M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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durft not oppofe this Refolution, for fear of making the he added another, and no lefs powerful Motive, the en-
Breach wider between him and Alexander, whom he was iarging the Jurifdiction and Revenues of the Holy See.
willing to keep fair with(i). He pretended, the Irijh being Schifmaticks and bad Chri-

r"kkT a , l rn,c * n ,,66 > certain Hereticks arrived from Germany in ftians, it was neceftary to put them in the right way, and
in England, England, about thirty in number, being headed by one Ger- . oblige them to acknowledge the Papal Authority, which
""*."*. b ar d. It is not diftinctly known wherein their Herefy 'till then had been difregarded by them: That the pro-
OxfoTd.' " con fitted ; in all likelihood there were fathered upon them, pereft means to that end was to bring them into fubjedtion
by forced Inferences, Opinions which they entertained to the Crown of England, which had ever been devoted
not. However this be, they were fummoned before a to the Holy See. This is what we find in the Bull fent
Council held on purpofe at Oxford, where they were con- him by Adrian on this occafion, where we may further
demned, and delivered over to the fecular Power. The obferve, what Power the Popes aHiimed to themfelves, and
King, unwilling to give the Pope any handle againft him, how attentive they were to every thing that might help to
treated thefe People very feverely. After branding them increafe their Authority.
in the Cheek with a hot Iron, he forbad all his Subjects to
give them any Relief. This Prohibition being punctually
obferved, all thofe Wretches miferably perifhed with Hun-
ger, without being heard to utter the leaft Complaint of
this moft inhuman Ufage. This is not the only Inftance
of its being the worft time for fuch as the Court of Rome
marks out for Hereticks, when Princes are at variance
with the Pope (2).
hJ £. COt " Malcolm King of Scotland died much about this time (3),
and was fucceeded by William his Brother (4).

The Marriage of Eleanor, Daughter of Henry, with
Alphonfus King of Cajlile, was concluded in 1 169, a little
before Beckett return into England.

Conan the Little, Duke of Bretagnc, dying in 1171,



Daughter
llitb the
Duke of
Saxony.
Diccto.
Brompt.
Hived.
M. Paris.



Brompton
Neubrig.
Diceto.
M. Paris.



Brompton

Eleanor'l
Marriage.
Conan dies
and ii fie
ceeded by

Hmij'Istm. Prince Geoffrey, who had married his Daughter, fucceeded



ADRIAN,

Servant of the Servants of GOD,

To his Son, in C H R I S T J E S U S, Henry

King of E N G L A N D ;

Sends Greeting and Apojlolical Benediilion.



TH E defire your Magnificence expreffes to ad- Adrian'i
vance the Glory of your Name on Earth, and K: ' r '
to obtain in Heaven the Prize of eternal Happinefs, de- imh £?,>' - '

ftditmt,

(1) This Year the Wttjb broke the Peace, and made Incurfions into the Englifi Territories, but were foon reduced to Obedience : and the fame Year was V"' C " nb "
born Johanna, the King's Daughter. Brompt. p. 1059. ' e * ear " as An- 1 ■ -4.

* [l \ T ^', S )?," Kl " S H '" ry rahed ' by thc Advke * nd Confent of h!s Par&ment > T-m-pent, in the Pound, and for the four follow-in- Years One-Penny ?,'"£' ■
for IteBtttf-War . Safow .p .1399. (3) In 1165. Brmft. p. ,oco.° J" M. Pars.

died Robert de Belhmmte, Earl of Lacetler. and chief Tufticiary of Enland. Hived, o. 5 12 P- 95-

-i.L_.:r „_.,-i ,,. . . r. 1 1 . .. ~ . "^ .. . _. a



(4)



(5) He ordered, that if any Perfon brought into England Letters of Excommunication from the Pope, he mould be proceeded again!! as a publick Enemv
<je. Bromft. p. 10O9. Htrued. p. 527. ' t '"/>



(6) The Perrons he lent to the Pope, were the Archbilhop of Roan, the Bilhop of Btirtux, the Bifhop of Woreefler, Richard B,
I ne rope rerutcd at firft to fee them ; but when they found no other Means would prevail, they beean to intreat after the Reman
f ,"T H. » ''I, '"'H'?" 1 ^/-"' hundred Math amongft the Pope and Cardinals, which loon gained them an Audience. G

(7 m returned to England, Auguft c, and vilited Her., v Eilhoo of Wincbelier. wh„ n< >r tL P„,„. „.- n.„l, r.,„-, „ ,



\ Barre, &c. Hrved. p. 526.
:an manner, (as Gervafi ex-
. Geriat. p. 1410.
M. Paris, p. ,T S . En ^ ldni ' A "^ 5' and vilited Henry B.lhop of mmbejier, who was at the Point of Death. Bnm ? t. p. 1069. R. Dteeto. p. SS7 .



