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against a very rapid stream, where you would have taken tiio
men for amphibious animals, as they were great part of the time
under water ; add to this the great fatigue in portage, you will
think I have pushed the men as fast as could possibly have been.
The officers, volunteers, and privates, have in general acted with
the greatest spirit and industry.

Inclosed is a copy of my journal, which T fancied your excel-
lency might be glad to see.

■ Skcoxd Carryixg-place, Oct. 14, 1775.

Col. Farnsicorth :

Sir — I wrote you on the road here to send forward to the
great carrying-place all the provisions, and for that purpose to
hire men on the river well acquainted with setting up. I have
thought proper to write you again for fear my former letter
should have miscarried. You will hurry on the provisions as
fast as possible. We have now about twenty-tive days' allow-
ance. Hope before that is gone to be in Quebec. However, I
think it necessary to have the provisions forwarded on, that our
retreat may be secured in case of any accident.
I am Sir, your h'blc serv't.

' B, Arnold.

Third Carryixg-place, Oct. 15, 1775,
Dear Sir — I forgot to desire you to send on the yoke of oxen
to Dead Elver, as soon as can be, for I intend killing them there
for the whole detachment. Your proposal in regard to Mr.
North will be agreeable to me, if it is so to the detachment; but
I am at a loss whether they will be fond of having an officer
introduced not belonging to the detachment. AVhen we arrive
at the Dead lliver, will determine that matter, where you will
hurry as fast as possible. There I design holding a council of
war, and expect particular advice from Canada.

I am Sir, your most h'ble serv't.
Lt. Col. Ends. B. Arnold.


"' , ' Third CAnr.YixG-rLACE, Oct. 15, 1775.

DnAK Sir. — Yours of yesterday was this moment delivered
to me, I had just wrote you in regard to Mr. North, and to
forward on the oxen, &c. When I left the Carrying Place, I
expected to have found some subaltern unwell, who might have
been detained with fifteen or twenty men who were feeble and
not so well able to proceed, yet capable of taking care of the
sick, provisions, &c. If none such is sent back before you leave
the carrying-place, you must order some subaltern to remain
there, and have a batteaux at each lake. Give him orders to
send the sick down, and take particular care of the battoaux left
behind. The three first divisions have twenty-five days' provision,
which will carr}'- them to Chaudiero pond and back, where we
shall doubtless have intelligence, and shall be ablo to proceed or
return as shall bo thought best. Give the ofiicer who stays
behind orders to send down the river and secure the batteaus a
drift. I am dear Sir, your h'ble serv't.

Col. Eoger Exos. B. Auxold.

On the Dead River, 20 miles above the Portage, )

Oct. 17, 1775. \

Dear Sir — I arrived here last night late, and find Col. Green's
division very short of provision? ; the whole having only four
barrels flour and ten barrels of pork. I have therefore ordered
Major Bigelow, a Lieut., and thirty-ono men out of each com-
pany, to return and meet your division, and bring up as much
provisions as you can spare, which is to be divided equally
among the three ; in particular of tlour. This will lighten tho
rear, and they will be able to make greater dispatch and will bo
no hindrance, as I shall keep the men here making up cartridges.
I make no doubt you will hurry on as fast as possible.
I am with esteem dear Sir,

Your h'ble serv't.

B. Arnold.

N, B. If you find your men much fatigued and this party
can bring on more of your provision than their share, lot them
have it ; — yoa shall have it again when you come up, and it will


forward the vrhole. The carpenters of Colbuni's company ],:i\::
more than they can bring up.

Oct. 17, 1775.
Major Bigcloic :

Srti — you are as soon as possible to go back until yon meet
Col. Enos\s division, and take from him as much provision as lio
can spare, which you will return with as soon as you can. I.cav.>
your b.atteaus this side of the carrying place, and one man l->
take care of the whole. I am Sir, your h'ble serv't.

. " B. Aknolp.

Dead Eutr, 30 miles from Chaudiere Tond, Oct. 21, 1775.

