Mabel Irene Rich.

A study of the types of literature online

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very slight one, forced upon the prisoner in coaches, inns, and packets?

Barsad. No.



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388 TYPES OF PROSE

Mr, Carton, Sure you saw the prisoner with these lists?
Barsad. Certain.

Mr, Carton, You knew no more about the lists?
Barsad, No.

Mr, Carton. Expect to get anything by this evidence!
Barsad, No.

Mr, Carton, Not in regular government pay and employment to
lay traps?
Barsad, Oh dear no !
Mr, Carton, Or to do anything?
Barsad, Oh dear no!
Mr, Carton, Swear that?
Barsad, Over and over again.
Mr. Carton. No motives but sheer patriotism!
Barsad, None whatever.



Mr, Carton, That is sufficient.



(Barsad leaves witness-box.)



Mr, Stryver (calls Roger Cly). Is your name Roger Cly?

Chj. It is.

Mr. Stryver, Do you know the prisoner?

Cly, I do.

Mr, Stryver, When did you first become acquainted with him?

Cly, Four years ago.

Mr, Stryver, Under what circumstances?

Cly, I was his servant.

Mr, Stryver. How did you become his servant?

Cly. I asked the prisoner on board the Calais packet if he wanted
a handy fellow, and the prisoner engaged me.

Mr. Stryver. You did n't ask the prisoner to take you as an act of
charity ?

Cly. Never thought of such a thing.

Mr, Stryver, When did you first have suspicions of the prisoner?

Cly. Soon after I entered his service.

Mr, Stryver, Did you see similar lists to these then?

Cly. Yes, over and over again.

Mr, Stryver. Where?

Cly. In arranging the prisoner's clothes while traveling.

Mr, Stryver. Where did you get these lists?

Cly, I took tliem from the drawer of the prisoner's desk.

Mr, Stryver. You had not put them there first?

Cly, Indeed not.

Mr, Stryver, Did you ever see the prisoner make use of them?

Cly, I saw him show these identical lists to French gentlemen.

Mr, Stryver. Where?

Cly, Both in Calais and Boulogne.



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PROSE FICTION 389

Mr, Stryver. Why did you inform upon him?

Cly, I loved my country and I could not bear it.

Mr. Stryver. You have never been suspected of stealing a silver tea-
pot?

Cly, I was so maligned respecting a mustard-pot, but it turned out to
be a plated one.

Mr, Stryver, How long have you known the last witness?

Cly, Seven or eight years.

Mr, Stryver, How did that happen?

Cly, Only a coincidence.

Mr, Stryver, Isn't it a curious coincidence?

Cly, Not particularly so; most coincidences are curious.

Mr, Stryver, Is n't it a curious coincidence, that true patriotism was Ms
only motive, too?

Cly, No. He is a true Briton and I hope there are many like him.

Mr, Stryver, That is sufficient.

(Mr. Attorney-General calls Mr. Jarvis Lorry to witness-stand,)

(As the examination of Mr. Lorry, Miss Manette, and Dr. Manette is
given by direct questions and answeis in the chapter "A Disappointment,"
that dialogue can be taken directly from the book at this point.)

{After examining Mr. Lorry, Miss Manette, and Dr. Manette.
Mr. Attorney-General sits down,)

Mr, Stryver, (Calls John Doe to identify prisoner,) Is your name
John Doe?

Doe, It is.

Mr, Stryver, Look on the prisoner. Have you ever seen him before?

Doe, I have.

Mr, Stryver, Where?

Doe. In the coffee-room of a hotel in the garrison and dockyard town
of Brighton.

Mr. Stryver, When was this?

Doe, On a Friday night in November, 1775.

Mr, Stryver, Have you ever seen him on any other occasion?

Doe, No.

Mr, Stryver, Are you sure that the man you saw at the inn was the
prisoner?

Doe, I am very sure.

(The Wigged Gentleman, who has been looking at the ceiling,
writes a word or two on a piece of paper, screws it up, and
tosses it to Mr. Stryver.)

Mr, Stryver, (Reads paper and looks with great attention and curi-
osity at the prisoner,) You say again you are quite sure that it was the
prisoner that you saw?



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390 TYPES OF PROSE

Doe, I am quite sure.

Mr, Stryver. Did you ever see any one very like the prisoner?

Doe, Not so like that I could be mistaken.

Mr, Stryver, Look well upon that gentleman, my learned friend there,
and then look well upon the prisoner. How say you? Are they very
like each other?

Doe, {Astonished and hesitating,) Very like! Very like!

Mr, Stryver, {To My Lord.) My Lord, I pray you bid my learned
friend lay aside his wig.

