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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



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AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF MADRAS GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS.



IN THE EAST.

R. Cambeay k Co.. Culciitlii.

A. J. CoMBKiDGE & Co., Bombay.
CoMBRiDOK & Co., Madras.

JI. GuLAB Singh & Sons, Mu(id-I-Am Press, Lahore-.

HiGOiNBOTHAM & CO., Mouiit Rowi, Matlras.

V. Kalyanarama Iter &. Co., EsplaiUKle. Madras.

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta.

S. MuRTHY & Co., Kapalet' Press, Madras.

(;. A. Natesan & Co., Madra.s.

Xewman 4 Co., Calcutta.

P. R. Rama Iyar & Co., 192, Esplanade, Madra-s.

• T. K. SiTARAMA AiTAR, Kuuibakonam.

Slterintendent, American Baptist Mission Press, Ranjcoon. .

SrPERiXTENDENT, Nazaie Kanun Hind Press, Allaliahad.

I). B. Taraporevala Sons & Co., Bombay.

Temple & Co., Mylapore, Madras.

Thacker & Co. (Limited), Bombay.

TnACKER, Spink & Co., Calcutta.

Thompson & Co., Madras.

IN ENGLAND.

E. A. ARNOLD, 41 and t3, Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., London.

B. H. Blackwell, 51) and 51, Broad Street, Oxford.
Constable & Co., IG, J."\mes Street, Haymarkel, W.. Ijondon.
Deiqhton, Bell & >



PLAN OF CONTENTS.



Chapter


PAGES


I. Physical Description


1-23


II. Political History . .


24-71


III. Thb People


72-111


IV. Agriculture AND Irrigation .. .. .. .. J 12-131


V. Forests


132-143


VI. Occupations and Trade


144-153


VII. Means of Communication


154-159


Vlli. Eainfall and Seasons


160-167


IX. Public PIealtii


168-17a


X. Education


174-178


XI. Land Revenue Administr.'


i-TiON 179-209


XII. Salt, Abkari AND Miscellaneous Eevenue .. .. 210-213


XIII, Administration of Jusiici


214-219


XIV. Local Self-Goveknment .


220-227


XV. Gazetteer —




Dindignl Taluk


228-244


Kodaikanal Taluk


245-253


Madura Taluk


254-281


Melur Taluk


282-291


Nilakkottai Taluk


292-299


Palui Taluk


300-311


Periyakulam Taluk


312-324


Tirumangalam Taluk


325-331


Index


333-363



TABLE OF CONTENl^.



CHAJ'TER I.

PHYSICAL DKSCBJPTION.

PASE

Gexieat, Desi RiPTioN (pHgo 1) — Positiwii and In >niulai-ie.s— Taluks and chief
towns — Pjtymology of t.lic iiamn (2)— Naturnl divisions. Hili.s (3) —The
Palnis — Vanishanad and Andjpai.ii hills ((>) — Tho Nagjmalai (7) — Siru-
malais— Kaiaiidamalais (8) — Aiaofarraalais (9) — Tho Nattam and Aildr
hills — Isolated hills — Scenery (10). Rivers — The Gundar — Tirnniaiiiniut-
tar and Palar — Ko Javanar, Nanganji, Xallatangi and Shaninuganadi — The
Vaigai and its tribufcai-ies (M). .S(>ii-s(12). Climatk (13)— Rainfall-
Temperatme. Gkology (!4! — Minerals (15). Flora. I-'aixa (20) —
Cattle — Sheep and goats (,22) — Game ... ... 1-23



CHAPTER II.

POLITICAL HISTOKY.