Dear Sir — The extreme rains and freshets in the river have
hindered our proceeding any farther. When I wrote you last,
I expected before this to have been at Chaudiere. I then wrote
you that we had about twenty-five days' provisions for the whole.
We are now reduced to twelve or fifteen days, and don't expect
to reach the pond under four days. We have had a council of
war last night, when it was thought best, and ordered, to send
back all the sick and feeble with three days' provisions, and
directions for you to furnish them until they can reach the
commissary or Norridgewock ; and that on receipt of this you
should proceed with as many of the best men of your division
as you can furnish with fifteen days' provision ; and that the
remainder, whether sick or well, should be immediately sent back
to the commissary, to whom I wrote to take all possible care of
them. I make no doubt you will join with me in this matter, as
it maybe the means of preserving the whole detachment, and «.f
executing our plan without running any great hazard, as fifneea
days will doubtless bring us to Canada. I make no doubt you
will make all possible expedition.

I am dear Sir, your\s

CoL. Enos. B.'Arxold.

Dead TtivER, 24th Oct. 1775.
Dear Sir — The heavy rains which have lately fallen and
rendered the river almost impassable, with many accidents, liave


?o far retarded our proceeding, that I find it necessary for tbo
safety of the detav'liment, to send back the sick, and to reduce
the detachment so as to leave fifteen days' provisions for the
whole, which I make no doubt will enable us to reach Canada.
Tliose who are sent back you will take all possible care of, and
supply with provisions, tfec, and send back to Cambridge as soon
as possible.

I wrote to you the 14th instant to send forward to the Great
Carrying-place all the provisions you had. This I make no
doubt you have done, to secure our retreat.

I am dear Sir, your obed't serv't.

B. Arnold.

Dead River, 30 miles from Chaudiere, Oct. 24, 1775.
Dear Sir — Enclosed is^a letter from Col. Enos, and also one
from the commissaiy , by which you will see, our present situa-
tion and the necessity of sending back all the sick and feeble of
your division, and proceeding on with the best men, and fifteen
days' provisions for each. You will, after perusing the letter,
(if Col. Enos has not joined you,) send them down the river, with
all j'our sick, &c. Pray hurr}' on as fast as possible.
I am with esteem dear Sir,

Your h'ble serv't.
CoL. Green. • B. Arnold.

Oct. 27, 1775, 2 1-2 miles on the Great Carrying-place.
Gentlemen — I arrived here late last night. Capt. Hanchet
informs me the roads through the woods are well spotted, and
not so bad but men will make greater despatch than by water.
The carrying-places from lake to lake are so many and ditficult,
that I think the whole will get forward much sooner by leaving
all the batteaux. If there are any people sick, you will perhaps
be under a necessity of bringing on some batteaux. 'We are
now near by the stream which is about six rniles to the lake. I
believe the walking here is pretty good, if you go a little back
from the stream. When you arrive at the lake the walking is
very good; the land rises gently with a good road, I am told
good all the v.-ay down.


I have lieard nothing,'- from Jackson. Lieut. Steele has r'ono
over the pond. His party are here and most of them goli^g
forward. I shall proceed with what men I have as fast as
possible, to the inhabitants, to send back provisions. Pray make
all possible despatch, I am Gent, your h'ble serv't.

B. Arnold.
To CoTs Green, Enos, and the

Captains in the rear of the detachment. '

Chaudiere Pond, 27th Oct., 1775.
May it please your Eoccellcncy,

My last, of the 13th inst. from the Portage to the Dead Kiver,
advising your excellency of our proceedings, I make no doubt
you have received. I then expected to have reached this place
by the 24th, but the excessive heavy rains and bad weather
have much retarded our march. I have tliis minute arrived here
with seventy men, and met a person on his return, whom I sent
down some time since to the French inhabitants. He informs
me they appear very friendly, and by the best information ho
could get, will very gladly join us. Ho says they informed him
Gen. Schuyler had had a battle with the regular troops at or
near St. Johns, in which the latter lost in killed and wounded,
near 500; (this account appears very imperfect) and that there
were few or none of the king's troops at Quebec, and no advice
of our coming.