My Lord, {Ungraciously.) Shall we next try Mr. Carton for treason?

Mr, Stryver, No, My Lord, but I would ask the witness to tell mc
whether what happened once, might happen twice; whether he would
have been so confident if he had seen this illustration of his rashness
sooner; whether he would be so confident, having seen it. That is suffi-
cient.

Mr, Stryver, {Makes his appeal to the Jury.) My Lord, and Gentle-
men of the Jury: I think we can prove conclusively that the so-called
patriot, John Barsad, is a hired spy and traitor, an unblushing trafficker
in blood, and one of the greatest scoundrels upon the earth since ac-
cursed Judas. That the so-called virtuous servant, Roger Cly, is his friend
and partner and is worthy to be. That tiie watchful eyes of these forgers
and false swearers have rested on the prisoner as a victim, because some
family affairs in France — he being of French extraction — have necessitated
his making those passages across the Channel. What those affairs are, a
consideration for others near and dear to him forbid him even for his
life to disclose.

That the evidence that has been warped and wrested from the young
lady whose anguish in giving it you have witnessed, comes to nothing,
involving only the mere little gallantries and politenesses likely to pass
between any young gentleman and young lady so thrown together; with
the exception of that reference to George Washington which is altogether
too extravagant and impossible to be regarded in any other light than
as a monstrous joke. It would be a weakness in the government to
break down in this attempt to practice for popularity on the lowest national
antipathies and fears; and, therefore, Mr. Attorney-General has made
the most of it. Nevertheless, it rests upon nothing save that vile and in-
famous character of evidence too often disfiguring such cases, and of
which the state trials of this country are full.

My Lord, {Breaking in,) I cannot sit upon this Bench and suffer
those allusions.

Mr, Attorney-General, {Makes his appeal to the Jury,) My Lord, and
Gentlemen of the Jury: You have just heard the base insinuations that
liave been made by the prisoner's counsel. You must take them for what
they are worth. You surely cannot believe that these two noble gentle-
men have been so wicked as to enter into a plot to defame an innocent



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PROSE FICTION 391

man. Consider their testimony; their evident unwillingness to bring ac-
cusations against a friend, their attempts to smother their suspicions. All
these bespeak the innate fineness of their friendships, and yet the great
and abiding love which they bore their country, their patriotism, rising
to sublime heights, brought them at last to sacrifice friendship on the
sacred altar of Country. "Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved
Rome more," was as true of them as it was of Brutus of old. Can you
for one moment suspect them of the charges which have been brought
against them? Do their faces look the part? No, a thousand times. No!
Why cannot the prisoner give his reasons for making the numerous trips
between France and England? He cannot because they would incriminate
him! The two noble patriots, Mr. Barsad and Mr. Cly, are a hundred
times better than I thought them to be and the prisoner is a hundred
times worse. Surely his statement regarding the infamous rebel, George
Washington, cannot be thus lightly thrust aside. That statement alone
proves his treason.

Think of the magnitude of your decision. Shall traitors defy our laws?
Shall our enemies escape the dire justice which they deserve? Think of
all this and, when you decide, lefe the verdict be. Guilty.

My Lord, (Gives charge to Jury.) Gentlemen of the Jury, you have
now heard the testimony presented on both sides in this case against tlie
prisoner, Charles Darnay. It is now your solemn duty to deliberate upon
this question and render your verdict according to tlie merits of the case
and with due regard for the majesty of the law. You may now retire.
Officer, accompany the Jury to the Jury room. A recess in the court is
declared.

(1) What turned the scale in favor of Charles Darnay?

(2) Why is this chapter called "A Disappointment"? I

(3) What is meant by the "baffled blue-fiies"? .

Chapter IV. "Congratulatory."

(1) What explanation is found in this chapter for the title, "The Golden

I^hread," which Dickens has given to Book II ?

(2) What impression of Mr. Stryver is obtained here? How does it

compare with the first impression of him?

(3) Where in this chapter has the author aroused curiosity? Notice
his frequent use of suspense.

(4) Trace Mr. Carton through this chapter. How does your impression

of him here compare with the one gained in the court room?

(5) What reasons had he for disliking Charles Darnay?

(6) What was the highest, point of his insolence here?

(7) What was the reason why Carton flung his glass against the

wall?

(8) What was the characterization which Carton gave of himself?



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392 TYPES OF PROSE

Chapter V. "The Jackal."

(1) Explain the title of this chapter. How is it appropriate?

(2) What were Stryver's ambitions?

(3) Where had Stryver found his jackal? What of their past history

gained here?

(4) Why was it that the Stryver clerk never assisted at these confer-

ences?

