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M. V. (Michael Vincent) O'Shea.

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OCT 2 5 RECD

OCT 1 5 ir-



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW VORK ■ BOSTON • CHICAGO • DALLAS
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MFLBOrRKE

THE MACMH.LAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
AND EDUCATION



r.v
M. V. O'SHEA

PROFESSOR OK EDUCATION

THE UNIVERSITY OF

WISCONSIN



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1921

All rights reserved



Copyright, 1921,
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.



Set up and elcctrotyped. Published March, 1921.



NoriDooti ^T(B0

J. 8. Cuahing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Masa., U.S.A.



^^



1 os\



PREFACE

In writing this volume the author has had constantly in mind
the interests and needs of teachers in service and also persons
who are preparing to teach. Consequently those aspects only
of mental development and of education which directly concern
those who train the young have received attention ; all strictly
technical and speculative discussion has been avoided. No
attempt has been made to treat comprehensively the psychology
of childhood and youth or educational values and methods.
Two questions have guided the discussion throughout ; — first,
How does the individual normally respond at different periods
in his development to the typical situations, physical, intellectual,
aesthetic and social, in which he is placed ; and second, How
can he best appropriate the materials and benefits of education
so that he can utilize them to greatest advantage in daily life?

The point of view is that afforded by present-day biological
psychology. For those who may not at first glance see just what
this point of view is, it may be said that one who regards human
nature from the standpoint of biological psychology seeks to
explain the behavior of a child or a youth on the basis of natural
laws governing the development of his body, his intellect and his
character. It is seen that the individual is at birth equipped with
tendencies which represent some of the activities which have
proved of service in the life of his ancestors, and these tendencies
are manifested in varying degrees and forms in the course of
development frojn birth to maturity. But the child is born into
an environment which is fundamentally different in many respects
from that in which the impulses which he brings with him were



vi PREFACE

established, and so he encounters difficulties in adjusting him-
self to the world in which he must live. It is the object of edu-
cation in the school and in the home to assist the individual to
make necessary modifications of and adjustments to his environ-
ments as easily and cfTectively and with as little strain and stress
as p)ossible. To secure information bearing on these matters,
the writer has made observations and investigations on his own
part and has studied the investigations made and views presented
by others ; and he has endeavored to organize and interpret all
available data, and present conclusions in straightforward, in-
telligible language.

Stress is laid in this volume on dynamic methods in teaching,
and an attempt is made to observe the principles advocated by
assigning an important place to exercises requiring the student
to analyze and investigate problems, to interpret data bearing on
various aspects of development and education, and to apply
conclusions to original situations. It is the author's experience
that most readers and students need the stimulus of concrete
problems in order actually to master what they read or study, and
especially to gain ability and facility in making practical use of
the principles they acquire. So in Part III of this volume many
photographs, diagrams, tables, graphs, quotations and queries
are employed, all relating in an orderly way to subjects which are
discussed in the text, and the reader is encouraged to utiHze all
his resources in knowledge and critical method to throw light
into dark places and to bring apparently divergent phenomena
under a few basic principles of development and of education.
A sufficient variety of exercises has been provided so that a class,
a study circle, or an individual reader can select according to
special interests, facilities for investigation, or degree of acquaint-
anceship with psychology and related sciences. •

In 1005 the writer published :i volume entitled "Dynamic
Factors in Education," which was more or less of a pioneer in the



PREFACE vii

field which it covered. This book met with a generous welcome
from teachers, and it has apparently played a small part at least
in promoting dynamic methods of teaching in the schools of our
country ; but the plates have become worn, and it has been de-
cided not to reprint it. Consequently, it has seemed advisable
to include in this volume a few of the more useful chapters,
thoroughly revised, of the earlier book. It is possible that a
reader of this volume may recognize some paragraphs which he
saw in the earlier book, but the little that has been preserved
from "Dynamic Factors in Education" has been brought into
accord with the large amount of research that has been con-
ducted in this field since the earlier book was written.

M. V. O'Shea

The University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin



CONTENTS

PART I

DYNAMIC ASPECTS OF MENTAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER PAGE

I. Motive Forces in Development: Physical Well-being 3
A simple illustration of the nature and role of driving forces.
Physical welfare. Predominance of the food-securing
impulse. Self-protective impulses. Conflict of motive
forces. Resistance to remedial treatment. The impulse
to seek protection from wind and weather. Interest in
clothing for decoration rather than for protection. Fear as
a protective agent. Fear as a motive force in development.

