Maine Agricultural Experiment Station.

Annual report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station online

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TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT



OF THE




ORONO, MAINE.



1908



WATERVILLE

SeNTINEL PUBUSHING COMPANY
1909



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\ji lie 35, ^5"




MAINE

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
ORONO, MAINE.

ORGANIZATION JANUARY TO JUNE, 1908.



THE STATION COUNCIL.



PRESIDENT GEORGE E. FELLOWS
DIRECTOR CHARLES D. WOODS
JOHN A. ROBERTS, Norway
CHARLES L. JONES, Corinna .
SAMUEL W. GOULD, Skowhegan
AUGUSTUS W. OILMAN, Foxcroft .
EUGENE H. LIBBY, Auburn
CHARLES S. POPE, Manchester . .
RUTILLUS ALLEN, Winthrop .
JAMES M. BARTLETT
LUCIUS H. MERRILL
FREMONT L. RUSSELL
EDITH M. PATCH
WARNER J. MORSE ....
RAYMOND PEARL ....



1



President
Secretary

Committee of
Board of Trustees



Commissioner of Agriculture

State Grange

State Pomological Society

Staie Dairymen's Association



Members

of the

Station Staff



THE STATION STAFF.

CHARLES D. WOODS Director

JAMES M. BARTLETT

LUCIUS H. MERRILL

HERMAN H. HANSON !^ Chemists

ARTHUR C. WHITTIER j

JOANNA C. COLCORD J

FREMONT L. RUSSELL Veterinarian

EDITH M. PATCH Entomologist

WARNER J. MORSE Vegetable Pathologist

RAYMOND PEARL ., . \ dv^^^vwc.

FRANK M. SURFACE | ^''^'^''''

REX C. GELLERSON Inspector

ROYDEN L. HAMMOND . . . Seed Analyst and Photographer

ANNIE M. SNOW . . . Clerk and Stenographer to the Director

BLANCHE F. POOLER Stenographer

LOTTIE E. McPHETERS Computer

HENRY A. MILLETT . . Meteorological Observer and Janitor

WALTER ANDERSON . PouUryman

FRANK D. STERRY Laboratory Assistant



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MAINE

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

ORONO, MAINE.



ORGANIZATION JULY TO DECEMBER, 1908.
THE STATION COUNCIL.



PRESIDENT GEORGE E. FELLOWS
DIRECTOR CHARLES D. WOODS
JOHN A. ROBERTS, Norway .
CHARLES L. JONES, Corinna .
SAMUEL W. GOULD, Skowhegan
AUGUSTUS W. OILMAN, Foxcroft
EUGENE H. LIBBY, Auburn .
CHARLES S. POPE. Manchester
RUTILLUS ALDEN, Wnthiop
JAMES M. BARTLETT
FREMONT L. RUSSELL
EDITH M. PATCH .
WARNER J. MORSE .
RAYMOND PEARL
HERMAN H. HANSON
FRANK M. SURFACE
CHARLES E. LEWIS



}



Prtstdeni
. . . Secretary

CommiUe€ of
Board of Trustees

Commissioner of AgricuUure

SidOe Grange

Siaie Pomological Society

State Da4rymen*s AssoeiaHon



Members

of the

Station Staff



THE STATION STAFF.



BIOLOGY



CHEMISTRY



ENTOMOLOGY



PLANT
PATHOLOGY



CHARLES D. WOODS ....

r RAYMOND PEARL
FRANK M. SURFACE
FREMONT L. RUSSELL
MAYNIE R. CURTIS
WALTER ANDERSON
LOTTIE E. McPHETERS

f JAMES M. BARTLETT
HERMAN H. HANSON
JOANNA C. COLCORD
JOSEPH F. MERRILL
REX C. GELLERSON

^ EDITH M. PATCH .
ALICE W. AVERILL

' WARNER J. MORSE
CHARLES E. LEWIS

^ FRANK D. STERRY
ROYDON L. HAMMOND ....