134



The H I S TO R T of E N G L A N D.



Vol. I.



H7*.



Tlfmarks on
tin Bull.



/...'.- [en A,
nvi ^van-
tages of
IrclmJ
Camden in
Ireland.



" ferves no doubt, great Commendations. As a good
" Catholick Prince, you are very careful to enlarge the
" Borders of the Church, to fpread the knowledge of the
" Truth amon"-the barbarous and ignorant, and to pluck
" up Vice by the roots in the Field of the Lord: And
" in order to this you apply to us for Countenance and
" Direction. We are confident therefore, that by the
" Blefling of the Almighty, your Undertaking will be
" crowned with a Succefs fuitable to the noble Motive
" which fets you upon it. For whatever is taken in
" hand from a principle of Faith and Religion, never
" fails to fucceed. It is certain, as youyourfclf acknow-
" ledge, Ireland, as well as all other Iflands which have
" the Happinefs to be enlightned by the Sun of Righte-
" oufnefs, and have fubmitted to the Doctrines of Chri-
" ftianity, ate unqueftionably St. Peter's Right, and be-
" long to the Jurifdiction of the Roman Church. We
" judge therefore, after maturely confidering the Enter-
" prize you propofe to us, that it will be proper to fettle
" in that Ifland Colonies of the Faithful, who may be
" well-pleafing to God.

" You have advertifed us, moft dear Son in Chrift, of
" your Defign of an Expedition into Ireland, to fubject
" the Ifland to juft Laws, and to root out Vice, which
" has long fiourifhed there. You promife to pay Us out
" of every Houfe a yearly Acknowledgment of one
" Penny, and to maintain the Rights of the Chutch,
" without the leaft Detriment or Diminution. Upon
" which Promife, giving a ready ear to your Requeft,
" we confent and allow that you make a Defcent in
" that Ifland, to enlarge the Bounds of the Church, to
" check the Progrefs of Immorality, to reform the Man-
" ners of the Natives, and to promote the Growth of
" Virtue and the Chriftian Religion. We exhort you
" to do whatever you think proper to advance the Ho-
" nour of Gud and the Salvation of the People, whom
" we charge to fubmit to your Jurifdiction, and own you
" for their Sovereign Lord ; provided always that the"
" Rights of the Church are inviolably preferved, and the
" Peter-Pence duly paid. If therefore, you think fit to
" put your Defign in execution, labour above all things
" to improve the Inhabitants of the Ifland in Virtue.
" Ufc both your own and the Endeavours of fuch as you
" fhall judge worthy to be employed in this Work, that
" the Church of God be enriched more and more, that
" Religion flourilh in the Country, and that the things
" tending to the Honour of God and Salvation of Souls,
" be in fuch manner difpofed, as may entitle you to an
" eternal Reward in Heaven, and an immortal Fame
" upon Earth."

Thefe are the Foundations of Henrys, Pretenfions to
Ireland. In reading the Bull, it is hard to know, which
of the two acted with the greateft Diffimulation, the
King or the Pope. Henry alledged falfe Pretences to cover
his Ambition, and Adrian pretended to believe him, in
order to have the Difpofal of a Country which belonged
not to him, and the transferring it to a Prince who had
no manner of Right to it. But it is eafy to difcover,
through all thefe Difguifes, the Motives which influenced
the Pope. Ireland had not yet acknowledged the Supe-
riority of the Roman See over the whole Chriftian Church.
That was the Immorality which was to be rooted out of
the Field of the Lord. Submiffion to the Bifhop of Rome,
was the Seed that was to be carefully fown and cherifhed,
to the end the Roman Church might reap a plentiful Har-
veft. What elfe can be meant by fpreading the Know-
ledge of the Truth, where the Chriftian Religion was fo
Ion"' before embraced ? However this be, Henry fupported
with the Pope's Appiobation, and authorized by his Ex-
hortations, waited only a favourable opportunity to execute
his Defign, which was obstructed fome Years by Becket's
Affair. "He was no fooner clear of that Incumbrance, but
he refumed the fame Project, bent upon executing it, the
moment he mould make a Peace with France, with which
he was then at War. However, though the War was
not yet ended, an opportunity offered, which he failed not
to embrace. But before I relate the Succefs of this Un-
dertaking, it will be necefTary to give fome Account of
that Ifland, which we fhall foon fee united to the Englijh
Monarchy.

