M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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entrance into the Kingdom, when there fliould be occafion.
TUi-es a Ship In failing to Yaimouth, he took a Ihip of London, bound
rkh/y l.nicu. for Rotterdam, laden with cloth by the company of Mer-
p. iiijiii. (.jiant-adventurers. It was faid this (hip was worth forty
thoufand pounds. He ordered the goods to be fealed up,
isnfufcdad-^^^ continued his courfe, But he fucceeded not at Yar-
tmttauce into mouth as he expeded, the town refufing to admit him,
larraoadi. (.[,Q^|gh great part of the inhabitants were for the King.
jii.^„ Wherefore he refolved to enter the Thames, as well to in-

Thames. tercept all outward and homeward-bound fhips, as to fup-
vi'lX™o''' port the King's party, and that of the Presbyterians in the
j;o6, i2os! Parliament and City ; for he was not ignorant of the pro-
cbrendon, jg^j-g jj^^j ^^^^ forrned. Befides, the Queen his Mother
■sii'/''°^' ^'^^ enjoined him to court the Presbyterians, conceiving it
was only by their means, that the King could be reftorcd.



Vol. 11.



Hef.,il!

toWiiriis



ek'm-.



For this reafon alfo, he afterwards releafed the Cloth-fhip iG\'i.
for twelve thoufand pounds. ' p. i^i.

Whilft the Prince lay in the Thames, where he feized Tm E.,ri «f'
fome other Merchant fhips, the F!arl oi JVaiwick, ^^^''^^^^.frZ'ih^s
well allured of the fidelity of the reft of the (hips at Portf- hi„,,
mouth, and elfewhere, affembied a fleet, and anchored in '"'v
fight of the Prince; fo that in ali appearance the two fleets rl/y'^J^''
would not part without an engagement. But though the w.-r/.M.-r
Prince feemed inclined to it, he was advifed to avoid it if-^-'^'^'^'^'j
poffible, and not without reafon. His (hips were fewer, RuihTvon!,,
and much fmaller than the Earl oi ITarwick^; befides, vn.p.iiJi.
the Earl expe£tcd others from Porifmouth every moment, " '■" '
which arriving the next day, rendered him verjf fuperior.
So the Prince failed back to Holland, and fccured liis fleet
at Helvoet -Sluys. The Earl oi [l-^arwick followed him, and
appeared before that port, but to no manner of purpofe.

Thus ended the Prince oi Wales' ^ expedition with the
fliips revolted from the Parliament. The money be re-
ceived for the prizes he had taken, was not fufficient to pay
his fleet, and provide it with necefTaties, fo that it pro-
cured him more trouble thanadvantaire. Before I leave this
(ubjeft, it will not be improper, briefly to explain fome
circumftances in the Lord Clarendons Hiftory.

Whilft the two fleets lay in fight, and feemed to pre- Ey.;.'r..ii:'an
pare for battle, the Pi ince fent Harry Seymour to the Earl of °fJ"l" '"■-
Warwick, with a letter to invite him to return to his alle- rei^ied'iy'th^
giance. The Earl anfwered, that he advifed his Highnefs i^'"i
to put himfelf into the hands of the Parliament. Notv/ith- nj''""^™'
Handing this difcouraginganfwer, the Prince fent Mr. Cro/?j ' ' **'
to the Earl, who had married his Aunt, imagining, he
durft not venture to difcover his fentinients to Seymour. But
Crofts returned with much the fame anfv.-er. Hence it ap-
pears, the Prince thought he had fome room to rely en the
Earl oi Warwick, as the Lord Clarendon infinuates, and
the ground of his hope, which was propc-rly the effe£t only
of his, or rather of the whole Royal P.irty's, prepoiTeffion,
was briefly this. The iSw/irZ' Commimoners, as I faid, did
not acquaint the leading Presbyterians with the particubrs
of their treaty with the King in the Ijle of Wight. They
only told them, an army would be raiied in Scotland to
deliver the King out of the hands of the Independents, and
that it was necelTary the Royalifts and Presbyterians fhould
fecond thefe endeavours, by a£ling jointly or feparateiy.
This propofal being accepted, the Royalifts and Presbyte-
rians prepared, as I have faid, to countenance the defigns
of the Scots by infurreclions in feveral parts of the King-
dom. Matters ftanding thus, {Henry Rich] Earl of Hoi- id. p.jji
land, who had afted an ill part in the late war, had a mind
on this occafion, to reconcile himfelf to the King, by la-
bouring his reftoration. To that end, he received a com -
miffion from the Prince oi Wales, impowering him to raife
forces for the King's fervice, and his brother the Earl of
Warwick promifed to affiil: him in his defigns. This is
what the Prince knew, and what made him believe the
Earl oi Warwick was in the fame difpofition with his bro-
ther. But there was a wide difference between the views
of the Royalifts, and thofe of the Presbyterians. Thefe
laft, of whom the E^rl of Warwick was one of the heads,
did not pretend to reftore the King without terms, but
only to free him out of the hands of the Independents, to
make conditions with him afterwards, which they called
fettling the peace of the Kingdom. But the Prince, and
the King's whole party would notunderftand this difference,
and prepofteroufly imagined, that all who had promifed to
afl againft the Independents, had thereby engaged to ferve
the King without terms. Herein lay the miltake. It is
therefore evident, the Earl of Warwick, who afted upon
Presbyterian views, could not believe it to be his intereft to
deliver the fleet to the Prince, fince, notwithftanding the
prefent occafion which induced the Presbyterians to be in a
readinefs to aft againft the aimy, they ftill confidered the
Royal party as their real enemies.