Director

Biologist

Associate

Assistant

Assistant

PouUryman

Computer

Chemist

Associate

Assistant

Assistant

Inspector

Entomologist

Laboratory Assistant

Pathologist

Associate

Laboratory Assistant

Seed Analyst and Photographer



ANNIE M. SNOW . . Clerh and Stenographer to the Director

BLANCHE F. POOLER Stenographer

HENRY A. MILLETT . Meteorological Observer and Janitor



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The BuHetiiis of this Station will be sent free to any address in Maine.
All requests should be sent to

Agricultural Experiment Station,

Orono, Maine.



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CONTENTS.



Organization of the Station ii

Announcements iv

Historical notes v

Pood and Drug Inspection (Bulletin 151) t »

Seed Inspection (Bulletin 152) 49

Fertilizer Inspection (Bulletin 153) 85

Paris Green (Bulletin 154) 10^

Prepared Bordeaux Mixture (Bulletin 154) 11^

Orchard Notes 1907 (Bulletin 155) 125

Feeding Stuff Inspection (Bulletin 156) 157

Poultry Work at the Maine Station (Bulletin 157) 203

Food of Man Studies (Bulletin 158) 2ip

Appliances and Methods for Pedigreed Poultry Breeding

(Bulletin 159) 239

Fertilizer Inspection (Bulletin 160) 275

The Saddled Prominent (Bulletin 161) 311

Insect Notes (Bulletin 162) 351

Meteorology (Bulletin 163) 388

Report of Treasurer (Bulletin 163) 390

Index 1908 (Bulletin 163) 391



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ANNOUNCEMENTS.



THE AIM OF THE STATION.

Every citizen of Maine concerned in agriculture has the right
to apply to the Station for any assistance that comes within
its province. It is the wish of the Trustees and Station Council
that the Station be as widely useful as its resources will permit.

In addition to fts work cf investigation, the Station is pre-
pared to make chemical analyses of fertilizers, feeding stuffs,
dairy products and other agricultural materials ; to test seeds and
creamery glassware ; to identify grasses, weeds, injurious fungi
and insects, etc. ; and to give information on agricultural matters
of interest and advantage to the citizens of the State.

All work proper to the Expejriment Station and of public
benefit will be done without charge. Work for the private use
of individuals is charged for at the actual cost to the Station.
The Station offers to do this work only as a matter of accommo-
dation. Under no condition will the Station undertake analyses,
the results of which cannot be published, if they prove of general
interest.

CORRESPONDENCE.

As far as practicable, letters are answered the day they are
received. Letters sent to individual officers are liable to remain
unanswered, in case the officer addressed is absent. All com-
munications, should, therefore, be addressed to the Director or
to the

Agricultural Experiment Station,

Orono, Maine.

The post-office, railroad station, freight, express and telegraph
address is Orono, Maine. Visitors to the Station can take the
electric cars at Bangor and Old Town.

The Station is connected by telephone.



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HISTORICAL NOTES FOR 1908.



^ PUBUCATIONS.

The Experiment Station publishes during the year several bul-
letins which make up the annual report for the year. All bulle-
tins issued by the Station are sent to the names upon the official
mailing list prepared by the Office of Experiment Stations, to all
newspapers of Maine, to libraries and to agricultural exchanges.
Bulletins which have to do with general agriculture including
feeding stuff, fertilizer and seed inspection are sent to the gen-
eral mailing list. Publications having to do with food and drug
inspection are sent to a special list including all dealers in Maine
and other citizens who request them. The annual report is sent
to directors and to libraries.

BUI.LETINS PUBLISHED IN 1908.

No. 151. Food and Drug Inspection 48 pages

No. 152. Seed Inspection 36 pages

No. 153. Fertilizer Inspection 24 pages

No. 154. Paris Green. Bordeaux Mixture 16 pages

No. 155. Orchard Notes, 1907 32 pages

No. 156. Feeding Stuff Inspection 48 pages

No. 157. Poultry Work at the Maine Station 16 pages

No. 158. Food of Man Studies 20 pages

No. 159. Appliances and Methods for Pedigree Poul-
try Breeding 36 pages

No. 160. Fertilizer Inspection 36 pages

No. 161. Saddled Prominent 40 pages

No. 162. Insect Notes for 1908 36 pages

No. 163. Meteorology, Finances, Index 10 pages



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viii MAINE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. I908.

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS PUBLISHED IN I908.

