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The position of this empire at this period is a matter which
belongs rather to the history of Tanjore and Trichinopoly ^ than
to that of Madura, and it is not necessary to refer to it here in
any detail. Edjaraja extended his rule throughout the Madras
Presidency and in some directions even beyond it : on the west his
sway reached as far as Quilon and Coorg ; on the north-east
to the borders of Orissa ; and his conquests included Ceylon and
the ' twelve thousand ancient islands of the sea.' Parts of
Burma and the Malay Archipelago were added to these domini-
ons by his immediate successors. Their conquests were least
secure in the north-west, and their most formidable rivals at this
period were the Western Chalukyas, a branch of the Chalukyas
of Badami above referred to, who had ousted the Eash-
trak{itas of Malkhed and returned to power with their capital at
Kalyani, in what is now Haidarabad territory.

At first, in the reigns of Rajaraja (985-1013) and his succes- pandya
sor Rcijendra Chola I (1011-33), the Pdndyas appear to have lebcllions
borne the Chola yoke quietly enough.

' Capt. Tufnell's Hi ids to Goin-eollectors, 11.

* Government Ei^igriiphist'e Annual Report for 1D03-0-4, para. 20.

^ See Chapter 11 in the Gateiteers of these districts.




CHAP. II. During the rule of E^j^dliir^ja I (1018-53), however,

^Early trouble began, the Pandyas, the Cheras and the Singhalese
uniting to throw off the Ch61a yoke. The revolt was sternly
suppressed. The Singhalese king was killed in battle, the Chora
ruler captured and put to death, and the Pandya chief driven to
headlong iSight. The victor's inscription commemorating his
triumph' says that—

' Of the three allied kings of the south he cut off on the battle-fiel4
the beautiful head of I^Ianabharauan adorned witli great gems and
a golden crown; captured in fight Yira-Keralan of the wide ankle-
rings, and was pleased to have him trampled to death by his furious
elephant Attivarana ; and drove to the ancient river Mullaiyar ^ Sundara
Pandya of great and undying fame, who lost in the stress of battle his
royal white parasol, his fly-whisks of white yak's hair and his throne,
and fled, leaving his crown behind him, with dishevelled locks and
weary feet.'

The records of the next Chola king, E^jendra-Deva (1052-
63), do not refer to any trouble with the Pandyas, but his
successor, Vira-Eajendra I (1062-70) had to put down a fresh
rebelKon of theirs. He captured the Pandya chief and caused
him to be ' trampled to death by a furious 77iast elephant,^' and
he gave the Pandya country to his son Gangai-konda-Chola,
who took the title of Ch61a-Pandya.*

The death of this Yira-Eajendra was followed by a fierce
domestic contest for the Chola crowu,* and it was not apparently
till about 1074 that the next king, the great Kulottunga I, who
reigned till 1119, succeeded in establishing himself firmly on the
throne. His hands must have been too full during these four
years to allow him to keep a proper hold upon the outlying por-
tions of his empire, and a great part of them fell into disorder.
Ceylon appears to have cut itself adrift and the Pandyas and the
Cheras again united in rebellion. They were again suppressed.
An inscription of the fourteenth^year of Kulottunga records that
he put the ' five Pandyas' to flight and subdued the Gulf of
Manaar, ' the Podiyil mountain ' (Agastyamalai in Tinnevelly),
Cape Comorin and Kottaru (now in Travancore), the last of
which places he took by storm. He limited the boundaries of
the Pandya country and placed garrisons at Kottaru and other
strategically important places within it.^

1 S. Ind. Inser., iii, 56.
' Not identified,
s S. Ind. Inner., iii, 37.

* There is, however, evidence to show that the title is earlier than this,
and its origin is not wholly clear.

» See Chapter II of the Tanjore and Trichinopoly'Gazeifeers.

« See the Government Epigraphist's Annual Report for 1900-01, p. 9.


Kings of tlie Cli61a-I*andya line above mentioned seem to CHAP. 11.
have gone on ruling the Pandya country till someVhere about Early

1136, but the history of both the Cholas and the Pandyas in the

next 35 years is at present obscure. During that period the Pandya
dominions of the former seem to have been considerably cur- t^^ift^^ '
tailed, but it is not possible to say exactly what was their posi- century,
tion iu the Pandya country. When at length (in the reign of
the Chola king Rajadhiraja II, about 1171-72) inscriptions again
begin to throw light upon the relations of the two peoples, a
struggle for the Pandya throne is found to be proceeding
between two Pandya princes who seem to have nothing to do
with the Chola-Pandya line, and the kings of the Ch61as and of
Ceylon are taking' opposite sides in the quarrel, What had
happened in the meantime to the Chola-Pandya dynasty it is
impossible to say.

