Manuel R. Vilaret.

Effect of particle size on the destabilization of colloidal suspensions in water. online

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EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE

DESTABILIZATION OF COLLOIDAL

SUSPENSIONS IN WATER



By
MANUEL R. VILARET



A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNOL OF

THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1965



66-2052

VILARET, Manuel R., 1919-
EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE DE-
STABILIZATION OF COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS
IN WATER.

The University of Florida, Ph.D., 1965
Engineering, civil



University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The writer is indebted, first and above all, to his Committee
Chairman, Dr. A. P. Black, not only for his guidance and dedication
but for the opportunity to complete his woric for the degree. He is
also deeply indebted to Dr. J. J. Morgan for the many helpful sugges-
tions and continued orientation during the course of the research work.
Special recognition is also due to Professor John E. Kiker, Jr. for
his friendship and advice during the entire period of graduate study.

A very special note of thanjcs goes to Dr. Frank B. Bizkner for
his understanding, his suggestions, and for the time spent in fruitful
discussions.

The writer wishes to thank Mrs. Annie L. Smith for instructing
him in microelectrophoresis techniques and for her assistance in the
laboratory. Thanks are also due to Mrs. Janice Q. Larson and to Mrs.
Frances M. Kost for their devoted efforts in typing the manuscript.

The author wants to express his recognition to his wife and
children for their patience over the past several years.

He also wishes to extend his appreciation to the Dow Chemical
Company for supplying the latex samples used in this investigation,
and to the United States Public Health Service, whose financial support
made this study possible.



ii



CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ^^

LIST OF TABLES ... .1 v

LIST OF FIGURES xiii

ABSTRACT xxi

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION 1

n . THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ^

Stability of Colloids - Destabilization 4

Coagulation in a Static Dispersing Medium .... k

Gradient Coagulation 5 _

Coagulation in Turbulent Flow 7

Flocculation by Polymers 8

General Predictions 10

III-. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES 12

Suspending Medium 12

Coagulants and Flocculants 12

Preparation of Suspensions 13

Jar Test Procedure 1^

Turbidity Measurements . 15

Electrophoretic Mobilities 16

pH Adjustment 17

Sample Numbering 17

IV. EXPERIMENTS WITH UTEX SUSPENSIONS . . x 19

General 19

Variation of Turbidity with Particle Size .... 21

Destabilization with Cationic Polymer 23

Polydisperse Suspensions • • • 27

Observations on Particle Growth 32

Destabilization with Calcium Chloride 33

Destabilization with Nonionic Polymer • 35

Destabilization of Latexes with Alum at pH 7*5 • 37
Effect of Particle Size and Mixing Times and

Rates 37

Observations on Times for First Visible Floe . . ifl



iii



Page

V. EXPERIMENTS WITH SIUCA SUSPENSIONS . k5

General 2^5

Experimental Materials 45

Destabilization viith Cationic Polymer l^r^

Destabilization vith Alum at pH if.O > ^9

Destabilization vith Altim in pH Range ^.,6'-5,^■ . 50

Experimental , . , , , 51

VI. EXPERIMENTS WITH KAOLINITE GUYS 52

General 52

Previous Studies ......... 52

Experimental Materials 53

Destabilization with Cationic Polymer ..... 55

Times for First Visible Floe 57

VII. EXPERIMENTS WITH OTHER MATERIALS 58

General 58

Carbon Black Suspensions ..... 58

Experimental , $q

Ion Exchange Resin , 62

Colored Water 53

VIII. DISCUSSION AND CONaUSIOHS 65

Discussion , 65

Conclusions , 59

APPENDICES

A, Figures 21 to 73 7I

B, Tabulated Data I25

C, Derivation of a Formula for the Location of the
Stationary Layer in a Cylindrical Microelectro-
phoresis Cell .,..,..,..,.. 209

LIST OF REFERENCES 211

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 216



iv



LIST OF TABLES



Table

1. Characteristics of the Monodisperse Latex Stock

Suspensions . . 20

2. Physical Characteristics of the Four Silicas Investigated . W?

3. Characteristics of Carbon Black Samples .... .- 60

k . Optical Densities of Monodisperse Latex Suspensions at
Various Concentrations. Light Path = 75 Dim* Wave Length
of Filter = 650 mn 126