II. Motive Forces in Development: Soclal, Intellectual

AND Esthetic Well-being 18

The passion for experiences with persons. The passion to
communicate. The strongest force of all, — the wish to
secure the good-will of one's fellows. Rivalry as a motive
force. Resentment and aggression. Submission to
leadership as a motive force. The urge to gain knowledge
for its own sake. The constructive impulse as a motive
force. The impulse to solve intellectual problems. The
choice of the beautiful and avoidance of the ugly. Activ-
ities reminiscent of ancestral life. Environment vying with
hereditary forces. Two forces acting on the child in his
development.

III. Primitive Forms of Adaptive Activities: Trial and

Success; Imitation ^^

The helplessness of the infant . The first step in acquiring
adaptive activities. A concrete example of acquiring a
ix



CONTENTS

AFTER PACE

voluntary act. Learning involves excessive activity.
The integration of simple acts into more complex adjust-
ments. Nothing is learned dc mn'o. Imitation as a form
of adaptive activity. The phenomena of mimicry. When
does imitation begin? Apperception in imitation. The
principle illustrated in adult imitation. The course of
development with respect to imitativeness.

I\'. Higher Forms of Adaptive Activity: Generalization;

Symbolization ; Imagination ; Reason ... 54

The adaptive activities of animals. "King Pharaoh's"
abilities. Types of intelligence. Scnsori-motor re-
sponse. A horse's responses depend upon visual, auditory
or olfactory cues. The quahty of animal intelligence.
Popular misconceptions regarding the abilities of animals.
Illustrations of a dog's intelligence. One trait of dis-
tinctly human intelligence, — symbolization. Impor-
tance of symbolization in adaptive activity. Develop-
ment of symbolizing activities in the child. The ability
of the individual to develop free ideas. The ability to
foresee consequences and adapt means to ends. Free con-
cepts must be controlled by the ends to be attained. The
most important distinction between the primitive and the
higher types of intelligence. Analysis and synthesis.

\ . EXPRESSIONAL ACTIVITIES : VoCAL, FeATURAL, PoSTURAL,

Gestural 77

Indefiniteness of the first efTorts at expression. Ready-
made means of expression. Darwin's view of the origin of
expression. The expression of complex emotions. Or-
ganic accompaniments of emotion reenforce motor re-
actions. The James-Lange Theory. With the child ex-
pression is intense but of short duration. With the adult ,
expression is subdued, but it is more enduring than in the
earlier years. Why does expression become subdued with
development ? Women are more expressive than men.
Racial differences in expression. The expression of
thought. Reflection involves strain and effort. Purpose-



CONTENTS xi



PAGE



ful expressional activities. Gesture. Figurative gesture.
The use of the gesture in conveying ideas of quality and of
action. The use of gesture to emphasize feeling. Re-
lation of gesture to language. Individual differences in
the use of gesture.

VI. Expressional Activities : Graphic, Pictorial. . ic6

The development of a sign language. The development of
Hnguistic symbols. Scribbling activities. Studies of
children's drawings. Difficulty of representation no
barrier to expression. Older children are inhibited. The
child's diagrams embody the most essential character-
istics of objects. Always the same diagram for any
given object. Special characteristics of objects not in-
cluded in diagrams. Are logical relations revealed in chil-
dren's drawings? Difficulty in representing special re-
lations. Language acquired more easUy and naturally
than drawing. The psychology of drawing.

VTI. The Development of Coordination 128

Coordination in infancy. The first stages in acquiring
manual dexterity. The wave of development is toward
the extremities. The development of pedal control. The
development of coordination in speech. The principle
illustrated in the child's use of sentences. The order of
losing coordinations in degeneration.

VIII. The Development of Inhibition ; the Neurological and

Psychological View 140

Children's lack of inhibition. The effect of motor re-
straint on mental activity. Restraint comes with
development. The neurological view of inhibition.
Suggestions gained from the phenomena of degeneration.

IX. The Development of Inhibition ; Restraining Forces . 1 54

The perfectly restrained individual. Experiences which
develop restniir.l. Stages in acquiring restraint.
Physical coercion not the only force that leads to re-



xii. CONTENTS

CHAPTER PACK

straint. Restraining influences operate differently at
various stages in development. Imitation of self-
restraint in others. The restraining influence of heroes in
stories. The fusion of restraining forces. The weak-
ening of an impulse. The role of formal education in
developing restraint. The influence of ideals estab-
lished in history, literature, et al. The restraining
influence of habits established by study. Individual
differences in the matter of self-restraint.

X. Activities Peculiar to Adolescence i6g

Transformations occur abruptly during puberty. Boys
form gangs. The boy is interested in tribal activities.
The boy's tribal interests will flourish only in the gang.
The larger the gang the more tribal its interests. The
gang promotes pugnacity. Muscular contests. Steahng.
The instinct of acquisition. Destruction of property.
Profanity and the use of tobacco go hand in hand with
stealing, etc. Truancy. Swimming. Competition in
games. Girls form "sets" which arc only loosely organ-
ized. Activities growng out of sex-interest. Eagerness
to find a job.

