Madras (India : State).

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Vangaru Tirumala, appointed a Maratha, the well-known Morari
Rao of Gooty, as their governor of the conquered kingdom.

Morari Eao remained there fur two years (it is not clearly Musalman
known what he did or how far his authority extended) and he a^^honty ro-

„ . ,. -in^oin • T r'i-i-».T. established,

nnaliy retired m 174o beiore the invading army or the Nizam, 174.3.

who marched south in that year, re-established bis weakened

authority in the Carnatic, and in 1 744 appointed Anwar-ud-din as

Nawab of Arcot,

Tne whole of the Madura kingdom now fell under the rule of

this latter potentate. There is reason to believe that he governed

it through his sons Mahfuz Khan and Muhammad Ali, both soon

to play an important part in the history of these districts. It is

said that the Nizam ordered that Vangaru Tirumala should to

appointed king of Madura; but, if sucli an order was ever made,

it was disregarded; and that feeble individual sotm disappeared

finally from the scene, poisoned, some say, Ijy Aiiwai - ud-(.liii.

As late as 1820, a descendant of his, bearing tlie same name,

was in Madras endeavouring to obtain pecuniary assistance from





The rival




Siege of

Government. lie and Lis family lived at Yellaikr.riclii in ite
K^ivaganga zamin.lari and their c'lildren were there until quite
recently. It is said that tlioy still kept up the old form of having
recited, o'.i the first day of Chittrai in each year, a long account
of their pedigree and the boundaries of the great kingdom of
which their forebears were rulers.

In 171-8, however, Chanda Sahib regained his liberty and
marched south in company with a pretender to the position of
Nizam of Ilaidarabad. Tbe allies were successful, Anwar-ud-
din wa3 slain at the great battle of Arablir in North Arcot, and
Chanda Sahib succeeded him. One of his sons, Muhammad Ali,
fled however to Trichinop )ly and proclaimed himself Nawab there,
and soon most of the south of India was involved in tbe struggle
between these rivals. Tho French anl the English (who had
recently been fighting among themselves, were now nominally at
peace, and consequently both had more soldiers than they knew
wdiat to do with) took sides in the conflict (tho former taking' the
part of Chanda Sahib and the latter that of Muhammad Ali) and the
campaigns which followed were in reality a disguised struggle
for the mastery of south India by these two European nations.

It is not in any way necessary to follow the fortunes of the
■war ill detail, as they are concerned less with Madura than with
other districts further north, and we may confine ourselves to
some account of the events which directly affected the present
Madura country. In these the French hal little share. Their
energies were chic-fly confined to the country further north.
The English, however, obtuiced each year henceforth a more and
more predominant share in the government of Madura and
Tinucveily, and the history of these tracts becomes a chronicle of
the East India Company's dealings v/ith them.

In 1751, after several startling turns of Fortune's wheel,
Chanda Saliib was very generally recognised as Nawab of Arcot.
Muhammad Ali, however, had many adherents in Tinnevelly and

In this same year 1751, occurred the first siege of tho Madura
fort of which any account survives. One Alam Khan, a soldier
of fortune who had formerly been in Chanda Sahib's employ came,
says Ormo —

'To Madura, where his roputatioii .as au excellent officer soou
gained liini iufiiieuce and respect, which he oinplo3''ed to corrupt the
garrison, and sncceede I so well, lli:it the troops created him governor,
and consented to maintain the ci*y under his authority for Chanda
SaheVi, whom he ackf-iowledgod as his sovereign .... The lofls


of tliis place, by cutting elf the commnnication between Tritcbinopoly CIIAP. II.
jind the countries of Tinivellr, deprived Mahomed-ally of more than English
one half of the dominions which at this time remained under hig Tkriod.
jurisdiction. On receiving the news, Captain Cope offered his
service to ret;il

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