5. Optical Densities of Monodisperse Latex Suspensions at
Various Concentrations. Light Path = 37.5 nm. Wave Length

of Filter = 65O luM' 127

6. Optical Densities of Monodisperse Latex Suspensions at
Various Concentrations. Light Path = 75 mm. Wave Length

of Filter = i^ZO m 128

7. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 td^^ Suspension Concentration

5 mg/1 129

8. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 mtii, Suspension Concentra-
tion 10 mg/l 130

9. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 mM>t Suspension Concentra-
tion 20 mg/l . , 132

10. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 mM'i Suspension Concentra-
tion 25 mg/l 133

11. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 mM>i Suspension Concentra-
tion 50 mg/l ,. 134

_ V



Table Page

12 . Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
DestattLlization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension, Particle Diameter 88 mn, Suspension Ctoncen-
traUon 100 mg/l . 136

13. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 mM>, Suspension Concentra-
tion 200 mg/l . 138

Ik, Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the

Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 88 mpi, Suspension Concentra-
tion 500 mg/l 139

15. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 126 m. Suspension Concen-
tration 50 mg/l l/l-O

16. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Pblystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 126 mix, Suspension Concen-
traUon 100 mg/l lAl

17. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 126 m)i. Suspension Concentra-
tion 200 mg/l l/^3

18. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 26'f m. Suspension Concentra-
tion 25 mg/l W4

19. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 26if m|i. Suspension Concentra-
tion 50 mg/l 1h5

20. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 26tf m|i. Suspension Concentra-
tion 100 mg/l . 1^6

21. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension. Particle Diameter 26'^ m)i. Suspension Concentra-
tion 200 mg/l . 1^8



vi



Table

22. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 26'^ W-t Suspension Con-
centration 500 mg/1 -. 1^9

23. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 365 mji. Suspension Con-
centration 100 mg/l 150

2^. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
DestalAlization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 557 mji. Suspension Con-
centration 100 rog/l 151

25. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Siispension. Particle Diameter 557 ran. Suspension Con-
centration 200 mg/l 152

26. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter I305 mjJ-, Suspension Con-
centration 25 mg/l 153

27. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter I305 mM-, Suspension Con-
centration 50 mg/l 15^

28. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter I305 mM'» Suspension Con-
centration 100 mg/l 155

29. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter I305 m(i, Suspension Con-
centration 200 mg/l 156

30. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polyvinyltoluene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diane ter 3^90 mU> Suspension Con-
centration 25 mg/l ......... 157

31. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polyvinyltoluene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 3^90 m^. Suspension Con-
centration 50 mg/l _ 158



vii



Table ' Page

32. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzatlon of a Monodisperse Polyvlnyltoluene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 3490 mt Suspension Con.
centration 100 rag/l , . 159

33 . Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polyvinyltoluene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 3'i>90 m)i, Suspension Con-
centration 200 mg/l ...... ........ 160

y^■. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Polydisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 88 m(i, Concentration
10 rog/l and Particle Diameter 2(^ in)i, Concentration
25 ing/1 161

35. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Polydisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 88 m(i>, Concentration
20 mg/l and Particle Diameter 26^1' m|x, Concentration

50 mg/l 162

36. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Polydisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 88 mfi. Concentration

10 mg/l; Particle Diameter 26*1' mn, Concentration 25 mg/l;

and Particle Diameter I305 ran, Concentration 100 mg/l ... I63

37. Effect of Various Dosages of Calcium Chloride on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 88 miJi, Suspension Con.
centration 50 mg/l !&*■

38. Effect, of Various Dosages of Calcium Chloride on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 88 m. Suspension Con.
centration 100 mg/l I65

39. Effect of Various Dosages of Calcium Chloride on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 26'f m)i, Suspension Con-
centration 100 mg/l , 166

40. Effect of Various Dosages of Calcium Chloride on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 557 m|i, Suspension Con.
centration 100 mg/l . , 167



vlii



Table Page

kl. Effect of Various Dosages of Nonionic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension, Particle Diameter 88 mn. Suspension
Concentration 50 mg/l .........*•••• ^^

kZ, Effect of Various Dosages of Nonionic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 88 mix , Suspension
Concentration 100 rag/l 169

