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Ayyampalaiyam, river, 12 ; anicut, 135 ;
Tillage (Pd), 156, 220, 331.



Babul, 134.

Boighayat land, 188.

Bairdgis, 213.

Balasamndram (Cc), 305, 307, 308.

Balfour's Report on Iron ores, 287.

Balijas, 151, 322.

Ballads in honom* of Eous Peter, 259.

Bamboos, 151.

Bangalore, 48, 110.

Bangaru Amnial, 321.

Bangaru Muttu Nayakkan, 314.

Bangaru 'I'irumala Bodi Nayakkan, 315.

Bangles, 151.

Banyan tree, 259, 288, 319.

Barley, 5.
j Basavanua, 110.
I Basavis, 104.

Basins, distribution of irrigation worka
among, 124.

Basket-making, 151.

Bastions of the Madura fortifications, 42,

Batlagundu. See Vattilagundu.

Baynes, Mr. C. E., 251, 253.

Beans, 117.

Beddome, Colonel, 16, 132.

Bees, wild, 31C.

Begampur, 150, 235.

Bell-metal vessels, 151.

Bench courts, 215.

Bengal gram, 118.

Berijam project, 125, 226.

Beschi, 76.

Betel-vine, 79, 113, 114, 198, 303.

Bhang, 213.

Bhogauatha Pulippani Patra Udaiyar, S06.

Bhtitipuram estate (Bd), 315.

Bijapnr, 46, 51, 53.

Birki Venkata Eao, 69, 181, 23G.

Bishoj^ric of Tvichinopoly, 77.

|;ison, 23

Black gram, 118.

Blackader's Archseologia, 281.

Blackburne, Mr. John, roads improved bj,
154 ; distributes famine relief from
Madura temple fnnds, 162; ryotwari
system introduced into hill villages
by, 205 ; memorial lamp to, 228, 267
bungalow built at Kodaikanal by, 251
his improvenients to Madura, 266
demolished the walls of Tirumala
Nayakkan'a palace, 276.

Blackwood, 136, 137, 138, 140.

Blanket-making, 145

Bliss, Sir Henry, 261 .

Bloomstrand, Eev. Th., 79 note.

Blue gum, 140, 251.

Board of Assumed Eevenne, 69.

Bodiuayakkanrir (Ed), schools at, 81, 178;
jungles in, 134, 136 ; trade centre, 152;
road to, 155 ; proposed railway through,
159; hospital at, 172; resumed by Tipu
but restored by the English, 183 ; poligar
opposes the Collector, 185 ; sanad
granted to, 195, 196 ; special magistrata



1 VUBX.



iM



at, 215 ; «ub-registrar at, J15 ; anion,
220; miiniciinility proposed for, 221 ;
elepliants in the liills near, 250; Palni
polijrar marches against, 308 ; described,
313; poligar assisted by Vadakarai
chief, 323.

Bogari tax, 190.

Bombay, silk from, I4(i ; salt from, 210.

Bombay Gazetteer (i, pt. 2), 29 note.

Bommayya, 107.

Bommi, 85.

Boskanna, 110.

Botany, 15.

Bonnciaries of the district, 1.

Bonrne, Dr. A. G. and Mrs., 16.

Bow, 28.

Brahmans, their education under Nayakkan
rule, 175 ; land granted free to, 199 ;
toddy shops owned by, 212 ; their part
in the Attvir festival, 231 ; numerous in
Madura town, 257 ; and in Chinnamanur,
316.

Brass vessels, 151.

Bridges, 154, 156, 222, 226, 258.

Bridle-paths, 5.

Brocken, spectre of the, 249.

Buckley, Williavp, 234.

Buffaloes, 81, 86, 151,230.

Building-stone, 15.

Bullocks, 107, 123, 179, 100.

Burma, 31, 100, 146. ■

Burnell, Dr., 2, 168.



Cabinet-making, 178.

Calcntta, 146.