Ireland is fituated on the Weft of Great-Britain, from
which it is parted by an Arm of the Sea, called St. George's
Channel, in fome Places not above three Leagues wide.
The Ifland is in length from South to North, about three
hundred, and in breadth from Eaft to Weft, two hundred
Miles. It is certain, in all Europe there is not a more



enjoys,
merce,
World,
which



temperate Climate than that of Ireland. Exceflive Heat 1171.
and Cold are feldom known there, becaufe the Vapours,
rifing from the furrounding Sea, generally quallify thefe
two Extremes. The foil is very fertile, efpecially in the
fouthern Parts. They who fay no wheat grows there, cir - C3m -
mean no doubt, the northern Parts, where the People 'i"^.'^" 6 "
commonly live upon Oat-Bread. But every where elfe
there is good Wheat, and in Plenty fufficient for the fub-
fiftence of the Natives. However the Ifland abounds
moft with Pafture-Grounds, and its chiefeft Wealth con-
fifts in a great Breed of Cattle. The Sea is flocked with
fuch Plenty of Fifh, that were the Inhabitants deftitute
of all other Food, that alone would be fufficient to fuftain
them. But the moft confiderable Advantage this Ifland
is a commodious Situation for Trade and Com-
not only with all Europe, but other Parts of the
Add to this the great Number of good Ports
facilitate thr- Exportation of its Commodities.
Thefe Advantages have (o raifed the Jealoufy of the En-
glijh, that ever fince their Conqueft of the Ifland, they
have had nothing more at heart than the preventing of
the Irijh from extending their Commerce, left the Trade
of England fhould thereby recei\ e too great a Prejudice.
It is no wonder, an Ifland fo fertile, fo well fituated, and
fo near England, fhould attract the Eyes of Henry II,
who fet no bounds to his Ambition.

If we may believe fome Irijh Hiftorians, the firft Inha- Tuftf ■&>-
bitants of this Ifland are to be traced bevond the Flood. *"*'"' "■
But others lefs prejudiced in this Point, give the follow-
ing Account of their Origin. They pretend, that from
the third Age of the Woild, Ireland was inhabited with
Scyths, whole Number, in the fourth (l), we/c consider-
ably augmented by Colonies of Spaniards. Thefe two
Nations, in procefs of time, not only peopled Ireland,
but the Hebrides alfo, from whence part of them went
and fettled in North-Britain, as was obferved in the In-
troduction.

Several Names have been given tin's Ifland, all formed Dhm
from the Word Erin, the Name given it by the Natives ^"™j£
themfelves. Such as Ierna, Jwverna, Iauernia, Ouernia,
Bernia, Hybernia, which plainly own all the fame Origin.
The Britons ftiled it in their Language Yyerdm. The
Romans, Hybernia, and the Saxons, Iren -tandt, that is, the
Country of Iren or Erin. The Etymology of the Word
Erin is not well known ; but Camden's Conjecture, who
derives it from an Irijh Word fignifying IVejl, feems very
probable, becaufe in reality Ireland is the moft weftern
Ifland of Europe (2). Ifidore and Bcde call it Scotia, with
refpect to the Inhabitants, who for the moft part came
from Scythia, as was faid before, and for that reafon were
called Scots. The fame Writers term it alfo Scotia Major,
to diftinguifh it from North-Britain inhabited by the fame
Nation. Others give it the Name of Britannia Parva, Ptolem.
to diftinguifh it from Great-Britain, pretending that all the
Ifles in thofe Parts fhould be called the Britannick Iflands.
We are ftill more in the dark with regard to the Origin In Lan-
of the Irijh Tongue, which has nothing, not even its Let- ■?""£''. J 'jf f -
ters, in common with the Languages of the neighbouring r -,l'J^ m *
Nations.

