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and some of the groups are surrounded, outside the enclosing wall
of slabs, by small heaps of stone (about 2|- feet square and 1 foot
high) placed at regular intervals in the form of a square. Searches
within these remains resulted in the discovery of little beyond
small fragments of red and black pottery of five or six different
patterns (already observed elsewhere and figured in Mr. Bruce
Foote's catalogue of the prehistorics at the Madras Museum) and
a rust-eaten sickle identical in shape with those found in some of
the Nilgiri cairns. No bones were found, nor any cup-marks,
swastika designs, inscriptions or sculptures of any kind.

Besides these dolmens, kistvaens (constructions walled in on
all four sides and floored and roofed with slabs) occur ; at Palamalai
was found, buried in the ground and unconnected with any other
remains, a large pyriform urn containing two small shallow vases ;
and in several places are low circles of earth and stones, which
may perhaps have been threshing-floors or cattle-kraals.

Hound about Kodaikanal are several popular ' sights.' Many
rapturous descriptions of all of them are on record and it is
unnecessary to add to the list. They include at least three water-
falls within easy reach ; namely, the ' Silver Cascade ' on Law's
ghat, foiiaed by the Parappar stream (into which runs the rivulet
issuing from the lake) ; the ' Glen Falls ' on a branch of the
Parappar, alongside the path running northwards to Vilpatti ; and
the ' Fairy Falls ' on the Pambar (' snake river') to the south-west
of the station. ' Coaker's Walk ' (named after a Lieutenant in the
Royal Engineers who was on duty in the district from 1870 to



1872 and made tlie 1870 map of Kodaikanal) runs along the very CHAP, XV,
brink of tlie steep southern side of the basin and commands Kodaikanal.
wonderful views of the plains below. On clear days, it is said, ~

even Madura, 47 miles away as the crow flies, can be made out
from here. The ' Pillar Rocks ' are three huge masses of granite,
perhaps 400 feet high, which stand on the edge of the same side
of the plateau three miles further on. Between and below them
are several caves and chasms, and from the top of them is
obtained a superb view of the Aggamalai, the precipitous sides of
the Kambam valley and the plains below. Here (and from
Coaker's Walk) the '.spectre of the IJrocken ' is occasionally seeu
on the mists which drive up from below. ' Doctor's Delight,' a
bold bluff about two miles further on, commands a panorama
which is claimed to be even finer than that from the Pillar Hocks.
' Fort Hamilton, ' 9^ miles from Kodaikanal and on this same
southern side of the plateau, is so named after the Major Douglas
Hamilton of the 2 1st N.I. who was obligingly permitted by
Sir Charles "^Frevelyan's Government to spend part of 1859 and
(after an interval of service in Oiina) twelve months in 1861-62,
all on full pay, in making the series of large sketches of the Palni
Hills which are still to be seen in public and official libraries, and
in writing the two short reports on the range which were printed
in Madras in 1862 and 1864, respectively. There is no ' fort' at
the place ; only a small hut. Its chief interest lies in the evidences
which are visible near by, and were first brought to notice by
Major Hamilton, of the former existence there of a great lake.
No record or even tradition regarding the formation of this
survives. Judging from the traces of its water-line which still
remain, it must have been nearly five miles long, from a quarter
to three-quarters of a mile wide and from 30 to 70 feet deep.
It was apparently formed by the side of a hill slipping down into
a valley which rims northwards to the Amaravati river, and
damming up the stream which ran at the bottom of it. This
stream seems to have eventually cut its way through the huge
natural embankment so formed, and thus emptied the lake it had
itself once filled. The dam is about 200 yards long and the breach
in it is now about 100 yards across and 90 feet deep. Major Hamil-
ton (see the later of his two reports above mentioned) wrote with
much enthusiasm of the possibilities of this spot as a site for a
sanitarium or cantonment, but it would be most difficult of
approach. This latter objection, it may here be noted in paren-
thesis, is also the answer to the many critics who have railed at
the founders of Kodaikanal for having placed it where it stands



CHAP. XY. instead of in one or other of tlie many (otherwise) superior sites
KoDAiKANAL. wliicli doubtloss exist on the Upper Palni plateau. When the
place was originated, the most practicable path up the hills was
the existing bridle-road from Periyakulam, and the first arrivals
naturally wished to settle as close as might be to the top
of this.

The first European who visited the plateau and left any record
of his journey was Lieutenant B. S. Ward, who surveyed the Palnis
in 1821. His diary shows that he came up from Periyakulam by
way of Vellagavi (a small hamlet on the slopes which is said
to have been fortified as a haven of refuge by the former
poligars of Vadakarai), cam]3ed on the 25th May just above the
falls of the Pambar which face the present bridle-path, and went
through the Kodaikanal basin. He makes no special mention of
this last An extract from his memoir on the Palni and Travan вАҐ
core HiLls (' the Vurragherry and Kunnundaven Mountains,' as
he called them), which has never otherwise been printed, was
published by [Robert Wight, the well-known botanist, in the
M.J.L.S. of October 1837 (Vol. YI).

In 1831 Messrs. J. C. Wroughton (then Sub- Collector) and
C. E.. Cotton (Judge of the Provincial Court, Southern Division)
went up from Periyakulam to Shembaganiir (their visit led to some
slight repairs being done to the bridle-path), but Wight himself
was the next European visitor to the range who has left any record
of his journey. His account appears in Vol. V (pp. 280-7) of
the M.J.L.S. He went up in September 1836, apparently by
the steep gh4t from Devadanapatti to the Adukkam pass near the
peak of that name. He mentions Shembaganiir but not the
Kodaikanal basin. His report on tlie botany of the range has
already been referred to on p. 15.

The first people to build houses at Kodaikanal were the
American missionaries of Madura. In lSo8 so many of them had
been compelled to take sick leave and go to Jaffna (their then
centre) that the mission actually proposed to purchase a special
vessel to carry the invalids and the convalescents backwards and
forwards. This idea was eventually abandoned in favour of the
suggestion that a sanitarium should be established on the Sirumalais,
that range being chosen on account of its propinquity to Madura.
Two bungalows were built there, but their occupants suffered so
much from fever that in January 1845 the Palnis were examined
as an alternative site and in June of the same year two bungalows
were begun at the foot of the Kodai-kanal, near the spot on which
* Sunnyside ' now stands, and were finished in October.


Not long afterwards, Mr. John Blackburnc, Collector of CHAP. XV.
Madura between 1834 and 1847 and the man who had done so Kodaikanal,
much for the improvement of the revenue system on these hills
(see p. 20b), built himself a bungalow about five miles away (see the
survey map of 1890) at the top of the Adukkam Pass. This came

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