Caldwell, Bishop, on the antiquity of the
Pandya kingdom, 26; its wealth and
magnificence, 37 ; its connection with
the Vij ay anagar power, 39; the authority
of the writings on the Nayakkan period,
40; Tirnmala Nayakkan's palace, 49;
the character of Jfdyakkan rule, 58; the
end of Muhammad Yusnf, 67; and on
the administration of the Committee of
Assigned Revenue, 68 ; house occupied
at Kodaikanal by, 251 ; land for church
at Kodaikanal granted to, 253.

Caldwell, Sir James, 126.

Calliand, Captain, 63.

Cambu, staple food, 83 ; area under, 113,
114; methods of cultivation of, 117,
118, 119 ; standard dry grain, 203.

Campbell, Captain E. A., 8, 149.

Campbell, Major Charles, 07.

Campbell-Johnston, Mr. P. F., 264.

Canals, irrigation from, 121, 123.

Canarese, 73, 145.

CanoB, Bishop A., 77.

Cardamom Hills, 3.

Cardamoms, on the Lower Palnis, 4, 111,
138; on the Sirumalais, 8, 114; minor
foreit produce, lil ; export of, 161.



Carnatio, 68, 69,71,

Carter, Mr. Vandyke, 170.

Cassm auricnlata, 115, 141.

Caste disiaites, 214.

Castes, 87-111, 152, 216.

Castor, 117, 150.

Catalogue Raisonn6 of Oriental Manu-

scripts, 40.
Cattle, on the Palnis, 4 ; described, 20 ;
penning of, 81 ; jallikats with, 83 ; theft
of, 90 ; fair at Madura, 273 ; breeding
of, 319. *

Causeways, 157, 222.
Cauvery i-ivcr, 10.
Cedar tree, 138.
Cedrela ioona, 138.
Cemetery, at Dindigul, 231; Kodaikanal,

252, 253 ; and Madura, 260.
Ceylon, invaded by the Pandvas. 30;
conqnered by Rajaraja, 31; invaded by
Parantaka I, 31; revolts against the
Cholas, 32; regains its independence,
32; takes part in the struggle for
Pandya throne, .33-34; defeated by
Kulottunga III, 34; invaded by Jata-
varman Sundara-Pandya I, 30; con-
quered by Kumara Krishnappa Nayak-
kan, 43 ; emigration to, 72, 130, 102,
163 ; Jaffna Mission in, 77; stolen cattle
sent to, 90; Nattukottai Chettis do
business in, 100; proposed railwar to.
158. '

Chakala Nayak, 293.
Cbakkiliyans, 80, 107, 230.
Chakku Nayakkan, 314.
Chalakyas of Badami, 29.
Chalukyas, Western, 31.
Champakanur(r; resumR I p'il;iiva:n of,
"183; rl.iiiiicd l)y Sand liyiir p'ilii;ar, IS'),
2'.Hj ; '•sclioatcd for want of hi-lrs, I'J !• ;
K'l.'i'p 'iliHt to Kodaikiiiial ffoin. il'iO ;
Virupakslii jioiijar hanged nonr, 311;
(k'Sci il>«'ul taluk board, 220.

Diiidigul town {Ec), climate of, 13 11 ;
bpsioy,'ed by Mysore troojis, 4>; Chanda
Sahib's brother appointed governoi' of,
.'38 ; VaTiv:'n-u Tiiumala defeated at, 58 ;
liistory of tlie country round, (ii) ; sur-
rendered to ( 'oli)ne! Lang, 70 ; restored
to Tipu, 70; taken hy Colonel Stuart,
71 ; Patnalk'Arans numerous in, 74', 110 ;
Homan Catholic church at, 77 ; American
]\Iission at, 78 ; R^vutan stieet^ in, 70 ;
Lutheran Mission at, 79 ; buffjlo sacri-
fices in, F6 ; irrigation minor basin at,
121', 12o ; tanniii;^ at, 137, loO ; weaving
at, 145; cheroot trade at, 149; hides
and skins exported at, 150, 151 ; locks
and safes of, 3 5 ">, 1 51 ; bellraetal vessels
made at, 151 ; trade centre, 152 ; road
througlt, 155; railway lines ])roposed
from,"] 58, 159; rainfall at, IKO; famine
near, IHl, 164 ; hosjiital at, 172 ; schools
at, 177, 178; early revenue liistory of
the coiintry round, 181-190 ; bench
court at, 215; district inunsif at, 215;
sub-resistrar at, 215; municip ditv, 221,
225 ; fiescril)ed, 23'.