The following miscellaneous publications were issued in 1908-
The newspaper bulletins were sent to the press of the State and
to exchanges. The Official Inspections were food and drug^
publications and were sent to all dealers in Maine, and other
citizens who requested them.
Food and Drug Inspection No. 13 (M. F. D. R. 12, 13

and 14) 4 pages

Food and Drug Inspection 14. (M. F. D. R. 15 and 16) 4 pages

Official Inspections No. i 8 pages

Official Inspections No. 2 8 pages

Official Inspections No. 3 8 pages

Official Inspections No. 4 8 pages

Official Inspections No. 5 8 pages

Official Inspections No. 6 8 pages

Forest Tent Caterpillar 6 pages

Prentiss Aroostook Complete Fertilizer 8 pages

How to Fight Potato Enemies 14 pages

Newspaper Bulletin, — ^Wild Mustard i page

Newspaper Bulletin, — Damage by the Prominent

Caterpillar i page

Newspaper bulletin, — Two Potato Diseases New to

Maine I page

The New Maine Station Trap Nest 8 pages

Organization and Work of the Department of Biology 8 pages

Notice to Dealers in Agricultural Seeds in Maine 2 pages

List of bulletins published in 1907 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 149 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 151 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 152 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 153 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 154 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 155 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 156 ; i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 157 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 158 i page

Newspaper Notice of Bulletin 159 i page



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HISTORICAI, NOTES. IX



TECHNICAL PUBUCATIONS.

. The bulletins of the Station contain the results of the work
of investigation. It frequently happens, however, that much
of the work of investigation is of so technical a nature as not
to warrant its distribution to the general mailing list of the
Experiment Station. The work of this kind is sometimes pub-
lished in the bulletins of the Station and sent out to a special
mailing list or sometimes published in technical journals or
other places. There is given below a complete list of the
biological and entomological publications for 1908. Some of
these have been printed in Station bulletins and others elsewhere
as indicated.

A limited number of the complete sets of the biological publi-
cations and of the entomological publications for 1908 are avail-
able for exchange with laboratories and institutions working in
similar lines. Correspondence relative to the affecting of such
exchanges should be addressed to Director Charles D. Woods,
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono, Maine, U. S. A.

Biology Publications ipo8.

1. Certain Points Concerning the Probable Error of the Stand-

ard Deviation, by R. Pearl. Biometrika, Vol. 6, pp. ii2*
117, 1908.

2. A Biometrical Study of Egg Production. Part I. Varia-

tion in Annual Egg Production. By R. Pearl and P. M.
Surface. Bulletin no Bureau of Animal Industry, U.
S. Dept. Agr. (In press.)

3. Fecundity of Swine, by F. M. Surface. Biometrika Vol.

VI.

4. The Frequency Constants of the Variable z=f (x^, x^) by

R. Pearl. Biometrika, Vol. VI.

5. Resection and End-to-End Anastomosis of the Oviduct in

the Hen without Loss of Function, by R. Pearl and F. M.
Surface. American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 22, pp.
357-361. 1908.

6. Appliances and Methods for Pedigree Poultry Breeding, by

R. Pearl and F. M. Surface. Maine Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Bulletin No. 159, pp. 239-274. 1908.



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X MAINE AGRICUI.TURAI. tXF^KIMZNT STATION. I908.

7. Studies on the Physiology of Reproduction in the Domestic

Fowl. L. Regulation in the Morphogenetic Activity of
the Oviduct, by R. Pearl. Journal of Experimental
Zoology. Vol. 6.

8. Data on Variation in the G)mb of the Domestic Fowl.

Biometrika, Vol. VI.

9. On the use of Atropin Sulphate in Anaesthetizing Birds

for Surgical Experiments. Jour. Amer. Med. Asso.^
Vol. LII, pp. 382-383.

Entomology Publications 1908.
No. 29. Crocigrapha normani, Grote, Entomological News

July 1908.
No. 30. Pemphigus Tessellata. Alternate host. Migrants and

True Sexes. Entomological News 1908.
No. 31. The Saddled Prominent. Bulletin 161.
No. 32. Inject Notes for 1908. Bulletin 162.

