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satisfy any material inquiries therein, Craving pardon for our
over much and prolixity as our duties are, so pray
wee for the Almighty's protection to secure your person, his
spirit to guide, his blessing to croun your high and memorable
endeavours with continued successe for the advancement of his
own glory and kingdom and your happinesse here and eternally.

Aug. I'J, 1G56.

/ Tho. Williams, Rob. AVadley,

Robert Booth, John Allcooke,

Richard llitchcox, Charles Frost,

John Leighton, Hunij.h. Chadhorn,

Ralph Trustnun, Edw. Johnson,

Walter Newell, [mark] Honry Norton,

Rich. Coman, Silvester Stover, [mark.]

Rob't Weymouth, [mark.] Sampson Anger, [mark.]

Jno. Diamont, Juo. Parker,
Wm. Sradlock, " Jno. Barret, sun.,

Wm. Renolus, Sam. Austine,



Morgrin Howell,

Edw. Clark,

Gregory Jeffrvs,

Nicli. BuUy, sen., [mark.]

Roger Hill,

Henry "Waddock,

Wni. Horkett,

Nich. Bully, [mark.] ,

Hen. Boad,

Jno. West,

James Heard,

Abra. Preble,

Nieh. Frost, [mark.] '

Edw. Risliworth,

Peter AVyre,

Robt. Knigiit, [mark.]

Nich. Davis,

Rich. Bankes,

George Parker,


Ezek. Knight,
Wm. Hammon,
Nich. Coole,
Jno. Gouch, sen.,
Jno, Gouch, jun,,

This is a true copie compared with its original.

Attest, Edm. E.\wson, Secretary.

Grifliu Montague, [mark,]

Miles Thompson,

Dan. Goodwin,

Hen. Symons,

Hugh Gullison,

Ptoger Plaisted,

Tho. Spencer, [mark.]

Wm. Dixon, [mark.]

John Smith, [mark.]

Tho. Courtous,

Sam. Twisden,

Abra. Cowley, [mark]

Nath. Lord, [mark.]

Tho. Jones, [mark,]

Wm. Symons,

Rob. Mendum, [mark.]

Wm. Spencer,

Francis Raynes,

Hen. Donnell, , _

Jos, Emerson,

Tho. Wheelwright,

John Davis,

John Twisden,

Philip Hatch, [mark.]


Letter from Edward Rishworth to Gov. Exdicott, 1656.

To the Eight Worshipful John Endicott. Gov., &c.

Aug. 14, 165G.
Right Worshipful, I have not been wanting, although with
some difficulty, (and ye more in respect of my own weakne.-se
and other opposition,) according to the best of my skill and
knowledge of the state of things amongst us, to draw together
the counsels of the best part, I hope, if not the greatest part of
our inhabitants for the effecting of which being effected will
conduce, as we trust, to our future good ; In the accomplishment
whereof among many who have subscribed, I meet such an un-
expected readinesse of rationall complyahce as gives me some
encouraging persuasions that these scattered intimations of our
honest desires to his highnesse may introduce some for the con-
firmation of our continued settlement under your authority,
being unfeignedly the end of our requests, as this inclosed peti-
tion of ours more at large doth and may demonstrate.

Sir, being at Sacoe not many days since, I could not but take
notice of some discontent and trouble of spirit in several of them
about the apprehending Jno. Bonighton, whom I really believe
want rather of corage than cowardize doth only retract their
resolutions from the faithful discharge of their dutys therein,
which occasionally kindleth his impudence soe much the more
to the exorbitant abuse both of our authority and themselves ;
And might I presume to utter my own weaknesses under cor-
rection, if the Gen. Court should thinke meete to commissionato
Mr. Francis Raynes our Lieut., or some else in our County with
sufficient power or assistance, tiie matter I con(;eive ])ru(h-ntly


attended would be easily affected vithout any great damage
or ditliculty and the men of Sacoe removed out of their inextri-
cable foures, with which by their own conceate they "are soe
strangely affected. The truth is they dare not take him. I
formerly moved a businesse to your worship and Eevercnd Mr.
Norton, (of whoso ****** I rejoice to hear,) about procuring a
minister for the people of Xewgeawanacke, which hitherto hath
lyne dormant, by reason of Mr. Broughton's absence thence, on
whom it hath some chief dependence, but we hope shortly to
have an opportunity effectually to revive it again.