(5) Why does Carton call Miss Manette **a golden-haired doll"?

(6) What effect do the last two paragraphs of this chapter have on

the reader's opinion of Carton?

(7) Why was the pillow "wet with wasted tears"?

(8) Memorize the last paragraph of this chapter.

(9) What is the fatal defect in Sydney Carton?

Chapter VI. "Hundreds of People."

(1) What is the time of this chapter with reference to the last?

(2) What was the peculiar feature about the location of Dr. Manette's

residence?

(3) On what occasion was the reader first introduced to Miss Prossf

What are her dominant traits of character?

(4) What infoimation is gained here regarding her brother Solormon?
(6) What is gathered in this chapter regarding Dr. Manette's life since

his restoration?

(6) What two possible reasons did Dickens have for naming this

chapter "Hundreds of People"?

(7) Notice later in the story how many times you are reminded of

this chapter.

(8) What hints can you find in Chapters III, IV, and V that Sydney

Carton is especially interested in Miss Manette?

(9) How does the author stimulate curiosity regarding Dr. Manette?

Chapter VII, "Monseigneur in Town."

(1) Look up the causes of the French Revolution as given in the

histories.

(2) What causes of the French Revolution are here depicted concretely?

(3) What are the real purposes of this chapter?

(4) Show bow "the leprosy of unreality disfigured every human crea-

ture in attendance upon Monseigneur."

(5) What use of foreshadowing here?

(6) What new character is introduced in this chapter?

(7) How is our curiosity aroused regarding this man? What is his

attitude toward Monseigneur?

(8) What two distinct purj^oses are served by the incident at the Saint

Antoine fountain?

(9) Where before in the story did we see Gaspard?



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PROSE FICTION 393

(10) What others of these people have we met before? What indica-

tions of their power?

(11) Notice in this chapter the beginning of a second plot.

Chapter VIII, "Monscigneur in the Country."

(1) What foreshadowing in the second, third, and fourth paragraphs

of this chapter?

(2) Why might the carriage have been lighter? (Two reasons.)

(3) What other causes of the French Revolution are given concretely

in this chapter?

(4) Why were there no dogs to be seen in the village?

(5) What were the Furies in Greek mythology?

(6) In what way did Monsieur the Marquis seem to be attended by

the Furies?

(7) Notice the three significant references to the Furies in this chapter.

(8) What is the purpose in introducing the poor woman with her

petition ?
(In Chapters VII and VIII Dickens sometimes refers to Mon-
seigneur as a class and again as an individual.)

Chapter IX, "The Gorgon's Head."

(1) What was the Gorgon's head in Greek mythology?

(2) What is the significance of the title of this chapter?

(3) Who is Monsieur the Marquis? What is the character of the

man?

(4) What is the feeling between him and Charles Damay?

(5) What of Charles Darnay's past history is revealed here?

(6) For what purpose had the Marquis gone to Paris? Why had he

attended the reception the day before? What indication ^at
that time as to his success?

(7) What mysteries are cleared up in this chapter?

(8) Why had Charles Darnay gone back and forth between France

and England, as was brought out in Chapter VI?

(9) Had the Marquis anything to do with Charles's imprisonment for

treason ?

(10) What indication that Charles has been closely watched?

(11) Is Charles in any danger on this present occasion? Why is he

here?

(12) How has the author made use of foreshadowing here?

(13) Why does Dickens make the Marquis review the day's events before

going to bed?

(14) Where is the first hint given that the Marquis is to be murdered?

Trace the series of hints to the full revelation of the deed.

(15) What is signified by the actions of the mender of roads and the

villagers?



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394 TYPES OF PROSE

(16) Why does Dickens liken Gabelle and liis servant to "a new version

of the German ballad of Leonora"?

(17) What is meant by the statement that the stone face added to the

Chateau that night was the one "for which it had waited through
about two hundred years"?

(18) What hints as to the identity of the murderer? Why was the note

signed "Jacques"?

(19) What hints as to when the deed was done?

Chapter X. "Two Promises."

(1) What is the time of this chapter with reference to the last one?

(2) Does Damay have any knowledge regarding the causes of Dr.

Manette's past trouble? What is the reason why he hesitates to
ask the doctor's consent?

(3) In what figurative language did Dickens tell us that Darnay was a

tutor at Cambridge a part of the time?

(4) What were the two promises?

(5) What was the cause of Dr. Manette's relapse that night?

Chapter XI, "A Companion Picture."

(1) Explain the meaning of this title. To what is this picture a

companion ?

(2) What is the chief interest of this chapter?

(3) Of what importance is it to the story as a whole?

(4) Does it further the plot in any way?

