97 of 360)