Sacoe and Cape Porpus are in a greate strayte for some godly
minister ; for his maintenance they propound fifty pounds per
annum, besides a house and some other conveniences, touching
which I was moved to write to your worship, which I cannot
well be so forwaid in till the people of Newgewanacke be sup-
plied, altho' I cannot but be sensible of the deepe necessity
thereof. Some of Wells and Sacoe I perceive are very desirous
of having the Gen. Court moved that they might have one Magis-
trate allowed and settled, who lives in the County, or otherwise
to have some fitt person or persons joyned in Commission with
the Commission of each towne, that upon occasion might have
power for more speady punishment of offenders who by these
protractions of **** punishments doth multiply their offeuccs, and
at length find a way by escape to avoyd all punishments. Had
we persons meetly qualified for such place, the thing were more
thau needful to be done. This with ray service to yourself, the
Dep. Gov., and my due respects to Mr. Norton and all the rest
of our Christian friends, I leave yourself, yours and all your
weighty occasions with the Lord, remaining

Your worship to be commanded

in the Lord, Edward Eisuwortk.

[The first part of this leiter undoubtedly relates to the petition to Crom-
well, which precedes it in this volume ; and we are thus let into the secret
that the petition was procured by the exertions of that government to secure
its power in this province.]


A Letter oif the Affairs of New Exolakp, 1G63 or 1G04.

Sm — I have been divers times with Col. Temple at his
lodging,* whom I find to be a reall cordial gentleman for poor
N. E., who hath not wanted for foes, for I will tell you, sir,
what not only I but a ten or a dozen besides myself can testify,
which I doubt not but is writt by other hands to N. E,

Sir, the first day that Col. Temple came to the Exchange after
ho had been at Court,he wentoff to the Sunne to Dummer,'and
I think most of X. E. men was there, amongst the I'est was Mr.
Mavericke ; Col. Temple was then pleased to tell us what he had
said to the King in behalf of N. E., which was very much and
speeke merrylie as you know his manner is, and said for all those
affidavies or oaths that are given in against the Country, yett I
will hold six to four N. E. hath their liberty contrary to expecta-
tion. Mr. Mavericke thought to have found him far otherwise
and of his judgment: Mr. Mavericke said before all the Com-
pany that X. E. were all rebels and he would prove them so,
and that he had given in to the council so, but I think he will be
shamed of it.

To morrow evening N. E. business is to be heard at the
Council table, and we intend to be there.

Sir, you need not fear but N. E. will enjoy their libertys as
ever, and conserning the Quakers, I tell you what Col. Temple

[♦This Col. Temj)le was Thomas, aften\-ard Sir Thomas, who was Gov-
ernor of Acadia by Cromwell's appointment He contrived to be on good
terms with Charles II., and thus to render aid to X»'w England. IIe,v,as a
large speculator in lands here. He died in London, in 1674.]

' Jeremiah Llummer, a::^ent fur Massachusetts, and Samuel Maverick, after-
war done of the Commiisioaers to Xew England.


eaith, that in the letters that he delivered of the Country to the
Council in presence of the Ivinj, they Avritt they should observe
his itajesty's Commands in all things and that they had given
the Quakers liberty, the King hearing this clupt hi^ hand on his
breast said that he intended not soe, but] that they should not
hang them, while further order. J. Cckwine.

There is no date to this letter, but as it relates to affairs just pending the
sendiug of comuiissioiiers to New England, it must have beea written in
1663 or '64,


1680. It is without date, bct it must have been prepared i.v

ENDED IX 1679.

To the King's most excellent Majesty, the humble petition
of your Majesty's freeborn subjects, the inhabitants of the
province of Maine in N. E.

Humbly sheweth That your Majesty's father of ever blessed
memory by his letters patent bearing date at Westminster in the
fifty-first year of his reigne, did grant unto Sir Ferdinando
Gorges his heires and assigns that tract of land called the
Province of Maine, ma,king the same equal with the Palatinate
of Durham and to enjoy the like privileges to lay out and grant
townships, to dispose of lands not disposed of before, and that
noe law be exercised in the Province but such as were made and
consented to by your Majesties freeholders inhabiting the said
Province. And that your petitioners upon these invitations and
incouragements did settle in the said province in greate num-
bers and in short time incre ased unto several towneships having
amongst us several Courts of Judicature and Records and for
divers years were governed according to their laws (agreeable to
the laws of England) made by the Commissioners of Sir Ferdi-
nando Gorges and the freeholders therein. That the Bostoners
under pretence of an imaginary patent line did invade our rights
and priviledges erecting their owne authority by causing the
inhabitants to sweare fidelity to their government. That about
the yeare 1G61 upon our humble representation of these matters
your Maj. was graciously pleased by your royal authority by


your royal letters of 16G4 to that government to require them
not farther to disturb nor meddle in the proviaee,. which they
then refused to obey.