Three days since, I left the principal part of the detachment
about three leagues below the Great Carrying-place; and as our
provisions were short, by reason of losing a number of loaded
batteaux at the falls and rapid waters, I ordered all the sick and
feeble to return, and wrote Col's Enos and Green to bring on in
their divisions no more men than they could furnish with fifteen
days' provisions, and to send back the remainder to the commis-
sary. As the roads prove much worse than I expected, and the
season may possibly be severe in a few days, I am determined to
set out immediately with five batteaux and about fifteen men, for
Sartigan, which I expect to reach in three or four days, in order
to procure a sujiply of provinions and forward back to the


detachment: the whole of which I don't expect will reach them
in less than eight or ten days. If I find the enemy are not
apprised of our coming, and there is any prospect of surprising
the city, I shall attempt it as soon as I have a proper number of
men up. If I should be disappointed in my prospect that way,
I shall wait the arrival of the whole and endeavor to cut off
their communication with Gov. Carleton, w^ho, I am told, is at

Our march has been attended with an amazing deal of fatigue,
which the officers and men have borne with cheerfulness. I have
been much deceived in every account of our route, w^hich is
longer, and has been attended with a thousand difficulties I
never apprehended ; but if crowned with success and conducive
to the public good, I shall think it but trifling.
I am with the greatest respect,

Your excellency's most obed't h'ble serv't.

B, Arnold.

P. S. As soon as I can get time, shall send your excellency
a continuation of my journal. b. a.

Chaudiere Eiver, 27th Oct. 1775.
To the field officers atid captains in the detachynent :

N. B. To be sent on, that the whole may see it.
Gentlemen — I have this minute arrived here and met my
express from the French inhabitants, who, he tells me, are
rejoiced to hear we are coming, and that they will gladly suppl}'-
us with provisions. He says there are few or no regulars at
Quebec, which may be easily taken. I have just met Lt's.
Steele and Church, and are determined to proceed as fast as
possible with four batteaux and fifteen men to the inhabitants,
and send hack provisions as soon as possible. I hope to bo
there in three days, as my express tells mo w^o can go most of
the way by water. You must all of you keep the east side of
the Lake. You will find only one small river until you reach
the crotch, which is just above the inhabitants. I hope in six
days from this time to have provisions half way up 'the river.
Pray make all possible despatch.


If any conipauics on their arrival at the river have more than
four or five days' provisions, let it be despatched to otliers, or
left for their coming on, .1 am Gent, your h'blo serv't.


P. S. Tlie bearer, Isaac Hull, I have sent back in order to
direct the people in coming from the Great Carrying-place to
Chaudiere JPond. From the west side of the Great Carrying-
place, before they come to the Meadows, strike oft" to the right
hand and keep about a north and by east course, which will
escape the low swampy laud and save a very great distance;
and about six miles will bring you to the pond. By no means
keep the brook, which will carry you into a swamp, out of which
it will be impossible for you to get.

CuAUDiERE Pond, 27th Oct., 1775.
To Col Ems :

Dear Sir — Forward on the enclosed letter to his excellency
Gen. "SYashington by express. If you have any officer who is
not hearty and well, send him ; and give orders to take particular
care of the sick and those who are returning, as well as of any
other matters that are necessary. I hope soon to see you in
Quebec, and am, Dear Sir, your humble servant.

B. Arnold.

Sartigax, Oct. 31, 1775.

Gentlemen. — I have now sent forward for the use of the
detachment., five bbls. and two tierces and five hundred lbs. of
flour by Lieut. Church, Mr. Barrin, and eight Frenchmen, and
shall immediately forward on more, as far as the falls. Tliose
Avho have provisions to reach the falls will let this pass on for
the rear; and those who want will take sparingly as possible,
that the whole may meet with relief. The inhabitants received
us kindly, and appear friendly in offering us provisions, &c.
Pray make all possible despatch.

I am Gent, yours &c.

Officers of the Bctaclonant. B. Arnoio.

aiinold's letters. 479

■ ' Sartigan', 1st Nov., 1775. Siu — As I make no doubt of your being hearty in the
'cause of liberty and 3-our country; I have taken the liberty to
inform you that I have just arrived here with a large detach-
ment of the American army. I have several times on my march
wrote you by the Indians, some of whom have returned and
brought no answer. I am apprehensive they have betrayed me
This will be delivered you by on whoso

secrecy 3'ou may depend. I beg the favor of you, on receipt of
this, to write me by the bearer the number of troops in Quebec
and Montreal; how the French inhabitants stand aflected; if
any ships of war are at Quebec, and any other intelligence you
may judge necessary for me to know. I find the inhabitants
very friendly this way, and make no doubt they are the same
with you. I hope to see you in Quebec in a few days. la the
meantime I should take it as a particular favor if some one or
two of my friends would meet me on the road, and that you
would let me know if the enemy are apprised of our coming.
Also the situation that General Schuyler is in.