(5) What is your feeling for Carton here?

Chapter XII. "A Fellow of Delicacy."

(1) What is the chief purpose. of this chapter?

(2) Why is Stryver so sure of success in his love-making?

(3) What is the reason for this title?

(4) How does Stryver turn the tables on Mr. Lorry? Why does he

do it?

Chapter XIII, "The Fellow of No Delicacy."

(1) What is the meaning of the title of this chapter?

(2) How does this chapter affect our feeling toward Carton?

(3) Why is Carton so sure there can be no chance for himself?

(4) Why does he tell Miss Manette of his love when he knows there is

no hope?

Chapter XIV. "The Honest Tradesman."

(1) Why does Dickens introduce this chapter just here?

(2) What is the nature of the chapters preceding and following it?



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PROSE FICTION 395

(3) Does this chapter affect the plot any? Its purpose?

(4) Notice the things in this chapter which arouse curiosity:

(a) "Funerals had at all times a remarkable attraction for Mr.

Cruncher."

(b) Jerry "modestly concealed his spiky head from the observa-

tion of Tellson's, in the further comer of the mourning
coach."

(c) "Mr. Cruncher remained behind in the churchyard, to confer

and condole with the undertakers."

(d) He made a short call on on his way back.

(e) Jerry 's going fishing.

(f) Young Jerry's remark that his father's fishing-rods get

rusty. Compare with this the speech of Young Jerry in
the last paragraph of Chapter I of this book.

(g) Jerry's objection to Mrs. Cruncher's "floppings."
(h) Jerry's fishing tackle.

(5) Whose funeral procession was this? Why so treated?

(6) Why was Jerry's companion in the night's adventure called "a

disciple of Izaak Walton"?

(7) Why was there no "fish" for breakfast?

(8) What was the effect on Jerry when he learned of his young son's

ambition? Why is Young Jerry introduced into the story?

Chapter XV. "Knitting."

(1) Where is this scene laid?

(2) Account for the subdued excitement in Saint Antoine.

(3) Why has Defarge brought the mender of roads to Paris?

(4) What signal was given to the three Jacques? Compare with that

given to the same three men in Chapter V of Book I.

(5) Why are the people of Saint Antoine so much interested in the

story told by the mender of roads?

(6) Why was the fountain chosen for the place of Gaspard's execution?

(7) What is the full significance of the decision made by the four

Jacques regarding the "Chateau and all the race"?

(8) What is meant by the title of this chapter?

(9) Why is the mender of roads taken to Versailles?

(10) Why is Madame Defarge so busy knitting on this trip?

(11) What is her own explanation of her work?

(12) What kind of a man is the mender of roads?

Chapter XVL "Still Knitting."

(1) Notice throughout the story the constant use of significant details,
showing that the author always has in mind the effects he wants
to produce. For instance, in this chapter notice how we are
constantly reminded of the condition of the people:



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396 TYPES OF PROSE

(a) "The few village scarecrows — in quest of herbs to eat and

fragments of sticks to burn."

(b) "Their starved fancy."

(c) "A rumor just lived in the village — had a faint and bare

existence there, as its people had."

(d) "A skinny finger," etc.

(2) What is indicated by the fact that one of the police gave the De-

farges information regarding the spy?

(3) Which is the more important character. Monsieur or Madame

Def arge ?

(4) Which one has the stronger personality? In what ways?

(5) What use of surprise in this chapter?

(6) Is it natural to find the Englishman, Barsad, as a spy on the

French people? How has Dickens arranged for the plausibility
of this circumstance?
(?) Notice carefully the signals given in the wine-shop. What were
they for?

(8) What was the result of the spy^s efforts to pick up or make

crumbs?

(9) What was Madame knitting?

(10) What was the one evident "hit" that the spy made on this visit?

(11) Compare Monsieur and Madame at this moment.

(12) Why should this news have such an effect?

(13) What indicates the power the Defarges have in Saint Antoine?

(14) What was Defarge's characterization of his wife in next to the last

paragraph of this chapter? Do you agree with him?

Chapter XVII. "One Night."

(1) What was the time of this chapter?

(2) Why does Dr. Manette refer to his old life here?

Chapter XVIII, "Nine Days."

(1) What caused the relapse of Dr. Manette?

(2) Is Dr. Manette's mental state as bad as when you saw him in Paris?

Why?

(3) Why was the plan of action arranged by Mr. Lorry and Miss

Pross a wise one?

Chapter XIX. "An Opinion."

(1) What is the importance of this chapter in the story as a whole?

(2) What was Dr. Manette's opinion regarding another attack?

Chapter XX. "A Plea."