Diseases, 108-171, 281.

Dispensaries, 171, 17', 173.

Oistiilery at TaidimaMur, 211.

District and Sessions Court, 215.

District Hoar.!, 220.

District Jail, 5'\ 2! 7.

District muiisifs, 215.

District Ixegistiar, 215.

Divisional charges. 2O0.

Doctor's Delight, 13S, 249.

Doddappannya'skan'ir estate, 130, 195, 32'>,
320.

Dodoiisai rK-T')xa, 115.

Doiis of Kombai 3! 9.

Dolmens, 25, 247, 2H0.

Douiba-heri estate (li-). 315.

Donibans, 82, S3.

Dommara^, 151 .

Drainage seheine foi' ^la bira, 22 t.

Draup.adi, 80.

Dre.ss, 79, 82, 103.

Dry cultivation, 1UV121,



Duck, 22.

DufTerin, Lord. 201.
Diip'itir., 115.
D\eiir.'-. 117.



E

Ears, s' retching tin lo'jcs of, 82.

Eirth salt, 210.

Economic condition of ngriculturij-ts, 130.

Education, 74, 174-178.

Edward Tark, 222.

Ekoji, 51, 181.

F.lx.,carpii.-\ 13?.

Elaivankudiyar, 80.

Ela-tndhi.", 131, 213.

Eleetricitv, geuerati ^n frjui ilie IVrIv!ped by Sukkampatti poligar, 242.

Eiiacliinnamma Niiyakkan, 320.

I'h-rantnal, 291.

Eruttukarar, 8(.t.

Ettaiyapnrani, 48, 317.

En,yeHia A' noitiaiut, 139.

European Club at Ma.lurj, 172, 259.

Ex voto offerings, BO.

Exports, 151.



' Fairy Ealls' waterfall, 2t8.

Fa'nines and scarcities, in the days of the

Nayakkan", 59, 52 ; area prjlejted from,

121 ; reocnt, 10l-i(>0.
Farm-labour, 141.
Fauna, 20.
Ferguseon's Li.iian und Eiu-'e>n .'rr'ntec-

ttire, 271. 275.
Fernandet, Father, 75, 70.
Ferry, 157.
Ferry t.ix, 179.
Fever, 4, 108, 109, 23S.
Fifth Report of the (^oaimi^tee on liie

affairs of ilie K.I.Co., 32S, 329 njte.

43



888



IKDBX



Firp-T\'allvin,s, SO, 8G, 822.

Fischer, Col. J. F., I.0G ; Mr. George
Frederick, 250, 2U0, 275; Mr. Kobeit,
elejihant-, tusks in the possession of, 23 ;
I'craiiai dam suit brought by, 130 ;
bungalow fit Madiir.i given to, 259;
church at M;KiinM built by, 200; pictui'o
of Madura in tlie [j'jsscssion ol', 26('), 274 ;
JJodinJyakkanur estate moi'tgagcd to,
316.

Fish, 28, 279, 307.

Fletcher's bungalow, 201.

Floods, 157, IGl, ir.O.

Flora, 15, 133.

Florican, 22.

Fodder, 20, 118.

Fondclair, M. Eniile de, -I, 8 ; If. Faure de,
8, 293.

Food, 83.

Foote, Mr. Bruce, 9, 14 note, 24, 248.

Foreign liquor, 211.

Forest settlement, 135.

Forefts, 8, 132-143.

Fort Defiance, 2G2.

Fort Hamilton, 249.

Forts at, Alagarkovil, 283 ; Balasamudram,
307; Devadanapatti, 31(3 ; Dindigul, 233;
Idaiyankottai, 302 ; Melur, 288 ; Nara-
Fingaparam, 318; Nattam, 288;
Nilakkottai, 295 ; Solavandan, 296, 297 ;
Vattilagundu, 299 ; V^dasanddr, 244.

