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WHIG REVIEW.



«T0 STAND BY THB CONSnTUTIOK."



NKW SERIES, VOL. V.-WHOLE VOL. XI.



NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED AT 118 NASSAU STREET.

1850.



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INDEX.



Angling (Review, P. P.) 32.

Arctic Regions, Map of, 571.

Aspects of Nature, by Alexander Van Humboldt,
(Review of,) Deserts. Their division into the
Desert proper or Sahara ; the Leanos or plains
on the eastern coast of South America, which
are half the year devoid of vegetation ; the
Steppe, furnishing subsistence throughout the
year for pastoral tribes, and the Copse, or bar-
ren, shrubby wastes of the North of Europe ;
the physiognomy of Plants, as an indication of
those natural features that direct the civilization
of races ; volcanoes^ 143.
B.

Bremer, MiflB, at Home, 423.

British encroachments and aggressions in Central
America ; commercial importance of Bay of
Fonseca ; Island of Tigre ; seizure by the Bri-
tish of the Port of San Juan de Nicaragua ; ef-
fect of relative geographical position of Great
Britain and the United States on Asiatic com-
merce ; advantage to the United States of ship
canal by route of Lake Nicaragua ; Buccaneers
originators of English intercourse with these re-
gions ; character of the natives ; difficulties be-
tween Spain and Great Britain respecting this
territory ; final relinquishment of all claim by
British government ; revival of British attempts
on decline of Spanish power ; grants from the
Mosquito king to Jamaica traders ; revocation
of grants ; seizure of the port of San Juan by
the British ; war on Nicaragua ; British exhibit
of the Mosquito question ; letter of Lord Palm-
erston ; refutation, 188, 335.
Browning's Poems, (Review,) 388.



Cabriolet by Ik. Marvel, 162.

Clay, Mr., speech of, (Review); policy of the na-



tion in regard to slavery and its extension ; rop-
pression of slavery in all territories of the United
States by act of central government ; expedien-
cy diecussed ; special message and scheme of
President Taylor ; advice of the President to
New Mexico to form State government ; re-
commends early admission of Calilomia ; Boun-
dary question between New Mexico and Texas
to be brought before Supreme Court and settled
on international principles ; resolutions offered
by Mr. Clay ; power of Congress to legislate for
territories undeniable but inexpedient; proposi-
tion of Mr. Clay respecting boundary and debts
of Texas ; abolition of slavery in District of Co-
lumbia ; slave trade in the District ; rendition
of fugitive slaves; slave traffic between the
States ; compromise line between slave and free
territory ; such line illusory ; slave or white la-
bor cannot be forced where they have not their
proper conditions ; balance of power ; dissolu-
tion of the Union ; disastrous consequences, 219.
Cooper, J. Fenimore, Work»<if (Review by G. W.

P.) 406.
Cuba (Review) '* Cuba and the Cubans, by the au-
thor of Letters from Cuba ;" geographical and
commercial importance of Cuba ; revolutions in
that island; horrible political persecutions ; de-
scriptions of plantations, their beauty and luxu-
riance ; indolence and luxury of the Cubans ;
women of Cuba, their early beauty ; religion ;
statistics of education ; importance of Cuba as a
possession to England or to the United States,
512.

D.

Democracy in France, by M. Guizot (Review, by
O.) ; sources of imperfection of human judgment ;
the evil of the times imputed by M. Guizot to its
idolatry of democracy ; government in a demo-
cracy ; radical theories ; democracy a govern-
ment of induction, from tne experience of num-
bers as recorded by their suffi-age ; aristocracy a



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IV



Index.



goverament of eyllogian, from the partial expe-
rience of a few ; right to government, where
resting — democratic republic ; its origin ; essen-
tial elements of society in France, viz : the fa-
mily, property and labor ; political elements of
society in France, viz : the legitimists, the bour-
geoisie, the socialists ; condition of permanent
government : M. Guizot's standard is the empi-
rical example of England, not the inductions of
general history, nor the laws of social science ;
moral conditions of social quiet in France, viz :
the family spirit, the political spirit, and the reli-
gious spirit, 1.