In the beginning oifune, the King's friends found means
to furprife PontfraSi Caftle in Yorkjliire, and put a garrifon Pontfracl
there. Sortly after Scarborough Caftle revolted from the c-'/''/"'-
Parliament, and declared for the King. Rufhw. vil.

The Scotch army being at length upon the point of en- p. [ii-53-]
tering England, General Fairfax being ftill employed in ^"{'^J^''"
the blockade of Colchejier, and Cromwell in the fiege of Holland.
Pembroke, and as there were but two regiments in London, clarendon,
i^Hcnry Riclo] Earl of Holland, thought he could not have "'' ^'^^'^ "
a fairer opportunity to execute his defign in favour of the
King. This defign was fo far from being a fecret, that it
was become the common talk of the city. It was known
beforehand, what day the Earl of Holland was to depart,
and the Parliament did not feem to regard it. It was not
for want of information ; but the fcene of affairs wa^ much
altered fince the army's removal from London. The Inde-



(l) Some of the King's friends were alfo on board, with Tome authority. Cl.nendm, Tom. III. p. Il8.

(a) He had lately left the Parliament, and withdrawn into HoU.md. Idem. p. lo8.

(3) TliK Ca.^s of Dc.il and S.uiiltsish declaretj alfo about this time for the King, but ware reduced by Colonel Rich. In.How, Tom. I. p. 257.



pendenfe



Book XXL



25.



CHARLES t



sss



j6+S.



pendents prevailed no more in the Parliament, and the
Presbyterians began to hold up their heads. For this rea-
fon, the Independentsdid not think proper, atfuchajunc-
^ure, to take any iteps that might induce the City of Zot-
don to declare openly. On the other hand, the Presbyte-
rian members were far from endeavouring to prevent the
Earl of Holland's defign, vi'hich they confidered as flowing
from the general combination for the delivery of the King
out of the hands of the army. So, the Earl publickly de-
parted from London, with about one hundred Horfc, and
came to Kingjlon upon Thames., where [George Villiers] the
young Duke of Buckinghain, the Lord Francis Villiers his
_^ brother, [Henry MordauntJEad o( Peterl/orough, [and the
Ruihworth,' family of the Earl of Northampton] met him with fome
VII. p.1178. troops ( I ). As foon as they were joined, they fent a let-
fheaT" '^"^ *° '•'^ Lord- Mayor and Common-Council of London,

p. 1180.



ffc !s <••■":'
by the Dntt:
of Bucking-
tiam iiiui

nthlTS.