Inspection Publications,

Prior to July, 1908, the results of all the inspection work
conducted by the Experiment Station were printed in the bulle-
tins of the Station. A new series of publications under the title
of "Official Inspections" was begun with July, 1908, and before
the close of the year six of these publications were issued ; prac-
tically all having to do with the work of the food and drug^
inspection.

The bulletins for 1908 contain, as in the past, the full report
of the feeding stuffs, fertilizer and agricultural seed inspections.
Beginning with 1909 none of the work of inspection will be
published in the regular bulletins of the Station, but will appear
in the Official Inspections.

As in the past, the work of inspection which has to do with
agricultural seeds, fertilizer and feeding stuffs will be sent ta
the general list. Official Inspections containing the results of
work under the Food and Drug Law will be sent to a special
list including all dealers in Maine and other citizens who request
them. Official Inspections will not be sent to the official mail-
ing list of the office of Experiment Stations or to non-residents
of the State except on speciaal request. The six Official
Inspections for 1908 are bound in as an appendix to the annual
report of the Station.



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HISTORICAI. NOTES. XI

Inspection Publications ipo8.

Feeding Stuffs Inspection.
Bulletin 156 48 pages

Fertiliser Inspection.
Prentiss Aroostook Complete Fertilizer (Circular) .... 8 pages

Bulletin 153 24 pages

Bulletin 160 36 pages

Food and Drug Inspection,

Bulletin 151 36 pages

Official Inspections i to 6 48 pages

Food and Drug Regulations 12 to 16 (Circulars) 8 pages

Seed Inspection.
Bulletin 152 36 pages

CHANGES IN STATION STAFF.

June 30, 1908, Prof. L. H. Merrill resigned from the Experi-
ment Station staff to devote his whole time to teaching in the
University. Mr. Merrill had been on the Experiment Station
staff since 1885 and had the longest continuous service, with one
exception, of any member of the staff.

Mr. Arthur C. Whittier, assistant chemist, resigned June 30,
1908 to accept a similar position in the Ohio Experiment Sta-
tion.

June I the Department of Veterinary Science which was
under the charge of Prof. F. L. Russell for a number of years,
was discontinued. The major portion of Dr. Russell's time dur-
ing the past few years has been given to the work of instruction
in the University. He is continuing his connection with the
Station since July i doing special work in the Department of
Biology.

Dr. Chas. E. Lewis, was appointed Associate Pathologist and
entered upon his duties July i.



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xii MAINE AGRICUI.TURAI, EXPERIMENT STATION. I908.

Joseph F. Merrill who did special work in the Experiment
Station during the fall of 1907 and winter of 1908 was regularly
appointed assistant chemist July i, 1908.

Miss Maynie R'. Curtis was appointed assistant in biology and
began her work August i, 1908.

Miss Alice W. Averill was appointed laboratory assistant in
entomology and began her work in August, 1908.

BUILDINGS.

A small greenhouse 15x30, for the use of the Pathologists
and Entomologist was erected on the south of the Experiment
Station building. It is divided into three rooms with arrange-
ments for automatically controlling the temperature. A small
potting shed is connected.

The frame poultry house, known as No. i, was abandoned
and torn down in the summer of 1908. At the east end of poul-
try house No. 2, a house was erected for a poultry hospital and
special physiological investigations with poultry.



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BULLETIN No. 151

FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION.

Chas. D. Woods, Director.

J. M. BartlETT, Chemist in charge of inspection analysis.

The present bulletin, intended primarily for dealers, contains
reports upon the food inspection as it has been conducted dur-
ing the last six months of 1907 and the results of analyses of
samples collected, together with a discussion of these results.
This discussion is made as simple and as free from technical
language as possible. The attempt is made to clearly point out
some of the more common violations of the law which are made
unwittingly, and to call attention to some violations that have
been passed over during this, the first year of the present law,
that cannot be allowed to continue.

Skirling Goods That Have Been Removed From the

Package.