Dana, Richard H., poems and prose writings of,
(Review, G. W. P.) 66.

Duel without seconds, a daguerreotype from the
Sute House of Arkansas, 418.

E.

Everatone, by the author of Anderport records,
77, 168, 269, 369, 497, 603.

F.

Franklin, Sir John, and the Arctic expeditions ;
Scoresby'B voyages ; Ross's voyage ; Buchan's
voyage ; voyages of Parry ; Lyon*s, Clavering's
and Sabine's voyages ; Franklin's second expe-
dition ; Ross's second voyage ; Sir John Frank-
lin's last expedition, 572.

J.

" Judge not lest ye be judged," 300.

K.

King, Hon. Thomas Butler, report on California,
(Review) ; colonization in America ; increase
and expansion of population ; necessity of ex-
tending the geographical limits of the Union ;
peace policy ; expansive power of the republic ;
rapid settlement of CaUfomia ; abstract of Mr.
King's report on that country ; yield of the gold
mines ; cost of the California colony to the old
States; advantages and disadvantnges ; Mr.
Clay's committee of thirteen ; objects of the
committee ; States should be admitted to the
Union for other reasons than those given by the
opposing factions, 443.

L.

Lynch Law. uses and abuses of, (P. P.) sum-
mary justice, its occasional necessity — Back-
woodsman — conditions which give rise to Lynch
Law — " Regulators" and " Moderators" — an-
eedotes of those aosociationa, 459.

M.

M'lle de la Seigletre, 17—129.
Moss and Rust— Poetry, (G. M. P.) 640.
Montaigne, Michel de, works of — (Review) 47.
Maeanlay's history of England, (Review J. B. C.)
347.



Tha Old Homstead — a poem, 5S9.



P.

Poe, Edgar A. (Review, G. W. P.) 301.
Poetry— Moss and Rust, (G. M. P.) 640, the Old

Homestead, 529— Shipwreck, a Ballad, by W.

155.

R.

Rabelais, Francois, Essay on the life and writings
of| — Humor of different nations ; birth, educa-
tion, and early traits of Rabelais ; account of
. his more celebrated works ; Pantagreul, 487.

Read's poems or a caution to critics, 287.

Report ot the secretary of the treasury, (J. D. W.)

Receipts and expenditures for the fiscal years end-
ing July 1849 and 1850 ; advantages political
and economical of collecting a revenue of cus-
toms ; system of public debt, its advanUges ;
existing national debt ; growing expenses of the
government ; necessity for an efficient and eco-
nomical means of increasing the revenue ; pro-
position of Mr. Meredith ; commerce ; its val-
ue not always in the ratio of its profits ; politi-
cal economy, its fallacies ; intercourse of men,
social as well as economical ; comparison of
direct and indirect taxation ; direct taxation un-
favorable to agricultural interest ; England cir-
culates free-trade doctrines in this country to
sustain her manufactures; all tariffi more or
less protective ; heavy duties most protective,
and furnish largest revenue at expense of foreign
capitalists ; eventually their result is a better
market for our cotton and food growers as well
as manufactures, 113.

Republic, stability and growth of the ; coloniza-
tion ; instability of European governments,
causes of the ; democracy an established form
of government in America ; reason of its sta-
bility ; the three dimensions of power in a
State, internal solidity, durability, and extent ;
the aim of statesmanship to augment these;
extension of the State ; colonial systems, that
of America the most effectual ; colonization bf
the Greeks ; Egyptians, Phoenicians, Romans ;
Russian, Dutch, Spanish, French and English
colonization ; detects of English colonial pol-
icy ; the thirteen American colonies ; origin of
the Union ; colonial policy of the United States
should be calculated to promote the peaceful
enlargement and confirm the internal strength
of the Empire ; the war faction ; necessity of
adopting a settled policy to avert the evils of
war, 556.