Clarendon,



declaring their intention was to join the forces of Surrey,
Siiffex, and Middlefex, to releafe his Majefty's perfon, to
bring him with honour to his Parliament, and to fettle
peace in the Kingdom : And defired their affiftance no far-
ther than their defigns were really for the good and happi-
iiefs of the King, Parliament and Kingdom, according to
the Covenant. Thefe laft words, according to the Covenant,
feemed necefFary, becaufe they knew the Presbyterians
wifhed for nothing fo much as the confirmation of the Co-
venant. But the Magiftiates of London thought not fit to
chufe for leaders, iheY,iLr\o{ Holland, who was in no great
repute, or the Duke of Buckingham an unexperienced youth,
who had only the King's fervice in view, without any re-
gard to the publick, or the Covenant ; or in fliort, any of
thefe Lords, whofe principles were by no means agreeable
riry/rrc (f»- to thofe of the Presbyterians. So, without anfwermg this
chncitTM- letter, they fent it to the Parliament, who immediately
voted the Lords that had figned it to be traitors, [and their
eftates to be fequeftied.]
, The fame day the letter was writ, Colonel Zw^ji, with
'fi.-.tcd :ic'ir Come companies of the two regiments that were quartered
Kingilon. jf, Wejiminjier, met thefe Lords near Kingjlon, and entirely
Id. p. "'S;. j.^^jgj them. But. Levefey'i Foot which was left behind,
not being yet arrived, and the Lords having fent theirs to
to fecure their retreat, the Horfe only, on both



ivrs.
Ibid



namely, his promife to obfei-ve the ancient Law-s. They 1S48I
did not much concern themfelves about maintaining the
eft ablilhment of Presbyterianifm in England, or the Cove-
nant between the two nations. Others, as the Earls of Lou- Th - Sco;c!i
don, and Lauderdale, who had been commiflioners in Eng- -'■"""•'if''-
land really intended to ferve the King, but upon thefe two wt
conditions, that the Presbyterian-o^overnment fliould be ^•'"Mdaeh:
eftabliflied in the Church oi England, and the Covenant "" '"•"'■"■
punftually obferved. As they thought, they had taken fuf-
licient care of thefe two points, by the Ip of Wight treaty,
they little regarded the other conditions required of th?
King by the Parliament of England, concerning the Mi-
Jitia, nommation to the great offices, ^'c. But very likely
their defign was to deceive one another. Thefe laft meant
to make ufe of the King's party to procure the executiori
ot the I/le of Wight treaty, and the King's party, feipning
to agree to what the others defired, intended to make ufe
of them to enable the King not to be forced to receive
any terms. The Duke of Hamilton's conduft after his
entrance into England, feems to me a very ftrong evidence
that he defigned not to act in favour of the Presbyterians'
If he had fuch an intention, he (hould not, it feems, have M.Hamij-
iolt, as he did, forty days in the northern Counties, but "" '"f" *
have niarched direaiy to London. Lambert would hot have Sr/r.!
Deen able to hinder his march, being much weaker than Ncyth.
lie. Cro?nwellwzi yet employed in IVales, and Fairfax ?';'''^"''°"
m the blockade oiColcheJier. Probably, if, without loiin'^ H] ^' "^
time, he had marched to London, he would have ar-
rived before Cromvjellm.A Lambert could have joined forces
and if Fairfax had quitted the blockade of Colcbejier, iii
order to throw himfelf into Z(7Wto, very hkely, the'Lr-
habitants would have fhut their gates againft him, fince they
would have been fupported by the army oi Scotland. At
leaft, in cafe Fairfax had rifen from before Colchejier, that
town, the whole County of £^';., and doubtlefs, Suffolk,
and Norfolk, would have joined with the Scots. In a
word. It the Scotch army had marched towards the centre
of the Kingdom, there would, doubtlefs, have been in
many places, infurreSions, which would have greatly dif-
treffed the army of the Independents ; and if Duke Hamil-