PtBHinoKic Peoples (page 2'1-) - PaUcolithic man — Kistvaeix, etc. (25).
Early History — The Pandya dynasty — Its antiquity (2G) — Appears in
early Tamil liteiature — Its first, mention in inscription* (29) — Its sf-rua;-
gles with tlie Pallavas, 7th century — Decline of the latter — The Ganga-
Pallavas, 9th century (30) — Pandya ascendancy — Chola revival, 10th
to 12th centnries^Pandja rebellions (31) — Pand\-a renaissance, 12th
century (33) — Struggle for the throne — Decline of the Clioias, 13th
century (311 — Pandya rule thenceforth — Maravarman Sundara-Paudya I,
121G-3-') (35) — Arrival of the Hoysalas — Jatavarnian Sundara-Pandya I,
1251-61 (30) -End of the Hoysala and Chola power — Maravarman Kula-
86khara I (12G8-1308) and his successor — Splendour of the Pandya realm
(37). Musalii*..\]Invasio\, 1310 — Musalraan dynasty at Madura (38).
VrJAYANAGAR DOMINION, 1305 — Its effects (39)— King Achyuta's campaign,
1532 (40). Na'yakkan Dynasty, 1559-173G— Its origin (40— Vjsvantitlia
Nayakkaii, 1559-63 (■12) — His incnediatc succosaors (43)— Fall of Vijaya-
nagar kingilom,I5tj5 (41) — Tiruniala Xayakkan, 1623-59 — Kedefies Vijaya-
nagar (45) — Calls the Muliamniadans to his aid — And becomes their fenda-
tory (iG) — His wars with Mysore — His death (47) -Kebellions among hi»
vassals (48) — A. curious rumour — Tiruraala's capital (49) — His public build-
ings—Mnfctu Alakadri, 1659-62 (50) — Chokkanatha (1662-82) — His
troubles with his neiirbbours —His coB(iue8t and loss of Tanjore (51) — At-
tacked by Mysore and the Marathas (52) — The latter seize his country
(53) — Ranga Krishna Muttu Viiappa (1682-89) — iMatters improve — Man-
gam mil (l(;89-1701) (54.)— Her charities— Her wars— Her tragic death
(55)— Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha (170t-31) (5G)— His feeble rule — Mi'nak-
shi (1731 .");;) -Miisfilman interference — I'hid of Nayakkan dvTasty(5
S< AKCiTiEs- In prc-British days-In 17S:>'J— In 1812-14 (162) -In 1832
and lyaO- In l857 - ln 18615 -The great famine of 1870-78 (1615). Pluoks
(160) 100-167

CHAPTER IX.

PUHLIC HEALTH.

Gknkral Ilf.ALTH (page 108)- Cholera — Fever (109) — Small-pox — Madnra foot
— Vital Ktatistics (171'. Medical Institutions — American Mission hospi-
tals and disj)en8aries — The Madura hospital- The Dindi^ul hospital 172)
— Other institutions 168-173



CHAPTER X.

EDUCATION.

RarTjV History (page 174) — The three Sangams— The new Sangam (175) —
Education under the Nayakkans. Cknsus Statistics — Figures by reli-
gions and talnks (170). EnicATioNAi, ixsTiTUTioxs— The lasumalai Col-
lege — The ^Lidura College (177) -Upper secondary schools— Lower second-
ary pechools (178)— Other schools— Nowsimpers, etc. ... ... ... 174-378



adi TABl^B OF CONTBNtS.

CHAPTER XI.

LAND KE VENUE ADMINISTRATION.

PA»B

R.F. VENUE History (pane 179) — Native revenue gystems— Methods of tli**
Navakkans (180)— Of the Marathas (181) -And of the later renters —
British administration : in the Dindisu' conntry (183) — Mr. ^^c^>eod, first
Collector. l700~IIis incapacity (184)— Mr. Wynch and liis maladministra-
tion, 1794 (IS.'S) — rommissibn of enquiry, 1796 — Mr. Hurdi.s' Collector-
ship (186) — Order restored and survey and settlement bcsfun, 1800 (187) —
Principles of these (188) — Miscellaneous taxes ()8fl) — The finantial results
(190)— Air. Parish becomes Collector— The di.-trict declines, 1805 (191) -
Mr. Hodgson's report upon it — Triennial village leases, 1808-10 — Mr. Rons
Peter's redactions in the assessments, 1823 (192) — Further reductions,
1831 — Abolition of vavpayir assessments, lSo4 (193) — Unsettled pa'aiyams
(194) — British administration in the Madura country (196) — Eitticulties at
the outset — Formal cession of the conntry, 1801 (197) — Early setcleuu-nta
in it -The various land tenures — Government land (198) — TLafta devas-
tanam — Sihhwndi pomppu (199) — JtritJiam — Pnruppn villagfcs —Church
maniijam.9—Chiitirn.ra land (200) — Arcfi-kattahii — Arai-Jatfahn villatres —
Ardha-ma7)iijai>i, etc. -Defects of the settlement — Triennial leases and
the ryoiwari system (201' — Kednctions in assessments. The Existing
Stkvky AKn Skttlemext, 1885-89 — Principles followed (202) — Kates
prescril)ed (203")- Resultant effects (204)— Settlement of hill villages
(205). iNAMs (206). ExisTixe Divisional Charges. Appendix, List of
Collectors (208) 179-209

CHAPTER XII.