PART II
EDUCATIONAL INTERPRETATIONS

XI. Dynamic Education: Content Studies . . . .187
The meaning of dynamic education. How the child is
enabled to interpret the world about him. The dynamic
principle illustrated in the Montcssori schools. The
dynamic principle applied in arithmetic. The dynamic
principle applies to all studies. Dynamic methods in
secondary education. Making rhetoric dynamic. The
teaching of science in the high school. Dynamic teaching
of citizenship. Developing patriotism. The first step in
developing love of country. We are all members of one
lx)dy. The study of community life.



CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER HAGi;

XII. Dynamic Education : Thk Role oi' Suggestion . . 205
Action follows the direction of attention. I'he con-
structive treatment of aches and ills. One can intensify
children's misfortunes by suggestion. The use of sugges-
tion in the sick room. One's defects may be increased by
suggestion. The morals of a community may be elevated
or degraded by suggestion. Sugge-stion in the theater.

XIII. Overstrain in Education: Wasteful Practices . .218

Present-day conditions that cause overstrain. The chief
cause of overstrain. The need for periods of quiet.
Wasting nervous energy in the home. The teased child.
Noise as a nervous irritant. Overstrain in the schools.
Waste from excessively line work. Unnecessary tension
in writing. Concerning pens. The typewriter is less
wasteful than the pen. Postures that lead to waste of
energy. The eye in relation to nervous waste. Mal-
adjustment of ocular muscles. Maladjustment of the
lens. Dr. Gould on the effects of eye-strain. Importance
of the teeth in relation to saving waste of vitaHty.

XIV. Overstrain in Education: Conditions Affecting

Endurance 263

Handicaps to endurance. Why people differ in power of
endurance. Training for mental endurance. Training
can be overdone. "OfT days." The law of economy in
developing and maintaining organs. Organs that are not
used tend to degenerate. Intelligence is in the ascend-
ancy. The price of "refined" training. Hardening the
body. New social conditions make our problem a very
complicated one. Overeating and under-cleaning.
Health and cleanliness. Blue Monday. Energy in re-
lation to indoor air. What are the requirements for good
ventilation? The toxic effect of "dead" air. The role
played by clothing in maintaining vigor. Energ>' in re-
lation to indoor temperature. Arranging a heating system
so as to overcome inequality in temperature between head
and floor levels.



xlv CONTENTS

PART ITT

EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION,
INVESTIGATION AND A Pl^IJ CATION

CHAPTER PACE

I. Motive Forces in Development : Physical Well-being 2qi

II. Motive Forces in Development : Social, Intellec-
tual ANT> Esthetic Well-being 295

III. Primitive Modes of Adaptivk Activity: Trial and

Success; Imitation ,^oi

I\'. Higher Forms or Adaptive Activity: Conception;

Symbolization ; Imagination; Reason . . . -310

\'. EXPRESSIONAL ACTFV'ITIES : VoCAL, FeATURAL, POSTURAL,

Gestural 319

vi. expressional acti\'ities : graphic, pictorlal . 325

VII. The Development of Coordination . . . . 329

VIII. The Development of Inhibition ; the Neurological and

Psychological View 332

IX. The Development of Inhibition; Restraining Forces . 338

X. Activities Peculiar to Adolescence 344

XI. Dynamic Education: General Principles . . 356

XII. Dynamic Education: The Role of Suggestion . 368

XIII. Overstrain in Education: Wasteful Practices . 377

XIV. Overstrain in Education: Conditions Affecting En-

durance 390

Authors Referred to or Quoted in the Text .... 395
Index 397



FIGURES IN THE TEXT



1. Children's Passion for Swimming and Playing Games in the Water

2. Children's Passion for Constructive Activities

3. The Nomadic Impulse during the Teens

4. Children's Interest in Dramatic Activities .

5. Children's Passion for Impersonation .

6. The Animal Brain as Compared with That of Man

7. Phrenological Chart

8. Chart Illustrating Chiromancy ....

9. Studies in the Expression of the Brow

10. Studies in the Expression of the Lips .

11. Studies in the Expression of the Eyes ...

12. The Evolution of the Letter M .

13. Examples of Pictorial Writing ....
13 a. Examples of Pictorial Writing ....

14. A Child's Drawing for "Jack and the Bean Stalk"

15. A Child's Drawing for " Johnny-Look-in-the-Air"
15 a. Second Drawing for "Johnny-Look-in-the-Air"
15 /). Third Drawing for "Johnny-Look-in-the-Air"

16. Fourth Drawing for "Johnny-Look-in-the-Air"

17. Fifth Drawing for "Johnny-Look-in-thc-Air"

18. Effect of Children's Efforts to Perform Coordinated Tasks

19. Activities Requiring Use of the Large Muscles Principally

20. Tasks That Do Not Require Fine Coordination .

21. Tasks Requiring Varying Degrees of Coordination

22. The Brains of ((7) Normal Adult ; (b) Adult Idiot ; (c) New-

born Child ........