Kingjhn, to fecure their retreat, the Horfe only, on both ton could have reached London, cei tainly the Ciry"and"Par

fides, wereingaged. Ztii^/ briskly purfued them to &'«g - i'->"^»"- u l- „ . /

Jion, where the Foot flood their ground, and hindered the

enemies Horfe from entering the town. That fame night -n. win nereaiter appear, thele are not bare corijeaures

they quitted Kingjlon, and retired to St. Albans, with about coafidering what pafTed in the Cty and Parliament, whilft

folr hundred men.
ihc'x iirc u,r- ^lean while. General i^i?/r/w* hearing of this Infarrec-
fnitdatSt. tion, fcnt from the blockade of Colchejier, Colonel Scroop
Neo^j,,»i|'re ^j^j, ^ regiment of Horfe, to the affiftance of the Parlia-
-'-'- '" ment's trOops. Sc?oop coming to Hertford, was informed,

that the Lords who had been defeated at Kingjlon, were at

St. AWs in a negligent manner. Upon this intelligence,

he marched thither in the night, and furpriled them in

that little town, killing fome of their men, taking above a

hundred prifoners, and difperfing the reft. The Lord

Francis Villiers was flain (2). His brother the Duke of

Buckingham, found means to efcape, and the Earl of //«/-

/(7«(/ was taken, conducted to Z,o«^o», and afterwards fent
Riifiiworth, prifoner to Warwick Cartie. Thus ended this ill concerted
vii.p.iiSi^. enterprize, managed by perfons of no experience or skill

in the art of war.



Holland
ijtr,!.
July 10.
Id. p. 1187,
Whicelock.



It was expeded, the Scotch army would take the courfe,
have been fpeaking of.

Bm Duke Hamilton had doubtlefs other views, fince he C.^Jur^it'
Itaid above a month in the north, without any neceffity "f"" ^"^
The Lord Clarendon conjeftures, the Duke's intention t m"n'!",'i
was, toaftord time to the Engli)!, army to defeat thofe '^ ""^
forces which were up in feveral parts of the Kingdom for
the Kingi that they might not be fo united as to obftrua
the Presbyterians defign. But, whatever regard I may
have for that noble Hiftorian, I cannot be of his opinion,
tor two reafons which to me feem very ftrong. The fiift
IS, that Duke Ha?nilton was not a zealous ^Presbyterian. ■
On the contrary, though he had taken the Covenant, he
wasEpifcopal in his heart, as he had fufficiently difcoverei
whilft he could do it without danger. The fecond is, that
he was the man who had



moft courted and drawn into

At laft, Duke Hamilton entered England 3.t the head of Scotland the Royaliftsi whilft the voting of an army was

the Scotch army, the 9th oijuly. The eleventh of the in queftion. I fliould rather think, he had a quite con- DJff-mk.

hvtie month, P cmbroke Ci^le{\xxttndeTeA to Cromwell, ^flha trary aim to what the hard Clarendon imputes to him ■ <^4':^«rni'

immediately difpatched a body of Horfe to re-inforce the that inftead of defigning to countenance the Presbyteriari

army in the North, commanded by Major-General Lam- party, he rather feared to render them too powerful bv

hert. He departed himlelf three days after, with the reft: approaching London, knowing, when the King fhou'ld be

of his forces, which were already very much fatigued by in the hands of the Presbyterians^ his condition would not

the late fiege, and of which the greateft part wanted flioes be much happier. Very likely, his long ftay in the north '

Id"''p!'ii89,'''"^ ftockings, though they undertook a long march, which was only to give the King's friends in thofe parts opportu-

1150, 119;, probably, would be followed with a battle. Thefe diffi- nity to join Lanji/aZ/s forces, and thereby render the Kinp's

I - 7- culties difcouraaed not Cromwell. He purfued his march party fuperior

Clarendon, . .- - - P ... . . . . , . r _y r



The Scotch
army enters
England.
Pembroke
Ciifrle fiir~
renders.
July II.
Crorav^ell
Wiirches (0-
K.nds the
Kurth.



III. p. 124.
Eurnet'i
Mem.
P- 3JJ-

The Drd-e tf
Hamikon'j



Rufhv.-orrh,
Vllip.jic)7.



with all poffible diligence, and yet could not join Lambert
till the middle of Augujl. We muft now fee what Duke
Hamilton was doing, whilft Cromwell was marching to-
wards him.