Some cases have come to our attention of unwitting violations
of the law on the part of dealers by removing the contents of a
package into some other receptacle before selling. This is per-
fectly proper in the case of goods that are exactly what they
appear to be, but goods that require branding cannot be lawfully
removed from original package before being sold unless they
are still corerctly labeled. For example — adulterated maple
sugar may be sent out in boxes that are properly labeled ; it is
unlawful for the dealer to remove it from the package in which
it was received and expose it for sale unless it shall be plainly
marked adulterated maple sugar or maple sugar and cane sugar
or whatever is necessary to accord with the fact. Pork sausage
as put up by many of the manufacturers contains some cereal
and is properly labeled "Pork sausage, cereal added." The
removal of such sausage from the original package and expo-



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2 MAINE AGRICUWURAI, EXPERIMENT STATION. I908.

sure for sale without proper labeling is unlawful. An imitation
cream of tartar sold in bulk, may be properly labeled in its orig-
inal package but it is unlawful to remove it from that package
and expose it for sale unless it shall be properly labeled.

Substitution.

One of the most difficult things to meet in the enforcement
of the law is in connection with goods sold from opened pack-
ages. When these goods come from the wholesaler to the
retailer they may be properly labeled so as to show their exact
nature, but when they are given by the retailer to the consumer,
it does not follow that the consumer knows what he receives.
For instance a retailer may buy a barrel of distilled vinegar,
artificially colored and below the standard strength of acid.
The barrel may be branded correctly "Distilled vinegar, colored,
3^ per cent acetic acid," but in taking orders from house to
house, the grocer's clerk may find a customer who asks for a
gallon of vinegar. Under the law the customer has the right
to expect that cider vinegar of legal strength will be given him.
The order may, however, be filled from this imitation vinegar.
One sends to the market for pork sausage; the order may be
filled from a package labeled "Pork Sausage, cereal added."
Cream of tartar may be ordered and the grocer may deliver an
imitation cream of tartar although he may take it from a cor-
rectly labeled opened package.

The lesson from this is obvious. Unless the customer knows
that his grocer is thoroughly reliable and will deliver him exactly
what he orders, there is only one thing to do and that is to
follow up the purchases to make sure they are taken from prop-
erly labeled packages. No possible food inspection can protect
the customer that does not use his eyes for his own protection.
The great mass of bulk goods at present being sold in Maine
are properly labeled. The dealer violates the law who substi-
tutes an inferior article even though it be from a properly
labeled package. The inspector will do all in his power to look
after these cases but it is necessary that the consumer be on the
watch for his own protection.



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food and drug inspection. 3

The Guaranty.

Section 9 of the Maine Food and Drug Law reads as follows :
"No dealer shall be prosecuted under the provisions of this act
when he can establish a guaranty signed by the wholesaler, job-
ber, manufacturer, or other party residing in the United States,
from whom he purchased such articles, to the effect that the
same is not adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of
this act, designating it. Said guaranty, to afford protection,
shall contain the name and address of the party or parties mak-
ing the sale of such articles to such dealer, and in such case
said party or parties shall be amendable to the prosecutions,
fines and other penalties which would attach, in due course, to
the dealer under the provisions of this act."

By Maine Food and Drug Regulation 6, Regulation 9 of the
U. S. Secretary of Agriculture which has to do with the form
of guaranty, was adopted for Maine. In M. F. D. R. 11, "A
Written Guaranty the Dealers Safeguard," the folowing state-
ment is made. While the law cited applies only to the sale of
food and drugs, discretion is given to the Director regarding
prosecutions under other laws. No prosecutions will be made
against any handler of feeding stuffs, fertilizers, or agricultural
seeds within the State provided he obtain at the time of pur-
chase a zvritten guaranty that the goods are in conformity with
the law regulating their sale. Failure to obtain such a guaranty
on the part of the dealer will be presumptive evidence that he
is not sufficiently interested in the purity of the goods which he
handles, and unless there are especially extenuating circum-
stances, the Director will feel it his duty to begin prosecution
for violations of either of the laws regulating the sale of food
and drugs, feeding stuffs, fertilizers, or agricultural seeds.

There seems to be some- misunderstanding relative to the
guaranty on the part of the dealers and the attempt is here made
to state this matter clearly.

Any form of guaranty covering the facts may be used.
Forms are suggested below. The guaranty must be signed in
ink. The signature of a corporation should be made in the
following form. First the legal corporate title of the company ;
second the autograph of a duly authorized officer of the com-
pany; third the title or designation of his office. For example
— The Smith- Jones Company, Chas. R. Doe, Member of firm.



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