Fonlkes, Mrs., 260.

FuUarton, Colonel, 67, OS, 181.

Funeral ceremonies of, Idaiyans, 97;
Kalians, 95 ; Kammalans, 99; Kappili-
yans, 109 ; Kusavans, 102 ; Nattukuttai
(^hettis, 100 ; Paliyans, 106 ; Tuttiyans,
108 ; Yalaiyans, 98; Vannans, 101.



G



Gall-nut, 137, 133, 139, 141.

Game, 22.

Ganesa, 300, 305.

Ganga-Pallavas, ."50.

Gangai-konda-Cliol I, 32.

G ingas, 30.

Gangu\arpatti (C/), ghat road to, 155, 156;
plundered, 290.

Gaiija,212, 213.

Gantanianiyakkanur, ^jirushaTiad valley
annexed by poligar of, C> ; restored by
Surya Narayana Mudali and resumed by
Mfr Sahib," 70; Jangles in, 13 1, 136;
i-esumed by Tipa but restored by the
English, 183 ; satiad granted for, 195, 1 96;
described, 317 ; invaded i)j' Vadakarai
]/oligar, 323.

Garlands worn by warriors, 29.

Garlic, 5, 114, 151.

Garnier, Father, 77.

Gass, Mr., 134.

Gazula Balijas, 151.

Geology, 14.

Ghee-tax, 179, 190.



Gingee, 45,46, 50, 5i.

Glngeliy, 113, 114, 150.

Ginger," 4, 205.

Gin:iing of coft(,n, 119.

Girls' schools, 178.

(Ueaytinqn J'luin ancient Tamil literatuye,

28 note."
' Glen Falls' waterfall, 218.
Gnei^sic rocks, 14, 326.
Goa, Archbishoyj of, 77.
Goanese Catholics, 232.
Goals, 22, 137, 142, 143.
Godfrey, Mr., 170.
Golconda, 45, 53,
Gold-washing, 15, 241.
Gooty, 314.

Gdpalasvami hill (BJ), 15.
Gopia Nayakkau, 296.
GopinathaSvami hill, 86.
Gdripalaiyam {Et), 2(;5.
Gi'ain brokers, 152.
Grain measures, 152.
Grazing fees, 134, 141.
Great Southern India Eailwny, 134.
Gregory XV F, Pope, 77.
Growth of jiopulation, 72.
Giidalur (-B/), I'csumcd palaiyam, 183 ;

claimed by Travancore, 184, 185 5

union, 220 ; described, 318.
Gujarati, 74, 110.
Gundan shola, 139, 140.
Gnndar river, 10, 124, 166.
Gnntiir famine, 162.
Gurramkonda rock, 234.
Gui'unatlia Jdtil Nayakkan, 32C.
Gurunatlian, 101.



Eafta decasidnam, 197, 198.

Haidar Ali, invades the Country round
Madura, GC> ; the Carnatic, 68 ; and
the Dindigul country, 70, 236 ; famine
following the invasion of, 161; Dindigul
country leased bj', 181 ; confiscates
Kambam and Gddalur palaiyams, 184,
318; his dealings with Eriyodu, 238;
Kannivadi, 239 ; Palliyappanayakkanur,
2-10; SukkAmpatti, 242; and Aiuinaya-
n^yakkant'ir, 293 ; takes Solavandan,
297 ; and Vattilagundu, 293; transfers
Idaiyankottai and Manibarai from Ara-
vaknrichi to Dindigul district, 302, P.O'.i ■
jilundcrs Palni, 307 ; attacks V'irupakshi,
.311 ; and Bddinaj'akkanur, 315; name of
Utramapalaiyam given by, 321.

Halebid, 34.

Hamilton, Major Douglas, 249.

Hampe, 38.

Ilardwiciia binafa, 137.

Ha' rington, Mr. William, 185.

Harvey's steam mill, 149.

Hatchet tax, 205.

Havell, Mr., 82.

Havelock, Sir Arthur, 171.



INDEX.