Pope CeleftiirusT, was the firft that undertook the Con- c *otrfim of
verfion of the Irijh to Chriftianity, by fending Palladlus'^ 1 ^'-
to preach the Gofpel to them. But being deprived of this
their firft Bifhop by an untimely Death, Patrick, Difciple
of St. Germanus, was fent in his itead, who converted moft:
of the Natives. Their Pofterity have all along considered
him as their Apoftle, and ftill hold him in great venera-
tion. Shortly after their Converlion, Ireland abounded Tie great
with Monks, who for the moft part became fo famous for £'"•':' '/„ lbe
their Sanctity, that they were the occafion of the Ifland's Monks.
being termed the Country of Saints. From hence great
Numbers of learned and zealous Men came forth, who
greatly promoted the Converfion of the Albin-Scots, Picls,
and Anglo-Saxons. Such were Columbanus, Aidan, Finan,
Colman, Kilian, and many others I'poken of elfewhere.

Religion and Learning which fiourifhed in Ireland ^ 3), inland /ay-
were expelled thence by foreign Invafions, to which that ft" m " b
Ifland was frequently expofed. A King of North-amber-'^ 1 " 1 "*"
land (4) fent a numerous Army thither, which committed
great Ravages. Afterwards, the Norwegians wafted the Girald.
Country in a terrible manner above thirty Years, under Cambrenfit.
the conduit of one Turgefius, who at length was cut off"
by an Ambufcade. This Devaftation was quickly followed
by an Invalion of certain People from Germany, called by
Hiftorians Ejlmanni, that is, the Men of the Eaft . Shortly
after, Edgar King of England lubdued Ireland, if a Char-
ter that goes under his Name may be credited, where he
makes his Boafts of that Conquelt. But how great foever



(1) Thry have not explained what they mean by the third and fourth Ages of the World. Rafin.

(2) L.riartus derives Hibtrnia from Ibtrr.ae, a Phoenician Word, fignifying lbe fartbeji Habitation.



'Z) Li a.artus derives titoirr.ia rrom locrnac, * Pbtenician Word, fignifying tbt fartbeji Habitation.

(3) Camden obferves, that the Saxons in thofe Days fl eked to Ireland, as to the great Mart of Learning; Which is th; Reafon why we fo often find this

~..- Urn'taw C.rl. ~ am. C*> W. . C\, w „„,*,. tn \, ,, fa £. cdU£.t[cd, Y«de ElJ. ]• \< C« VU. AH<i X.XVU1



in our Writers, Such a one fent bis Son over to Ireland to
(t.) Egpid, See Hj/lmy of Umbsmhtrlmid, p. 5 1,



the



Book vir.



5. HENRY II.



1 171.

Dtmejlick

DJj'Mun.



Jrebml par-
itltedout into
jtvcn Kifia-
diun.



An. 1066.



the Deflations were that this Ifland fuffcied from the
hands of Foreigners, inteftine Divifions caufed Hill greater
Mifchiefs. The. Irijb were hardly freed from the Invafions
of the Foreigners, and particularly the Dunes, who made
them, no lefs than the Englijb, feel the effects of their
Fury, when a Civil War broke out among them, which
ended in the Partition of the Ifland into fevera! petty
States. Thefe Kingdoms, which at fir ft were numerous,
and confequently very fmall, were at length reduced to
feven, namely, Connaught, Cork, Leinfter, Offery, Meath,
Limerick, and Ul/ler ( 1 ). 1 'he King of Connaught, the
principal of thefe petty Sovereigns, kept the reft in a fort of
Dependence, with much the fame Authority as the Anglo-
Saxon Monarchs formerly enjoyed during the Heptarchy.
This is the realbn why the Irifl) Annals give Roderic King
of Connaught, who reigned in the Time of Henry II, the
Title of Monarch, tho' there were more Kings helidcs him
in the Ifland. Such was the State and Condition of Ire-
land, when the EngUJh undertook the Conqueft of it (2).
A Difference between two of thefe Kings, the weakeft of
whom invited the Engliflj to his alTiftance, was the occa-
fion of the IriJI) lofing their Liberty. This was not the
firft time, the like Caufe had produced the like Effect.
An imprudence of the fame nature furnifhed the Moors
with an opportunity of conquering Spain, and the Anglo-
Saxons of fubduing Britain. Hence it appears how dange-
rous it is to invite Foreigners into a Kingdom, who cannot
be afterwards expelled with the fame eafe.
•Tit King of Among the Sovereigns then reigning in Ireland, Der-
LtiniUi de- mot King of Leinfter was one of the molt conliderable,

,i<t\ Aid of , iv. r 1 • r» • • T* i • r. . .