The defign of thofe who had prevailed for the raifing an
army InScotland, feemed to be toaffift the EngliyhPtesby-
terians, to free the Parliament from the yoke of the Inde-
pendents, and to deliver the King out of the hands of the
army. Thefe at leail were the moft plaufible things that
were urged to induce the Parliament of Scotland toconfent
to this extraordinary expedition. But it may very juftly be
doubted, v.'hether this was the defign of all the leaders of
that party. Some, among whom were Duke Hamilton,
and his Brother the Earl of Lanerick, probably, fought
only to reftore the King without terms, or at leaft without
any other condition Hian what he had himfelf ofFeied,



However this be, not to dwell too long upon conjee- xf- hnt-
tures, as foon as Duke Hamilton entered England, he in.i"«A«. ', .
marched to Carlijle, from whence he drew out the En- '^"">*°''*'.
glifh, placed there by yl^a/^raw, and put in z Scotch Gzx-^^x^l'''^^^'
nfon. Some days after, Langdale joined him with about a u j,mei
four thoufand ^wf/jA Foot, and feven or eight hundred *r Langdale,
Horfe (3). But thefd troops remained feparate, and in the %l^°°i
marches, Langdale was always a day before the Scotch iii.' p! iT^
army. This was to evade in fome meafure the order of'^''-
the Parliament of Scotland, that the Englijh who fliould M=m7''
refufe to take the Covenant, fhould not be received into
the army, nor aft in conjundion with the Scots. Never-
thelefs the Engli/li and Scots made but one army, uoder
the command of Duke Hamilton, from whom Langdale
received orders. Lambert who was pofted near the place
where the two armies joined, ox at kaft approached each



(l) They made up about five hundred Horfe. Rtijhtcmlh, Tom. VII. p. 1 173.

(;) He wjs llain in a skirmlfii at I'(/«^y?»K. WwVriott, p, 318..

(3) Duke Hamilton brwglit witli' him tour thoufand Horfe, and ten ihouTand Foot. See "Mnrait'i Mem, p. 3;?>

No. 71. Vol. H. 7 A



ofher.



S54
1648,



rhe H isro rT of England,



Vol. II.



other, retired in fuch diforder, that probably he would have
been defeated, had he been purfued; but Duke Hamilton
did not think fit to improve this advantage. He conti-
nued feme days at Carlijle, after which he marched to
Kendal in Wepnoreland, where he refted again, till find-
ing not wherewithal to fubfift his army, he was forced, as
it were, to proceed to Lancajhlre with part of his army,
leaving the reft at Kendal. At length, he advanced to
Pre/hn, where he halted, the reafon whereof is not known,
unlefs it v/as to ftay for Monroe, who was coming with
three thoufand men out of Scotland.

^, Mean while, Cromwell having reached Yorkjhlre, Lambert

jtms Lam- inftantly joined him, and they marched together diredtly to
fjy' 17 Prejlan, where Duke Hamilton lay. Langdale who made
- - ' ■ the van of the Duke's army with his Englijh troops, fent
him notice that Cromwell was approaching with a refolu-
tion to give him battle, and confequently it was neceflary
III. p. laj. to keep his army together. But the Duke regarded not this
intelligence, believing it to be only fome detachment of
Cromwell's army. In fliort, Langdale was attacked by
the enemies Horfe, who drove him to Prejion, where he
brought with him fome piifoners, who averred, that
CroinwelTs whole army was near. Whereupon the Duke
fent him back to his troops, promifing to fend him af-
fiftance; but difappointed him. So Langdale being at-
tacked, was forced to maintain a very unequal fight,
which lafted however five or fix hours ; but at laft he
was entirely routed. Immediately after, Cromwell's. Horfe
marched direftly to PreJlon, where all was in fuch confu-
fion that nothing was tliought of but flight. The Duke
himfelf found it proper to retire by the bridge, which he
in vain endeavoured to guard, after palling it. The fol-
lowing letter was fent by Cromwell to the Parliament, the
20th of Aiguji, containing a particular account of what
paffed between the two armies, on the 17th, 18th, and
1 9th of Auguji.



Ml mttri
jLmicalTiire.



Cromwell



Pxufhworth,
VU.p.iiii
1219.

Clarendon,



Ue defeats
JLangdale.

Ibid.