339



Uazarafc Saiyad Aval) ALiiur Kaliiiu
Auliah; rlarga of, 2-14.

lleiirpel. Mr. J., UO.

llcuiiiigway, Mr. F. Iv.. 25 note:

Tlemiticnjits Itijlocriua, 23.

Hoirijvclru^-s, 212.

Wcrou, Coi., G2, 88, 181, 2SiJ.

llickey, l{ev. William, 2.34.

Hides and skins. 1-50.

' High Wavy ' mountain (.B/), 7, U, 140, ylG.

Hill villages, sot-tlenient of, 205.

Hills, 3-iO.

Hindn rermanont b'lm'l, l.'Jl.

Hiiidcs, 80-111, 176.

Hindustani, 7!'.

Histoiy of the district, 2o 71.

Hodg-3 .n, Mr., IIH.

Hoisington, ftlr., 78.

Honey tox, 179, 190, 205.

Hook-.!iwinging, 321.

Horse-gTam,113, 111. 118.

Iforsely, Capt.->iu W. U., 2.51.

Hcsi'itals, 171, 172, 3lu.

Hosten. Ucv. H., 247.

House-tax, 179, 189, 220, 221.

Houses, 5, 81.

Hoysala Ballalas, 34, 35, 36.

Hultzsch, Dr., 27 note.

Humidity, 1 I-.

Hnrdis, Harriot, 234.

Hnrdiy, Mr. Thomas Dowyer, chattrani
inauis resumed by, 158; the collector-
ship of, 186 ; his repoits on the Hindi. ul
country, 194, 197 ; his settlement of
the district, 197-201 ; and of tlie hill
villages, 205 ; list of inains compiled by,
206; tomb of the sister of, 234; ob-
tains grant of ihe Tamakam, 263;
Idaiyankdttai estate resumed by, 302.

llutchins. Sir Philip, 275.

Hytcna cave, 257.



Ibn Batuta, 28 note.

Idaiyankottai (D6), not resumed by llaidar
or Tipu, 70, 183 ; plundering raids of
poligar of, 184; resumed for arrears,
194 ; sanad granted to, 19.5 ; poligars'
relationshij) to Kannivadi family, 238;
described, 302.

Idaiyans, 92, IK"..

Idumban, 305, 306.

Idumbanraalai, 305, •Wk

Idylls, ten Tamil, 28.

llaiyattakudi, sub-division of Nail uk.'ittai
Chetti.'i, 100.

Iluppaikudi, 100.

Imam nlhi, I\Iir, {',9, 236.

Iiiiliunin, 1 17.

Iinrcadi Ac^lnnaiua Si'uappa Kavumhtn,
327.

Impartible Estates Act (1901), 196.

Import", 151.

Inams, 157, 186, 197, 2U0, 206,



Income-tax, 213.

Indian Antiqii.arii, (v), 106 ; (^iii), 29 note ;

{x), 304 iioU!; (xv), 110; (.\x), 2u ujto.
Indigo, 11 5, 147.
Indigo-vats, 179, 189.
Iniustiius, 144-15)., 232.
Inheritance, among Idaiyan^, 97; in the

e-tates of Ammayanayakkanur, 293 ;

Ayakkudi, 302; and Hudinayakkatuir,

314.
Innos, Colonel, 311.
Inscriptions at, Aivarmalai, 301 ; Alagar-

kovil, 5:84; Anaimalai, 255, 256;

Andii)atti, 313; Chinnamanur, 316;

Dindigiil, 233, 234; Goripalairam, 265;

Kalahasti, 31; Ki'ranui-, 303; Koilai-

kanal, i;52 ; Kodimangal im, 257;

Kovilpatti, 330; Madura, 2';7, 272;

Maudasor, 110; Pdlakkandttn, 211;

Periyakulani, 321; Piianraalai, 288;

ItRinanadapurani, 211 ; Siddharmalai,

295 ; Solavandan, 29() ; Su.dii'ndr.am,

31; Tadikkombu, 242; Tanjore, 30;