"Whereupon your petitioners representing their grievances to
your Majesties Commissioners in 1665, tliey solemnly restored
and re-established your ^Majesties authority amongst us by
which we administered the oaths of allegiance and proceeded to

govern and y to our former laws and so continued till about

the year 166S when Maj. Leveret, Walderne and others entered
upon the province and with force of arms disturbed the inhabi-
tants, then at a Court holden for your Majesty at Yurke in your
Majesties province of ]\Laine commanding all proceedings for the
future to be managed by their own authority and laws; Since
which time notwithstanding the greate loss sustained by the late
Indian war we are still oppressed with heavy rates and taxes
imposing the sum of three thousand pounds and upward to be
collected and paid by the inhabitants of three towns (viz.) York,
AYells and Kittery. Your petitioners humbly pray your ]\[ajesty
to take the premises into your royal consideration and by your
gracious letters to re-establish and confirm us under your royal
authority granting liberty to tender consciences to impower such
whose names we here humbly represent to govern according to
the lawes and constitutions of this your Majesties province until
your Majesties pleasure be further known therein, to which we
shall in all readiness and duty submit. And your petitioners
shall ever pray.

John Hole, Cleraont Short,

Peter Lixon, Jno. Taylor,

Elihu Gunison, "\Vm. Furbish,

Joshua Downing, Josiah Wite,

Ricli. Jewell, Richard Calle,

Rich. Whiet, Jno. Granger,

Tho. Rice, Beiij- Nason,

Rich. Nason, Nath Lord, jr.,

Ricliard King, Abra. Lord,

Gabriel Tetherly, James Stackpule,

Christian Remuck, Juhn Nason,

Enoch Ilowchins, Christo. Batt,

Tho. Furnell, And. Sari, sen.,

Tho. Hunscom, Jno. Sari,



Richard Miller,
Richard Green,
Edmund Hammond,
Nic. Shapleigu,
Roger Davis,
Jos. Twisden,
James AVig^in, sen.,
Diggerie Jaffrie,
Stephen Jenkiugs,
John Morrill,
Adrian Frie,
John Miller,
Tho. Mussey,
Tho. Drafton,
Jasper Putnam,
Alexand. Cooper,
John Card,
Thorn. Curtis,
Tho, Litilefield,
Tho. Bragdon,
James Wiggin, jun.,
John Moggerage, -
John Ameradeath, sen.,
William Tetherly,
John Triokee,
Jabis Jenkins,
Rich. Bankes,
John Batson,
Jeremiah Shores,
Nath. Raines,
Kath. Donnel,
Jona. Nason,
Rich. Brav,
John "Whiet,
John Ken,
John Green,
Jno. Pudington,
George Buren,
Rowland Young, sen.,
Samson Angier,
Joseph Daniel,
Jno. Bray,
Arthur Daniel,
Wm. More,
Trancis Trickee,

Jno. Ncale,
Peter Grant,
Nathan Beadford,
Geo. Inggerston,
Anth. Brackett,
Thad. Clarke,
John Davies,
Lawr. Davies,
"\Vm. Pearce,
"\Vm. Rogers,
Jno. Welding,
Jno. Skilling,
Jos. Ingerson,
Geo. Ingerson,
Phihp Hues,
Steph. Leatherbee,
Rob. Ilains,
Wm. Ilains,
Tho. Bickford,
Henry Libbe,
Chris. Edgcom,
Jno. Jordan,
Sam. Jordan,
Domin. Jordan,
Jeremiah Jordan,
Wm. Mansfield,
Jno. Flee,
Andrew Bodon,
Peter Shaw,
Christo. Spurrell,
John Tinny,
James Randal,
Jno. Mackworth,
Jno. Simson,
Antho. Row,
Phillip Foxwell,
Waymouth Bickton,
Henry Elkings,
Tho. Moise,
Jno. Barrett,
Robert. Eadge (comb),
John Hill,
Wm. Scriven,
Richard Rogers.




AxioKG the memorials of the late Governor Lixcolx, to which value is
attached by those acquainted Avith his favorite occujiations, are a consider-
able number of rich and interesting manuscripts, relating to the Indian
antiquities and historical annals connected with the territory, which is now
chiefly contained within the limits of this State.