Reviews.— Aspects of Nature, by Alexander Von
Humboldt, 143 ; Browning's Poems, 388 ; Cu-
ba and the Cubans, 512; Dana's Poems and
Prose writings, 66 ; Michel de Montaigne, 47 ;
Macaulay's History of England, 347 ; Poe's
Works, 301 ; Read's Poepis, 287 ; Sidonia,400 ,
Shirley, Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heigbti, 230;
Rabelais, 487 ; Works of J. Fenimoie Cooper,
406.

8.

Shipwreck, a Ballad, (by W.,) 155.
Southern Views of Emancipation and the slave
trade. Introductory remarks; Noithem and



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Southern extremes no index of lUte of feeling
in the country at large ; views of both sections
should be fairly stated and discussed ; " Slavery
and the slave trade in the District of Columbia/'
by a Mississippian ; " Letter on Slavery as a
domestic institution " by a Virginian, 331.

Shirley, Jane Eyre, and Wuthering Heights, (Re-
view by T. C. C). 230.

Sidonia, (Review), 400.

Spain, her ways, her women, and her wines, 393.

St. Pierre's Story, 55.

Seward, Hon. William H., Ex-Governor and U.
S. Senator of the State of New York, biogra-
phy of; early history; 1828, Mr. Seward joins
the whig party ; chosen President of Young
Men's State Convention at Utica ; 1830, elected
Senator from the 7th district ; advocates the
cause of internal improvement and universal
education ; opposes removal of deposits of pub-
lic moneys from United States Bank ; nomina-
ted for Governor ; whig cause unsuccessful, and
Mr.Seward retires to his professional avocations ;
1837, Mr. Seward elected Governor of the Sute
of New York ; extracts from his first annual
message ; " anti-rent" agitation ; controversy
between New York and Virginia respecting fu-
gittvei from justice ; re-elected Governor ! ad-



vocates internal improvements, law reform,
land distribution, educational progress and a
diminution of expenses of naturalization ; de-
clines a third nomination ; resumes professional
pursuits ; case of Freeman the murderer ; Mr.
Seward checks lynch law, and popular preju-
dice ; during contests of 1848 addresses whigs
of Ohio and Pennsylvania ; extracts from
speeches; February, 1849, elected Senator of
United States ; extracts from celebrated speech
in the United Sutes Senate, of March 11th,
1850, on the admission of California in oonneo-
tion with the slavery question, 622.

W.

Western Prairies ; their beauty and characteristica ;

Western people, (T. C. C.),423.,r-j j,
Whitney's Pacific Rail Road; Letter of Mr.

Whitney to the fkiitors of the London Timei,

641.

Y.

Yeadon, Hon. Richard, memoir of ; Mr. Yeadon'a
family and education ; becomes editor of the
Charleston, (S. C.) Courier ; his services in the
legislature, m various public stations in South
Carolina, 477.



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THE



AMERICAN EEVIE¥,



No. XXV.



FOR JANUARY, 1850.



DEMOCRACY IN PRANCE.*



The author of this work is a man of
great philosophical ability, and of a repn-
tation quite equal to his deserts. He pos-
sesses moreover that which gives a higher
authority with the public, a practical ex-
perience in the subject he treats. In pro-
posing to criticise a writer thus qualified in
reality, and confided in by the general
opinion, we feel obliged, alike by deference
to this opinion and diffidence of our own,
to premise a few explanations, by means of
which {he reader may judge in turn of the
critic as well as the author.