Hcmy. D y tne Extent ot his Dominions, b rom this Prince s
Cirald. acceflion to the Throne, he had adted fo arbitrarily,
Ciuibreiiiu. tnat j le was g Iown extremely odious to his Subjects. But
he made flight of his People's Hatred, being at Peace
with his Neighbours, who concerned not themfelves with
what parted in that Kingdom. However, he afterwards
gave them occafion himfelf, by [debauching and] car-
rying away the Wife of O-Roric King of Meath. O-
Roric, to revenge the Affront, levied an Army, and with
the help of Roderic King of Connaught, attacked Dermot,
who, finding himfelf abandoned by his Subjects, was forced
to leave Ireland, for fear of falling into the hands of his
Enemy. As he had no refuge in the Ifland, where the
reft of the Kings refufed to engage in his Quarrel, he
went and implored the Protection of the King; of Eng-
land, who was then in France. Having informed him of
his Cafe, he promifed to become his Valla!, if by his Aid
he was reltored to his Throne. Nothing could be more
grateful than this Propofal, to a Prince who had been long
meditating the Conqueft of Ireland, and wanted only an
opportunity to interpofe in the Affairs of that Ifland.
Mean while, as his War then with France permitted him



Henry pro
miffs bim
Aid.



Lordi incite
an AHi.uice
tuitb Der-
mot.



not immediately to aflift the fugitive King, he contented
himfelf with promiling, as foon as the War was over, to
aid him to the utmoft of his power. Neverthelefs, he
thought it his Intereft to perfuade Dermot to begin a War,
from whence he hoped himfelf to reap great Advantage.
To that end, he advifed him to go into England, and
endeavour to obtain what AlTiftance he could from fome
Two Englift EngliJJ} Barons, in expectation of greater Forces, Der-
mot followed his Advice, and relying on Henry's Word,
came into England, where Robert Fite,-Stephen, and Ri-
chard Strong-bow ( 3 ) Earl of Pembroke agreed with him
upon certain Conditions. The former was prevailed with
in hopes of making a conliderable Fortune in Ireland.
The latter, who had large Poflcfiions in England and I Vales,
was gained by Dermot's Promife, to give him his only
Daughter in Marriage, and fettle the Succellion upon
him.

Thefe two Lords having drawn together fome Troops
among their Friends and Vaftals, Fitz-Stephen, who was
firft ready, accompanied Dermot into Ireland, with four
hundred Men (4). Being landed near IVaterford, the
King of Leinfter led them before the City of IVcxford,
not far from thence. The City being prefently taken,
was given to Fitz-Stephen, who fettled there a Colony of
Ertglijh(s)- After this Exploit, the Adventurers re-in-



The-e arrive
in Ireland,
and take
Wexford.



forcing their little Army to the Number of three thoufand
Men by the Junction of the Natives (6), marched againlt
the King of Offery. This Prince, who did not expect to
be attacked, being unprepared for his Defence, was forced
to fubmit to what Terms the Conquerors were pk-afed to
impofe.

Mean time, Roderic the Monarch had convened the
States of the Ifland, and caufed them to refcjve upon a
War with Dermot and the Eng/i/h. Indeed, it was eafy
to perceive, their Deligns were not confined to the Af-
fiftance of the King of Leinfter. But as the Adventurers
were now grown very formidable, he was willing, before
he ran any hazard, to try by way of Negotiation, to
get them out of the Ifland. He addrefled himfelf firft
to Fitz-Stephex, and offered him a confiderable Sum to
retire. His Offer being rejected, he turned to Dermot,
and endeavoured to perfuade him to fend away the Eng-
UJh, by promiling to reftore him to his Kingdom. Der-
mot immediately clofed with this Propofal ; but when
they came to perform their Covenants, miftrufting each
other, they could agree neither upon the 'lime not the
Manner. Whilft they were employed in devifing Expedi-
ents for their mutual Security, the Earl of Pembroke ar-
rived from England with twelve hundred Men. His firft
Expedition was the taking of IVaterford, and putting the
Inhabitants all to the fword. This Conqueft breaking off
the Negotiation, the Earl of Pembroke married Dermot's
Daughter, and quickly after took pofleffion of the King-
dom of Leinfter, fallen to him by the Death of his Father-
in-law. The Irijh gave that Prince the Simame of Nin-
gal, that is, The Stranger's Friend.