The two rival claimants to the Pandya crown were Par^k- Struggle for
rama-Pandya and Kulasekhara-Pandya. How they were tlie t^^^'o^ie-
related, or how the strife arose, is not clear. Chapters 76 and 77
of the Singhalese chronicle Mahavamsa give, however, a fairly
detailed, though doubtless one-sided, account of the campaign.^

Parakrama was besieged by Kulasekhara in his capital
(Madura) and appealed for help to the king of Ceylon. The
latter despatched his general Lankapura-Dandandtha with orders
to suppress Kulasekhara and establish Parakrama on the throne ;
but before the Singhalese ai-my could embark, Kulasekhara had
captured Madura and put his rival, with his queen and some of
his children, to death. Lankapura was ordered by his master
to proceed noue the less, to recover the Pandya reabns, and to
hand them over to some relative of the murdered king. Ho
landed in India accordingly, and for some time his troops carried
everything before them. He sent for Yira-Pandya, the youngest
son of the dead Parakrama (who had escaped when Madura fell),
and set him up as claimant for the throne. Subsequently, with
the aid of reinforcements from Ceylon, he inflicted such crush-
ing defeats upon Kulasekhara that the latter fled to ' Tondamana,'
which is perhaps the Padukkottai country, and the Singhalese
troops occupied Madura town.

It was at this stage that the Cholas seem to have first given
Kulasekhara their support. With their help a stand was made
at ' Pon-Amaravati,' a place not yet identified, but the Singhalese

^ Government Epigraphiat's Report for 1898-99, paras. 23 ff.






Deoline of
the Chdlas,

Pandya rule

•were onco more victorious and a space of three leagues was
covered with the corpses of the vanquished. Lankdpura returned
in triumph to Madura, placed Vira-Pandya on the throne and
celebrated the event with a great festival.

Supported by the ruler of Tondamana and certain other
Chola chiefs, Kulasekhara again took the field, but was again
defeated, this time at Palamcottah, and fled for refuge to the
Ch61a country. The Chola king then assisted him with a large
army, but he was yet again vanquished, and the Ceylon troops
advanced northwards and even burnt some villages in the
Tanjore country. After one more victory over the Pandya and
Chola troops the Singhalese returned to Ceylon, leaving Yira-
Pandya in possession of his kingdom.

The war did not end there, however. Inscriptions of the
Chola king Kul6ttunga III show that that ruler subsequently sup-
ported Kulasekhara's successor Vikrama-Pandya in an effort
against Vira-Pandya and his son, defeated the Marava army, drove
the Simhala (Singhalese) forces into the sea, captured Madura,
made over the Pandya crown to his protege Vikrama, and
assumed the title of 'conqueror of Madura and Ceylon.^

These stirring events occurred somewhere about the end of the
twelfth century. Early in the thirteenth, the power of the Cholas
began to decline. It was during the reign of Kajaraja III of that
dynasty (1216 to about 1239) that the first fatal blows were
received. This king's feudatories revolted on all sides, and one of
them, K6pperunjinga, a prince of some power in Tondaimanda-
1am, the present South Arcot, actually had the impudence to
kidnap his suzerain (1230-31) and refuse to release him.^ The
unfortunate Rajaraja was only rescued by the intervention of the
Hoysala Ballalas, a newly-risen dynasty which had recently sub-
verted the Western Ch^lukyas of 'Kstlyini and established their
capital at Halebid in Mysore.

The Chola demoralisation was the Pandyas' opportunity, and
they were not slow to avail themselves of it. Prom this time
forth they occupied the throne of Madura in a regular succession,
and from astronomical details appearing in inscriptions and
supplied by the Government Epigraphist, Professor Kielhorn has
fixed the dates of the following of their rulers — the latter year
in each case being, not necessarily the last of the king's reign,

^ For details of this exploit, see South Arcot Gazetteer, 33.



Pand^-a I,

but the latest date as yet discovered which contains details CHAP, il.
admitting- of verification : — Earlt


1. Jatavarman Kulas^khara, 1190-1214.

2. Maravarmau Sundara-Pandya I, 1216-35.

3. Maravarman Sundara-Pandya II, 1238-51.

4. Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I, 1251-61.

5. Yira-Pandya, 1252-67.

6. Mdravarman Kulasekhara I, 1208-1308.

7. Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya II, 1275-90.

8. Maravarman Kulasekhara II, 1314-21.

9. Mdravarman Parakrama-Pandya, 1334-52.

10. Jatavarman Parakrama-Pandya, 1357-72.

11. Jatilavarmau Parakrama-Pandya Arikesarideva, 1422-


12. Jatilavarman Parakrama-Pandya Kulasekhara, 1479-99.

13. Jatilavarman Srivallabha, 1534-37.

14. Maravarman Sundara-P

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