It may be observed, that the field of these researches, to an intelligent
investigator, is not strictly confined to the original, or even the existing,
geography of Maine ; but that it may be considered as extended in some
measure over the whole surface which once formed the scene of contest
between the French and English titles in this quarter — to the verge of the
St. Lawrence on one side, and the banks of the various streams that bore at
one time or another the customary appellation of St. Croix, which the French
Avere apt to bestow upon any spot to which they set up the European right
of discovery and conquest. The view, therefore, spreads over all the
country claimed by them under the rather poetical description of ^ic<?</i^,
and the space incUuL-'d also in the charter of William and Mary, to the north
and east of the Piscataqua. The large tract of territorj- embraced by this
bold, and vague, and somewhat irregular outline— altered as it was from
time to time by political treaties, negotiated it may be noticed in difierent
places in Holland— forming the subject of fierce conflict, upon the debatable
ground, between the national arms of France and England — and exhibiting
moreover a spectacle of border or feudal warfare between the opposite
occupants and combatants for possession — may be termed the Flanders, or
in more modern phraseology, the Belgium, of America.

No antiquarian or historical survey, therefore, of those subjects,
which engaged the attention of the distinguished author of these MMS.,
could be sufiiciontly comprised within any more certain or determinate
boundary. No scope less ample would in fact alford a distinct and jiroper
perspective, either to the general topics or particular events about which the
chronicles and records of that long period are concerned ; and a definite limi-
tation of regard to bUch a portion of the country as lay Mithiii the mcio


acknowlcdijed ami un(lis;pnte(l allegiance of the English Sovereign until t'n -
tennination of the war of 17")ti, wouM exclude from the liorizon no inc-. a-
siderable part of what is proper to tlie province of inquiry. Further; from
the early visits of the French to this projection of the continent, where it was
their policy to make a permanent establishment, whether as a counterpoise
to the Englisli or for the simple jmrpose of extended empire and commercial
consequence, from the conciliatory and successful intercourse which they
cultivated with flie natives, the superior facility with which they entered into
the modes of Indian life, and the tact with which they discovered the shades
of Indian character, from the familiarity with which they accommodated
themselves to the habits and identified themselves with the interests of these
ignorant and yet not intractable sons of the forest-— from all these combined
means of influence and knowledge in their afihirs, as well as from the direct
share which the French sustained in the work of colonization, and from the
natural relations and perpetual effects springing out of their juxtaposition to
the Anglo-American settlements on the Atlantic, there is a fund of valuable
information to be found among the narratives of the French adventurers and
historians, such as Ifscarbot, CharUvoiz, etc. ; and this class of authorities,
contained in a foreign language, is to be consulted with no less care, nor, ii
may be added, with -less advantage, than the accounts of Smith, and Gorges;,
and Josselyn.

The papers bequeathed by Governor Lincoln bear evidence that he omitted
no means, and neglected no opportunities that could avail him for acquiring
aU the appropriate knowledge which belongs to the treatment of the above
mentioned topics ; and that he had access to sources which do not lie within
the familiar range nor come within the. ordinary reach of those, who, whether
as readers or writers, possess a competent general acquaintance with the
early afiairs and local antiquities of New England. If, as may be the case,
there are others whose longer devotion to Indian researches has been
rewarded by the most extensive acquirements, and who upon particular
branches of the subject may possess a more profound and universal learning,
those enlightened minds would not be prone to undervalue the contributions
capable of being furnished by these papers to the stock of general informa-
tion ; and it may at least be said, that an abundant collection of materials in
relation to the interesting subjects referred to, exhibit the proofs of a patient,
partial, and persevering labor on the part of the historian, in the cherished
employment of his mind at hours disengaged from public service or reserved
from professional duty, for several years of his life ; and that he has em-
bodied a large quantity and rare variety of important information concerning
the characteristics and circumstances, the dialect, religion, and fate oi" the
aboriginal inhabit-ints of tliis broad promontory of the North American

These productions of bis pen are obviously imj)ressed with the tastes,
opinions, and feeUngs of their benevolent and accomplished author. To
thoi^ who regard these natives of the land as leaves scattered by the wiiiis

GOVERNOR Lincoln's papers. 40o

of autumn, wliile these papers may slied a lingering and pensive light upon
the relics of that unfortunate and vanishing race once among us — whioli
may be grouped under the general denomination of Abenaquis — not Avitiiout
a humane and friendly leaning in their favor, they are nevertheless marked
with the reflective traits of a sensible and philanthropic philosophy, keo[>ing
in view as a point of paramount importance the advance of the best principles
of progressive moral and social improvement.