?iie Dnie's
army n
ranted.
Id. p. 12.5
Burnet'f
Mem,



Cromwell'
Letter ahottt



■s " A Fter the conjunflion of that party which I brought



Rulhworch,
VII.p,i2j7,



with me out of IVales with the northern forces

about Knarciborough and Wethcrby, hearing that the
enemy was advanced with their army to Lancajhire,
" we came the 6th inftant to Hodder-bndge over Ribble,
" where we had a council of war ; and upon advertife-
" ment the enemy intended fouthward, and fince con-
" firmed, that they refolved for London itfelf, and infor-
" mation that the Iriflj forces under Monroe, lately come
" out of Ireland, which confifted of twelve hundred
" Horfe, and fifteen hundred Foot, were on their march
*' towards Lancajlilre to join v/ith them, it was thought,
*' to engage the enemy to fight was our bufinefs ; and
" accordingly marching over the bridge that night, quar-
" tered the whole army in the fields. Next morning we
" marched towards Prejhn, having intelligence that the
" enemy was drawing together thereabouts from all his
" out-quarters; we drew cut a forlorn of about two
" hundred Horfe, and four hundred Foot; thefe gallant-
" ly engaged the enemy's fcouts and out-guards, until we
" had opportunity to bring up our whole army. So foon
" as our foot and horfe were come up, we refolved that
•' night to engage them if we could ; and therefore ad-
" vancing with our foilorns, and putting the reft of the
" army into as good a pofture as the ground would bear,
" (which was totally inconvenient for our Horfe, being
" all inclofure and miry ground) we prefTed upon them
" through a lane, and forced them from their ground,
" after four hours difpute, until we came to the town ;
" into which four troops of my Regiment firft entered ;
" and being wel! feconded by Colonel Harrifon's regi-



•' arms; the number of the flain we judge to be about 1645,
" a thoufand, the prifoners we took near about four
" thoufand.

" In the night they marched aWay, feven or eight
" thoufand Foot, and about four thoufand Horfe ; we
" followed them with about three thoufand Foot, and
" about two thoufand five hundred Horfe and Dragoons ;
" and in this profecution that worthy Gentleman Colonel
" Thornhaugh, prefling too boldly, was flain, being run
" into the b<)dy, thigh, and head, by the enemies lancers :
" our Horfe ftill profecuted the enemy, killing and taking
" divers all the way ; but by that time our army was
" come up, they recovered Wigan before we could at-
" tempt any thing upon them. We lay that night irt
" the field clofe by the enemy, lying very dirty and
" weary, where we had fome skirmifhing, ^f. We took
" JVIajer- General Van Druske, Col. Hurrey, and Lieu-
" tenant- Colonel Ennh.

" The next morning the enemy marched towards War-
" rington, made a ftand at a pafs near Winivick ; we held
" them in fome difpute until our army was come up, they
" maintaining the pafs with great refolution for many
" hours ; but our men, by the bleffing of God, charged
" very home upon them, beat them from their ftanding,
" where we killed about a thoufand of them, and took
" (as we believe) about two thoufand prifoners, and pro-
" fecuted them home to Warrington town, where they
" poffeffed the bridge. As foon as we came thither,
" I received a meflage from Lieutenant-General Bailey,
" defiring fome capitulation ; to which I yielded, and gave
" him thefe terms: That he fhould furrender himfelf and
" all his officers and foldiers prifoners of war, with all his
" arms, ammunition, and horfes, upon quarter for life ;
" which accordingly is done. Here are took about four
" thoufand complete arms, and as many prifoners : And
" thus you have their infantry ruined.

" The Duke is marched with his remaining Horfe
" (which are about three thoufand) towards Nantwich,
*' where the Gentlemen of the county have taken about
" five hundred of them; the country will fcarce fuffer
" any of them to pafs, but bring in and kill divers as
" they light upon them. I have fent poft to my Lord
" Gry and Sir Edward Rhodes, to gather all together
" with fpeed for their profecution : Monroe is about Cum-
" berland, with the horfe that ran away, and his Irijh
" horfe and foot ; but I have left a confiderabie ftrengtlf,
" I hope, to make refiftance till we can come up to
" them.

" Thus you have the narrative of the particulars of
" the fuccefs. I could hardly tell how to fay lefs, there
" being fo much of God ; and I was not willing to fay
" more, left there fhould feem to be any thing of Man ;
" only give me leave to add one word, fhev/ing the dif-
'' parity of the forces of both fides ; that fo you may



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 2) → online text (page 239 of 360)