Your compliance will much oblige, dear Sir,

Your friend and humble scrv't,

B. xVrnold.

' ■ Sartigan, 1st Nov., 1775.

To My'or Meigs :

Dear Sir — You may let each captain have about twenty or
thirty dollars out of the money I gave you, as I suppose they
will want a little pocket money for present use, and to supply
their men. Keep a particular account of what you deliver and
to whom.

Pray hurry on as fast as possible. I am just preparing to go
down the river to make further provision for the army.
I arfl dear Sir, your h'blc serv't.

B. Arnold.

St. ^Mart's, 4 leagues from Point Levi, Nov. 7, 1775.
Dear Sir — I wrote you the loth of October, from the Dead
River, advising you of my being there, with a large detachment


of the American array ; and that I expected to reacli Quebec in
about a fortnight. The badness of the roads and woalhvr
prevented making the despatch I expected, and I am but just
arrived here. Near one third of the detachment returned from
the Dead River short of provisions. The remainder are here or
within two days' .march, and in good spirits. My letter of tlie
13th I sent by an Indian, who I believe has betrayed me, and
given it up to some of the kings officers, as 1 find they have
been some time apprised of our coming, and prepared to receive
us, and I hjjve received no answer. The canoes belonging to
the French people on this side the river, are all taken away or
destroyed to prevent our passing. This inconvenience is obvi-
ated, as we have those of our own. I am informed there are
two frigates lying before Quebec. AVe have been very kindly
received by the inhabitants, who appear very friendly, and
willing to supply us with provisions. I intend crossing the St.
Lawrence if possible, in two or three days, and if practicable to
attack the city ; though I am fearful of their being reinforced
from Montreal, which may possibly put it out of my power :
in which case I intend to march for Montreal, where I hope, if
you have not already taken possession, I shall have the pleasure
of seeing you. I make no doubt of every advice and assistance
in your power.

I am dear Sir, very respectfully,

Your most humble servant,


St. Marie, 2 1-2 leagues from Point Levi, Nov. 8, 1775.
Deau Sir — Your favor of the 29th ult. I received at 1 o'clock
this morning, which gave me much pleasure. I heartily con-
gratulate you on your success thus far. I think you had great
reason to be apprehensive for me, the time I mentioned to Gen.
"Washington being so long since elapsed. I was not then
apprised or even apprehensive of one half of the difficulties we
had to encounter; of which I cannot at present give you
a particular detail : can only say we have hauled our batteaux
over falls, up rapid streams, over carrying-places; and marched
through morasses, thick woods, and over mountains, about three


hundred and twenty miles ; many of which wo had to pass
several times to bring our baggage. These difficulties the
soldiers have, with the greatest fortitude, surmounted. Abo\it
two thirds of the detachment are, happily, arrived here and
within two days' march; most of them in good health and
spirits. The other part with Col. Enos returned from the Dead
Eiver, contrar}- to my expectation, he having orders to send back
only the sick, and those that could not be furnished with provis-
ions. I wrote to Gen. Schuyler, the 13th of October, by an
Indian, I thought trusty, enclosed to my friend in Quebec; and
as I have had no answer from either, and he protends being
taken at Quebec, I make no doubt he has betrayed his trust,
which I am confirmed in, as I find they have been some time
apprised of our coming in Quebec, and have destroyed all the
canoes at Point Levi, to prevent our passing. This difficulty
will be obviated by birch canoes, as we have about twenty of
them with forty savages who have joined us, and profess great
friendship, as well as the Canadians, by whom we have been
very friendly received, and who will be able to furnish us with a
number of canoes.

I am informed by the French that there are two frigates and
several small armed vessels lying before Quebec, and a large ship
or two lately arrived from Boston. However, I propose crossing
the St. Lawrence as soon as possible; and, if any opportunity
offers of attacking Quebec with success, shall improve it, other-
wise shall endeavor to join your army at Montreal. I shall, as
often as in my power, advise you of my proceedings, and beg
the favor of hearing from you by every opportunity. Tiie en-
closed letter to his excellency Gen. "Washington, beg the favor
of your forwarding by express.

I am, dear Sir, very respectfully.

Your most obdt. humble servant,

Brig. Gen. Montgomeuv. B. Auxold.