SAliT.ABKAj'.I AND MISCELLANKOUS liEVENUE.

Sait (page 210) — Earth-salt — Saltpetre. AbkXki and opum (211) — Arraok
— Foreign liquor — Toddy — Opium and hemp drugs (212). Income-Tax
(913). Stamps :!10-813

CHAPTER XIII

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.

Former Courts ^xjage 214). Civil Jvstice -E.xisting courts (215) — Amount
of litigation— Uegititration. Criminal Justice — The vaiious tribunals —
Crime — Criminal castes (216). Police— Previous systeu.s — '1 he existing
force. (217). Jails. Appendix, List of Judges (218j 3U-319

CHAPTER XIV.

LOCAL SELF-GOVEKNMENT.

The Local Boards (page 220)— The Unions— Finances of the Boards (221).
The five Mixicipalities — Madura Municipality (222) — Improvements
effected by it— The water-supply scheme — Drainage (224) — Dindigul
Municipality (225) — Water-supply —Palni Municipality (22U) — Periya-
knlam Mxmicipality— Kodaikanal Municipality (227) 220-827



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XIU

CHAPTER XV.

GAZETTP]ER. .

PAOK

DmniGiL Talik (page 228)— Agaram (229)— AmbSturai— Atfcur (230)—
Ayyampalaiyam (231) — Dindii^ul— Kinakkalapuram (237) — Eriyddu (238)
— Kannivadi— Knvakkapatti (21U)— Madnr— Maruauttu (211) — Palakka-
nuttu — Sukkampatti (242) - Tadikkoiului — Tavasimadai (243) — Veda-
■andur. Kodaikaxai, Taluk (245) — Kodaikanal. Madura T\LLK(2ci) -
Anaimalai — Anappanadi (250) — Kodim:ingalam(257) — Waduiu — ilangulaiu
(278) — PaBumalai — Sirnpalai^Tirupparankunrain (279) — v'elliyakimdani
(281). Mklur Taluk (282)— Ahigarkovil— AriMapatti (28(3;- Kanmgala-
kndi- Kot.tampatti (287; -IM^lur (288) — Nattain — Tiruvadi'ir (280).
NiLAKKoTTAl Taluk (292) — Ammayanayakkandr — Kulasekharaiikottai
(294) — Mettnpatti— Nilakkottni (295)— Sandaiyiir (296)-S6Iavandan—
Tiruv6dagam (297)— Tottiyankortai (298)— Vattilaguiidu. Palm Taluk
(300) — Aivarmalai— Ayakkudi (301) — Idaiyankottjii (302) Kalayamuttiir
(303)— Kirauur — Mauibarai—Palni (304)— Eettayauibadi (3U8)— V6Iur
(309) — Virupakshi. Pkiuyakulam Taluk (312)— APinagaiam (313) —
Andipatti — Anuraaudanpatti — Bodiiiayakkaiiur — ( hinnunianur (31(») —
D^vadanapatti — Erasakkanayakkanui- — Gantamanayakkanur (317) — Gnda-
lur (318) — Kanibam— Kombai (319) - Margaiyaiikottai (^320) — Peiiya-
kulam — Tevarain (321) — Uttamapalaiyam — Vadaknrai (322) — Virapatidi
(324). Tirjmangalam Taluk (325) — Anai^m- - Doddappanayakkanur
. (326)— Elumalai— Jotilnayakkaimr— Kalligudi— Kilakkottai (327) — Kovil-
ankolam — Kuppalanattam — Rlelakkottai — Nadukkottai v328) — Poraiydr —
Puliyaukiilam — :?andaiyur — Saptiir (329) — Tiruinangalam — L'siUnnpatti
(330) — Uttappauayakkanur — Vikkirauiaagulaiu .. ... ... ... ^3



Online LibraryMadras (India : State)Madura (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 40)