For this very submissive procedure — so
characteristic, no doubt, of uterary and all
other censors — ^we have still a more sub-
stantial motive than modesty. The preli-
minaries alluded to may also shed some
light upon the most important political
phenomenon of this or any previous age,
the revolutionary eruptions of 1848 and 9 ;
a light which appears requisite to the spe-
culators of all parties, and especially per-
haps to the gentlemen of the press. For,
respecting the true nature of this social
earthquake, there seems to be as yet quite
as little of discriminative agreement among
those who are predisposed to regard it with
predilection, as there is of comprehensive
intelligence in the opposite party. The
latter, are however, entirely positive, pre-
cise, dogmatic, in denouncing it. M.Guizot
is their enlightened advocate, or their doc-
trinal exponent. In submitting, ^erefore,
our strictures upon his book to the test of



principles, the real merits of the general
subject — ^involved as they are in fact in
these principles — ^muat receive ample though
indirect elucidation.

The first of our explanations will remove
a certain presumption which would pre-
clude all argument, all evidence whatever.
With the acknowledged honesty as well as
ability and experience of Guizot, bow, it
may be thought, can he well have been
very widely misled in a matter of politi-
cal science ? Or supposing such the fact,
how can this or that critic, inferior to him
in some or perhaps all these qualifications,
expect to be listened to with attention in
pretending to convict him — and with him,
three-fourths of Europe— of error ? This,
it will be observed, is the old argument
from authority. But, tliough this logical
opiate be now renounced by name, yet the
thing itself retains, and salutarily, all its
hold upon the instincts of the people, who
distrust it rather for the oppressions which
it has sanctioned than for the fallacies which
it involves. As preliminary therefore to the
evidence of fact, it will be well to show,
concerning the errors in question, thai
neither is their occurrence a thinff so im-
probable in M. Guizot, nor ^eir detection
at all presumptuous in persons differently
circumstanced. It is thought no presump-
tion that the peasant of the present day pre-
tends to see the errors, for example, of witch-
craft and astrology ; and yet these had been
for ages devouuy believed by unanimous



TOL. V.



* DeLa Democratie en France.

NO. I. NEW SERIES.



Par M. Guizot.
1



Paris, 1849.



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Democracy in France.



[Jan.



Europe — ^mcluding, M. Guizot. Bnt the
difference of time is too, many as great or
greater intellects than only one of &e ele-
ments of diyersitj in human ju(%ments.

Of this habitual diyersitj there are two
general causes. The one consists in the
varietj of circumstances in which the same
subject is seen by different persons. The
other, in the variations of condition under
which the subject itself may exist at differ-
ent times. To the class of influences
which affect the vision belong, preeminent-
ly, education, religion, the several pas-
sions, the particular pursuits, the personal
interests. Now these are all so many
packets of judgments made up by other
parties — ^whether man, or God, or nature —
and imposed upon each individual who is
bom into society. The process by which
he applies them is therefore not judgment,
but mere association. At the impression
of a particular fact, the opinion originally
attached to it springs up spontaneously.
The man-machine does but take the label-
ed judgment from his packet and deposit it
— ^much like the Laputan philosophers who
conversed by means of bundles of sticks.
Such is, however, the judgment of most
men upon most subjects from the cradle
to the ffrave. It is necessarily the judg-
ment of all men, and of all a^es of man-
kind, until they have attained that intel-
lectual manhood which fits and sets them
to review the provifflonal teachings of their
nonage, and to transform into principles
what had been hitherto but prejudices.
We mean by " prejudices," not necessarily
errors ; but, according to the etymology,
simple pre-judgments, or judgments with-
out examination.

But the transformation will evidently be
more difficult, more imperfect, in propor-
tion as the prejudices are reinforced by
each other. Thus, if the religion second
the passions, as in some infamous supersti-
tions of antiquity, it will be more difficult
to rectify the perversions of either than if
they stood opposite or even isolated. Hard-
er still mnst be the task, if not quite hope-
less, when the early inculcations of reli-
^on are followed up by the routine of pro-
fession, and fortified by the instincts of in-
terest. For if a statesman has devoted
*"*" We to the inculcation of a certain form
vemment, has risen to public honors
^ its temporary ascencnncy, has in-



vested in its triumph the sole passion of
his nature, and the most obstinate of the
human heart,, which is pride — we need
not be surprised to find him not very per-
spicacious into the errors of that system ;
especially at the hour of its downfall and
his own. But this was the predicament of
the standard-bearer of the Doctrinaires
and ex-minister of the ex-royalty of
Franoe.