After the Death of Dermot, the Adventurers prepared
to carry on their Conq'jefts. As they faw, the Terror of
their Arms was fpread over Ireland, they improved the
opportunity, and advancing farther, became mafters of
Dublin, and fome other Places. Roderic and the reft of
the Kings were in fuch Confufion, that they very faintly
oppofed the Progrefs of the Foreigners. It is almoft
incredible, that the Irijh, who were exceeding numerous,
fhould fuffer themfelves to be thus over-run by a handful
of Englifhmeti. The reafon is imputed to their great Dread
of the EngUJh Crofs-bows, the ufe of which, 'till then,
was unknown to them.

Upon News of this extraordinary Succefs, Henry grew
jealous of the Adventurers. He was in hopes they would
have wanted his Afliftance, and thereby given him a Pre-
tence to pafs into Ireland himfelf, and fubdue the Ifland.
But finding, the faint Refiftance of the Irijh rendered his
Aid needlefs, he was afraid, the Conquerors would be-
come mafters of the whole Country, which he de.igned
for himfelf. In this belief, he thought it necellary to
oblige them to apply to him. To this end, he forbids the
exporting Provifions or Ammunition to Ireland, and
commands all his Subjects to return from thence. Thefe
Orders, which were iflued on pretence the Adventurers
had engaged in their Undertaking without his leave, fuc-
ceeded to his expectation. As foon as the Earl of Pem-
broke and Fitz-Stephen were informed of the King's Edict,
they fent Deputies to allure him of their Obedience, and
tell him, all their prefent and future Conquefts were at his
Command. This SubmilTion ealily appeafed the King,
who had no farther thoughts of recalling them. Some
time after, he made an agreement with them, that he
fhould have all the Sea-ports, and the relt remain in the
Conquerors, to hold of him and his Succeflors. Matters
being thus fettled, Henry went over himfelf into Ireland
with a formidable Army (7), and landed at IVaterford.
The Irifl}, who before could not withftand a few private
Perfons, and confequently faw themfelves unable to refill
fo great Forces, chofe a voluntary SubmilTion. Djring
Henry's fray at IVaterford, he faw all the Kings of the
Ifland arrive at his Court, and with emulation ftrive who
fhould firft fwear Allegiance.

Thus Henry, without fpilling one drop of Blood, be-
came mailer of Ireland in lefs time than was futficient
to travel over it. After he had placed frefh Garnfons
in IVaterford, Wexford, and fome other maritime Towns,



235



1171.

Offery.



The King ■,;'

j
tries in
U j'.rd butt
the Eng



Tbl F.jrl ej

P m iroke



Dermr t din,
and t: .
reded by tbe
Earl.



The EngHlli
. Dubl ,.



Tl Reaft f

:




Henry /nr-

1
Adventurers,



lie talk

tpim fame.



They f-fie
iuitb bun.



I 172.

Heiiiy goes
fo Ireland.

Chron.
Cimd.

fbe ruble
I .'.-■ : fab*
•mis.

R. Diccto.

Henry emtt
t: Dublin,

whence
be returns to

England.
Bromph



(1) Thefe feven Kingdom; were reduced to four luge Provinces, into which the Ifland is at prefent divided, ZI$er„ Leinfter, MunJUr t and Cpnna r.
Rapin. To which formerly was adujd Mcatb, now reckoned part of Lctnjlcr. Thefe tour Provinces are divided into thirty -two Cuunties or Shire:, ;.■.-
Archbifh pricks, and eighteen Bilhopricks-

(2) Their Rendezvous was at Pembroke. Gerva;, p. 1419. Hfveden, p. 527.

(3) Richard de dare, firnamed Strorg-bow, Earl of Striguil, or Stngbul, (a Caftle in Mjnmoutbjhire) and of Pembroke, See Camdin. They werj alio



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 98 of 360)