(1) What was Carton's request? In what way does this chapter tie
a knot in the plot?



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PROSE FICTION 397

Chapter XXI. "Echoing Footsteps."

(1) What is the approximate date of this chapter?

(2) What place has Carton in the family life of the Darnays?

(3) How are we reminded in this chapter^ of the general title of the

second book ? Of that Sunday night under the plane trees, nine
years before?

(4) How many years have gone by since the beginning of the story?

How old is Mr. Lorry now? Dr. Manette?
(6) Why in the one chapter has the author presented a scene in Soho
and one in Saint Antoine?

(6) What changes have the years brought to each? How many years

did Moiisieur and Madame Defarge have to wait, after that talk
in the wine-shop, before the "lightning" was made and stored
and the "earthquake" prepared ?

(7) Where was the storehouse of weapons? ("Thrown up from the

depth below J')

(8) Compare the account given in the histories of the storming of

the Bastille with the one given here. Notice especially Carlyle's
"History of the French Revolution," Part I, Book V, Chapter 6,

(9) Why was Defarge so interested in 105 North Tower?

(10) What was the result of his search?

(11) What foreshadowing is given in this chapter?

Chapter XXII, "The Sea Still Rises."

(1) Changes in Saint Antoine after the storming of the Bastille?

(2) Explain: "The image had been hammering into this for hundreds

of years, and the last finishing blows had told mightily on the
expression."

(3) What is the author's purpose in introducing the Foulon story?

(4) Notice the descriptions in the closing paragraphs of this chapter.

Chapter XXI II . "Fire Rises."

(1) What is the .central thought of this chapter?

(2) How is the plot advanced?

(3) How is Dickens true to history in this chapter?

(4) What changes do you note in the mender of roads? Gabelle?

(5) If Gabelle had pitched himself head foremost over the parapet, as

he at one time contemplated, what effect would it have had on
the story?

Chapter XXIV, "Drawn to the Loadstone Rock."

(1) What is the time of this chapter with reference to the last one

in which we saw the Damays? How old is little Lucie?

(2) What historical happenings are hinted at in this chapter? Follow

closely the historical account of:



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398 TYPES OF PliOSE

(a) The Emigration of Nobles.

(b) The ** Joyous Entry" from Versailles.

(c) The Flight of the King.

(d) Massacre of the Swiss Guards.

(3) Explain the third paragraph of this chapter.

(4) Why was Tellson's bank an important place at this time?

(5) What was the chain of circumstances which led Charles Darnay to

the "Loadstone Rock"?

(6) Explain the meaning of the title of chapter.

(7) What were Charles's motives for going to France? Why did he

not see his danger?

(8) How has Dickens made it seem natural for Mr. Lorry to go to

France? Jerry Cruncher?

(9) What is the importance of this chapter to the story as a whole?



Book the Third. "The Track of a Storm''

Chapter I. "In Secret."

(1) How does the author make it clear to us that conditions have

changed in France?

(2) What help did Gabelle's letter give Charles in getting to Paris?

(3) What was the effect upon Defarge when he learned who Charles

was? Why?

(4) Why was Charles placed "in secret"? What advantage did this

prove to him?

(5) Was this advantage intended when he was so placed?

(6) Why were the company of ladies and gentlemen that Charles sees

in the prison described as ghosts ?

Chapter II. "The Grindstone."

(1) What were the headquarters of Tellson's Bank in Paris?

(2) W^hat advantages were gained from its location?

(3) Look up the account, given in the histories, of the "Jail Delivery."

(4) Why did Dr. Manette and Lucie come to Paris?

(5) Why should they bring the child and Miss Pross? Was this

necessary? Show that these events are consistent with what you
know of these characters.

(6) Why was Doctor Manette's influence so great?

Chapter III. "The Shadow."

(1) What is the significance of this title?

(2) Why did Madame Defarge go to see Lucie? Why was she still

knitting?

(3) Did she know before that there was a child?



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PROSE FICTION 390

(4) Why did they allow Charles to write a note home but would not

allow a reply to it?

(5) What foreshadowing is used here?

Chapter IV. "Calm in Storm."

(1) What was the check which prevented Charles's release?

(2) Why was the Doctor so strong and calm during the terrible

time ?

(3) Why were Charles's letters never sent by the Doctor's hand?

(4) Explain what is meant by the "deluge of the Year One of Liberty

— the deluge rising from below, not falling from above, and
with the windows of Heaven shut, not opened."

(5) What prevented Charles from being brought to trial?

(6) Follow the account of events given in history here. Is Dickens ac-

curate in historical details?



Online LibraryMabel Irene RichA study of the types of literature → online text (page 33 of 48)