Yet the more fundamental error of
Guizot's book does not proceed from the
distortions of those prejudices precisely.
It has its root rather in the second of our
general causes of misjudgment — the inad-
vertence to, not to say ignorance of the
variation of conditions. Guizot reasons as
if men were composed of the same men-
tal and moral elements to-day, as upon
descending from the ark. He recognizes
no normal progression in man or in govern-
ment. He employs, indeed, the word ; but
it is only with a tone of resignation or an
air of derision. "Order," as the end,
" power" as the means, and the eternal
statu quo which would be their necessary
consequence — this is the hopeful triad of
his govermental providence ; — a psycholo-
gicsJ phenomenon truly wonderful in a
French philosopher of the present day,
and which requires a large combination and
intensity of the above iimuences to confirm
it ; but stranger still in a man who had
lectured long on the history of civilization.
For the principle of civiuzation is quito
incompatible with the theory in question,
which considers man, we repeat, as fixed
a quantity as a metal or a stone, of which
the properties are eternally the same in all
circumstances.

It is needless to state that this is not the
case with any organized being. On the
contrary the normal condition of this form
of existence is continual change. And
the change becomes more intense and in-
definite in proportion as the object ascends
in the scale of organization, from the ve-
getable to man, and from man himself to
society. It is thus that during childhood,
the individual and the state are governed
respectively by the pedagogue and the
priest. On advancing to maturity they
demand different rulers. This contmual
progression of govermental forms, result-
ing from the a^regate and accumulated
progressionB of me governed, is the key,



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Democracy in France*



3



aa it has been die cause, of the Lite Euro-
pean revolutions ; and not only these in
particular, but the key to the whole history,
the laws, the destinies of society. It is
then against this history, these laws, that
destiny, that M. Guizat has had the har-
dihood to erect the sandbank of his book,
after their indignant flood had just sub-
merged the barricades of his master.

In the light of these general remarks
respecting the nature and occasion of the
errors suggested, we now proceed to exem-
plify m a careful and consecutive analysis.

First, however, it seems proper to advise
the reader, on the other hand, that it is
not errors alone which it will be our duty
to point him out. The excellencies of de-
tail are a good deal more numerous, and of
inocmtestible truth and importance. At
present these lie lost in a great degree to
all parties. By the progressives they are
included in the general prejudice against
the known politics of the author. To the
conservatives they teach no lesson, being
represented as concessions or casualties,
instead of general and providential causes.
To the impartial they bring no firm con-
viction, because of their incongruity with
the spirit and purpose of tlie publication.
Now, by exposing this incongruity; by de-
taching this vigorous undergrowth of prac-
tical truths from the rotten trunk of " or-
der," upon which Guizot would engraft
them ; by distinguishing both in his doc-
trines and in the principles which he com-
bats, tiie chaff to be given to the fire from
the grain to be stored for use, the latter
may be rendered acceptable as well as in-
structive to all.

But it would be particularly available to
the American people — ^because the only
people that have yet appeared upon the
stage of the world in the condition to or-
ganize deliberately into an harmonious
and enduring system, the adverse move-
ments that are now distracting and long
shall disorder the social peace and prospe-
rity of Europe ; and not only of Europe,
but after it of Asia, and so outward to the
moat torpid extremities of humanity. This
we owe aa an inheritance to our own pos-
terity, as an example to mankind, as a debt
to divine Providence, who has plaoed the
attainment peculiarly not only within our
reach, but athwart our path. It is a pride



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