It was apparently the design of Mr. Lincoln to have prepared these ma-
terials, which he had taken so much pains to collect, for publication : and it
is probable that this intention was on the eve of being performed at the
period when tlie execution of any literary purpose was necessarily inter-
rupted and for a season postponed by the very general call of his fellow
citizens to the cares of chief magistracy. From that point of time it does
not appear that he was able to resimie any regular portion of the attention
he had been fond of bestowing upon this favorite occupation ; and dying
before his term of office was completed, it became scarcely possible to
present the whole of his productions to the public with the advantage which
they could have properly received only from his own revision. It is to be
trusted that the main body of these valuable materials will not be quite lost ;
and the public may be warranted perhaps to place a reliance on those who
were nearest to the deceased Governor Lincoln in the atrmities of atfectiou
or the congenial and elevating associations of the mind, that they shall be
presented in such a shape as may be suitable for their preservation. If we
are not disappointed in the hope, which we permit ourselves to entertain,
that his friends will not allow the work to be frustrated, the historical com-
position to v.hich we have referred may be anticipated to constitute a promi-
nent article in the ensuing volume.

Two portions have in the mean time been selected for publication in the
present volume, in the state in which they were left, one of which relates to
the language spoken by the Indians, and the other to the missions establisiied
by the Cathohcs among the Indians in this .section of the country. It ap-
peared that these were capable of being extracted without disadvantage, and
may perhaps aflbrd a taste of the remainder. It may be remarked as an
opinion of him to whom we owe the benefit of these researches, that the
French evinced an integrity and purity in relation to the interest.s of the
Indian population, particularly in regard to their religious concerns, beyond
any credit that could be assumed to the English for any political or prose-
Ij'ting services in their behalf. Such, it is plain enough, was the impression
upon the minds of the natives themselves.

We are indebted to the ]>en of a friend well acquainted with the subject of
his remarks for the following characteristic notice in regard to the gifted and
lamented individual, who has accomplished so much to illustrate and adoru
the objects of tins Historical institution.

Jlti mihi — quantum
Presi'.liion, Al"soxi.\, et quantum tu perdis !


The papers here presented to the pubHc are selected from a work mI-c-H
occupied much of the time and attention of the late Governor Lincoln, uiiri:;^
many of tlie later years of his life. The subject is one in which be took a
deep interest, and he spared no pains or labor in collecting the materials ail
endeavoring tomake the work as perfect as the circumstances would peniiit.
He searched every document to which he could obtain access ; he explon' i
every page of history, which might atTord a hint or an illustration of the t.i^k
he had undertaken ; he visited all those spots in this State, rendered in ai.y
way remarkable for events connected with the early history of the priniitivo
race, who once inhabited the places where civilization has now usurped ii»e
wildness of uncultivated nature. His very study bore testimony to the zeal
he felt and the interest which he took in tliis subject, not merely by its books,
but by the ornaments with which it was decorated. It was hung around with
the branching antlers of the Moose, the Caribou, and the Deer ; and its walls
ornamented by a map of the Umbagog lakes, dehneated on birch bark by
one of the natives ; over which hung a full length portrait of one of these
ancient lords of the soil. Xothing was neglected that might serve to thro-?
light \ipon the manners, character, habits, and disposition of our Indians.
For this purpose he sought to obtain, both at home and abroad, all those
documents that might be supposed to contain information upon this subject.
He visited the neighboring Provinces, exploring their records for facts that
might elucidate the task he had undertaken ; and that he might arid to all
this the benefit of observation and experience, he visited the Indian settle-
inents, and sought information by intimacy and intercourse with them. In
this way he had collected something of a dictionarj- of their language, and
was fond of comparing its structure with that of ancient and modern lan-
guages, and tracing the analogies and discrepancies between them. His
enthusiasm for whatever related to Indian character and manners, I beli'vo
to have been inspired by his own peculiar feelings and principles. Tliu
strong and pervading character of his mind was a love of nature, and conse-
quent upon this, the love of liberty and hatred of oppression. This mado
him fly with feuch alacrity from the busy walks of life and the hum of men
to the retirement of the country, and even to the solitude of the wilderness.
Some weeks or months in each year he was fond of devoting to rambling in

Online LibraryMaine Historical SocietyCollections of the Maine Historical Society (Volume 1, ser.1) → online text (page 35 of 52)