23. Scene in the Vicinity of a Public School in a Large City

24. Competitive Games for Girls .....

25. Indoor Games ........

26. Curve Showing Annual Increase in Endurance, Vital Capacity

Weight and Grip of Right Hand

27. Scene in an American Dance Hall



PAGE

14
29

31

46
65

80
82

85
87

04
108
IIO

no

1X2
IIQ

120

121
124
124

132
134

i.?8

141
144

147
150

170
182



XVI



FIGURES IN THi: TEXT



28. Boys in the Early Adolescent Period .

29. An Educational Object Lesson

30. Learning Tables of Measurement by Actual Use

31. Judging Different \ arielies of Corn
^2. Fourteen Nationalities in One School .
S3. Plethysmographic Record from the Arm of a Sleeping Person

34. Record Showing Effect of Noise on a Sleeping Subject

35. Different Styles of Penholders ....

36. A Posture Frequently Seen in Home and School

37. Overdoing the P^ffort to Maintain Erect Posture

38. Postures That Lead to Deformities
3Q. Posture Induced by a Too High Scat .

40. Posture Induced by Relation of Seat to Desk

41. Effect of Too Small Distance between Seat and Desk

42. Posture Induced by Too Small Desk and Chair .

43. Posture Induced by Too Great Distance between Seat and

Desk

44. Proper Adjustment of Desk and Chair

45. Posture Induced by Too High Desk

46. Muscles of the Eyeball

47. The Normal Eye

48. The Shortsighted or Myopic Eye
40- The Longsighted or Hyperopic Eye

50. The Double Concave Lens .

5 1 . Concave Lens to Correct Myopia

52. The Double Convex Lens

53. Convex Lens to Correct Longsightedness

54. The Astigmatic Dial ....

55. Chart Showing Astigmatism

56. A Shortsighted Astigmatic Eye .

57. Another Type of Shortsighted Astigmatic Eye

58. The Longsighted Astigmatic Eye

59. An Astigmatic Eye in Which Rays Focus on the Retina in One

Meridian and behind the Retina in Another Meridian

60. Astigmatic Eye in Which Rays Focus in Front of the Retina in

One Meridian and behind the Retina in Another Meridian

61. Postures Which Determine Mental States ....

62. Seating Which Will Secure Erect Posture ....



247

247
254
255



FIGURES IN THE TEXT



XV 11



FIOCRE

63. Fairhope Method of Inducing Children to Relax

64. School Facilities for Relaxation .

65. Outdoor Calisthenics

66. Competitive Games Which Develop Endurance

67. The Chief Malady of the Schoolroom .

68. The Nomadic Impulse

69. The Throwing Impulse

70. Operating a Linotype Machine

71. Work for Backward Children

72. A Study in Expression

73. A Study in Expression

74. Children's Spontaneous Drawings

75. Children's Spontaneous Drawings

76. Children's Spontaneous Drawings

77. Relative Proportions of Child and Adult

78. Relations of Adolescent Boys and Girls
7Q. Cultivating the Soil

80. The Meeting-Place of the Gang .

81. Dynamic Methods of Teaching Pyramids and Cones

82. Learning How to Take Care of a Baby

83. Learning How to Make a Bed

84. One Method of Lighting a Schoolroom
8^. Curvature of the Spine



PAOE

258
260

272
274
284
294
296

317
321
322
323
325
326
326
333
352
353
3.S4
364
365
366
381
382



PART ONE
DYNAMIC ASPECTS OF MENTAL DEVELOPMENT



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AND
EDUCATION

CHAPTER I

MOTIVE FORCES IN DEVELOPMENT: PHYSICAL WELL-
BEING

A COMPLICATED subjcct may perhaps best be introduced by
a. simple illustration. In the spring one plants a bean seed in
moist earth. Soon the young plant will break through ^ g^j^pig
the soil. Roots will push downward into the earth, illustration
and stalk, branches and leaves will appear above and r6ie of
the earth. If there is an obstruction in the path of



Online LibraryM. V. (Michael Vincent) O'SheaMental development and education → online text (page 1 of 30)