Tiruchunai, 287 ; Tirup]iarankunram,

280, 2SL; Tirtvaddr, 290; Uttamapa-

laiyan, 322.
Inscriptions of, Achyuta, !o, 233 ; Iieva

Kaya II, 40; Kulottunga 1, 32 ; Kulot-

tunga III, 34; Mangammal, 322;

Marar.jadaiyan, 2+1 ; Maravarman

Sundara-Pandya 1,35, 280; N'andivar-

man Pallavamalla, 30; Narasimhavar-

maji I, 29; Parantnka I, 31, 255;

Pulakeiin II, 29; Kajadhiraja 1,32;

liaj^ndra Deva, 32; Sinihavislinu, 29 ;

Tirumala Nayakkan, 44, 242.
Iron, ore of, 9, 15, 287; smelting of, 137,

179, 189 i import of, 151; oil mills of,

288.
Irrigation, in the district, 121-13J ; on f ho

Palnis, 4, 6, 205.
Irrigation cess, 125.
IrnnM, 304.
Irwin, Mr. Eylcs, 68.
Ixora jyarvijlora, 142.



Jackals, 19, 291.
Jails, 217.

Jains, 29, 74, 25 l, 278, 297 ; tlieii' antiijui-
ties, 75; at Aivarmalii, 300 ; Anaimalai,
255; Kovilankulam, 327; Kujipalanat-
tam, 327: Tiriipparankunriun, 279;
Uttamapalaiyam, 322.
Jakkamma, lo7.
Jallikat, 20, 8 5, 9l».
James, Father, 77.
.laiiakinimi Nayakka-i, 30.\
I Jati KavnnJaii, lOS.
' .lavudi hill^:, 2i:!.

JoUicufc. 83.
] Jemaul SSalu'b, 63,

{ Jervis' jN"arratu'e o/ (( Joi.rney to Ihe Falli
of the Caxwenj, 23.



uo



INDEX



Jfsuil Mis.sii.in of Ma'iiira, TT) 77, -7!'.
Jesuit priests, Irtti.Ti.- ol'. Hou La MUsicv

rill Madnri'.
J-snii tliLMilogiciil coU'.'g-e, 2io.
J(>wt.

Kaikoian.'!, 1 l-.j, 'AC^.

K-iiknlaiikulRm ('.'d), 321, 323.

Kaih^sa pmlai'u, 2 1.

Kaittijankoltai (/'.'6), 25.

Kakatiyas, 3G.

Kal Tachclians (stone nia.sous', 'MK

Kaiahasti,31, ^22.

Kalahastisvara, 322.

Kal am croiif, 115

KalayamuUur (6t), 25, 20 note, 220, 303.

Kales Dewar, 30.

Kali, 230.

Kalkatti Jdaiyans, 90.

Kalian?, cows used for ploughing by, 20 ;
their ravage.', GO, iH-t, li'O, 1^1; pre-
caations taken froui fear of, 81 ; dre&s
of the women of, 82 ; jahikit cuttle of,
83; popular gods of, 85, 280 ; described,
88-90; economic condition of, 130 ; ni'm
oil used by, 150; oanli-salc made by,'
210; crime of. 216, 275; numerical
Bf.reiigth of, 279, 28+ ; their strrjiigliolds
at W6ldr, 2SS ; N^ttam, 289; and
Anaivur. 295, 298, 320,.

Kabar-Alagar, 198, 2S0.

Kalligiidi (DO- -l-', =^20.

Kiluynnialai, 278.

Kalvarpatti {Uh), 25.

Kalyani, 31.

Kautakshiamman, ',;9, 316.

Ivaniahikkayya Nayudu. 237.

K.Tmandalanadi river, lO.

Kaman'ir ((>;'>, 218.

Kamaraja I'andya Ni'.yakUan, 315.

Kamaya N-iyikkin, 329.

Kam^yya Nayakkan, 29-J-.

Kambulat,tar, loC ; Chinria. 103.

Kambatn \-a!ley. scenery of, 5 : (irainaj,
183; foroicr la uk, 184; clainjed by
Travancoro, 184,185; union, 220; Oe-
scrilied, 31"; attack on ilie f rt of, 323.

Kambliyan, 97.
K(io;el



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