P. S. Since writing the above, I have seen a friend from
Quebec, who informs me a frigate of twenty-six guns, and two
transports witli one hundred and fifty recruits arrived from St.
Johns, Xewfoundlan'l, last Sunday, which, with tlio inhal/itants
who have been compelled to take up arms, amouut to about three


hundred men; that the French and English inhabitants in gen-
eral, are on our side, and that the city is short of provision^. I
shall endeavor to cut off their communication \Yith the country,
and make no doubt, if no more recruits arrive, to bring them to
terms soon, or at least keep them in close quarters, until your
arrival here, which I shall wait with impatience ; but if St,
Johns should not have surrendered, and you can possibly spare
IV regiment this way, I think the city must of course fall into our
hands. B. a.

Point Levi, Nov. S, 1775.
May it please your Excellency ;

My last letter was of the 27th of October, from Chaudiero
pond, advising your excellency that as the detachment was short
of provisions, (by reason of losing many of our batteaux.) I had
ordered Col. Enos to send back the sick and feeble, and those
of his division who could not be supplied with fifteen days' pro-
visions, and that I intended proceeding the next day with fifteen
men to Sartigan, to send back provisions to the detachment. I
accordingly set out on the 2Sth, early in the morning, descended
the river, amazingly rapid and. rocky, for about twenty miles,
when we had the misfortune to stave three of the batteaux, and
lose their provisions, &c., but happily, no lives. 1 then divided
the little provisions left, and proceeded on with the two remain-
ing batteaux and six men, and very fortunately reached the
French inhabitants the 30th at night, who received us in the
most hospitable manner, and sent off early the next morning a
supply of fresh provisions, flour, &c., to the detachment, who are
all happily arrived (except one man drowned and one or two
sick — and Col. Enos's division, who, I am surprised to hear, are
all gone back) and are here and within two or three days' march.
I have this minute received a letter from Brig. Gen. Montgomery,
advising of the reduction of Chamble, &c. I have had about
forty savages join me, and intend as soon as possible crossing
the St. Lawrence.

I am just informed by a friend from Quebec that a frigate of
twenty-six guns, and two transports willi one hundred and (iffy
recruits arrived there last Sunday, which, with anotlier small

Arnold's letters. 483

frigate, and four other small armed vessels at the river, is all the
force they have, except the inhabitants, very few of whom have
taken up arms, and those by compulsion, who declare (except a
few English) that they will lay them down when attacked. The
town is very short of provisions, but well fortified. I shall en-
deavour to cut oft' their communication with the country, which
I hope to be able to effect and bring them to terms, or at least
keep them in close quarters until the arrivrl of Gen. ]Montgom-
ery, which I wait with impatience. I hope at any rate to effect
a junction with him at Montreal.

I am, with the greatest res[)ect.

Your excellency's most ob'd. servt,

B. Arnold.

PoixtLevi, 11th Xov., 1775.

Dear Sir. — The foregoing is a copy of my last by the two In-
dians you sent express the 29th ult., who, I hear this moment,
are taken five leagues above this. Since which I have waited
two or three days for the rear to come up, and in preparing lad-
ders, &c. The wind has been so high these three nights past,
that I have not been able to cross the river. I have nearly forty
canoes ready, and as the wind has moderated, I design crossing
this evening. The Hunter, sloop, and Lizard, frigate, lie opposite
to prevent us ; but make no doubt I shall be able to evade them.
I have this moment received the agreeable intelligence, via Sor-
rell, that you are in possession of St. Johns and have invested
Montreal. I can give you no intelligence save that the merchant
ehips are busy day and night in loading, and four have already
Bailed. I am Sir, your most humble servant,

Brig. Gen. Montgoinery. B. Arnold.

Poiyx Lkvi, 14th Xov., 1775.
May it phase your Excellency :

The Joregoing is a copy of my last of the 8th irist, by an ex-
press sent me by Gen. ^Mnntgomery, who I am this instant in-
formed was taken, fifteen leagues abi)ve this, on his return. J I):i\ c
waited three days for tht^ rear to come up, and in preparing scal-
ing-ladders. The wind hus been so high these three nights, I


have not been able to cros3 the river, but it is now nioderalcd,
and I intend crossing this evening with about forty canoes, 'ro
prevent which, the Hunter, sloop, and Lizard, frigate, lie oppo-
bite — however expect to be able to evade them.

I have received the agreeable intelligence that St. Johns is in
our hands and Montreal invested. The merchant shipping in
the harbor, about fifteen, are loading day and night, and four
have already sailed.

I am very respectfully, your excellency's

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