>3. Effect of Various Dosages of Nonionic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 26^1' mM-, Suspension
Concentration 100 mg/l 170

44. Effect of Various Dosages of Nonionic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex
Suspension. Particle Diameter 557 mn, Suspension
Concentration 100 mg/l 171

45. Effect of Times of Mixing on the Destabilization of an
88 W- Dia., 100 mg/l Latex Suspension with Cationic

Polymer (Rate of Mixing 20 rpm) * 172

46. Effect of Times of Mixing on the Destabilization of an
88 m Dia., 100 mg/l Latex Suspension with Cationic

Polymer (Rate of Mixing 100 rpm) 173

47. Effect of Times of Mixing on the Destabilization of a
264 mM" Dia., 100 mg/l Latex Suspension with Cationic

Polymer (Rate of Mixing 20 rpm) 174

48. Effect of Times of Mixing on the Destabilization of a
264 m^ Dia., 100 mg/l Latex Suspension with Cationic

Polymer (Rate of Mixing 100 rpm) 175

49. Effect of Times of Mixing on the Destabilization of a
1305 m Dia., 100 mg/l Latex Suspension with Cationic

Polymer (Rate of Mixing 20 rpn) 176

50. Effect of Tims of Mixing on the Destabilization of a
1305 m Dia. , 100 mg/l Latex Suspension with Cationic

Polymer (Rate of Mixing 100 rpm) 177

51. Physical Properties of Monodisperse Polystyrene Latexes,
and Required Unit Dosages of Cationic Polymer for Optimum
Destabilization of the Suspensions . • 178



ix



Table

52 . Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the
Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. Min-u-Sll "Sfi",
Average Particle Size l.m, Suspension Concentration

100 mg/1 179

53. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the
Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. Mln-u-Sll "5^**,
Average Particle Size 1.1^* Suspension Concentration

200 mg/l 180

5k. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the

Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. Mln-u-Sil *'^",

Average Particle Size l.llJi, Suspension Concentration

300 mg/1 181

55. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the

Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. UCAR-Submicron,

Average Particle Size 120 w-t Suspension Concentration

100 mg/1 ...... 182

^, Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the

Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. UCAR-Submlcron,

Average Particle Size 120 mt Suspension Concentration

200 mg/1 181^

57. Effect of Various Dosaged of Cationlc Polymer on the
Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. UCAR^Subnicron,
Average Particle Size 120 m, Suspension Concentration

300 mg/1 185

58. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the
Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. Cab-0-Sll M.5,
Average Particle Size I5 ro)i, Suspension Concentration .

100 mg/1 .186

59* Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the
Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. Cab-O.Sil M.5,
Average Particle Size 15 nu^i Suspension Concentration
200 mg/1 . 187

60. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationlc Polymer on the
Destabllizatlon of a Silica Suspension. Cab-O-Sil M-5,
Average Particle Size I5 mix, Suspension Concentration

300 mg/1 . 188

61. Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabllizatlon
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH = 4^.0 Approximately.
Min-u-Sil ''5M'''» Average Particle Size l.l)i, Suspension
Concentration 200 mg/l 189



""^



Table

62. Effect of Varioua Dosages of Alum on the Destabiltzation
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH = ^.0 Approximately.
Min-u-Sil "Sfi", Average Particle Size l.ln. Suspension
Concentration 400 mg/l , , 191

63. Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabilization
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH = if.O Approximately.
UCAR-Subraicron, Average Particle Size 0.12(i, Suspension
Concentration 200 mg/l I92

6k, Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabilization
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH = ^i-.O Approximately.
UCAR-Submicron, Average Particle Size 0,12»i, Suspension
Concentration 400 mg/l 193

65 » Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabilization
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH Range 4.7 - 5.4.
Min-u-Sil •'5»i«, Average Particle Size l.lji, Suspension
Concentration 200 mg/l y^

66. Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabilization
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH Range 4.7-5.4.
Min-u-Sil ••5^", Average Particle Size l.ln. Suspension
Concentration 400 mg/l 2.95

67. Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabilization
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH Range 4.6 - 5.2.. UCAR-
Submicron, Average Particle Size 0.12H, Suspension Con-
centration 200 mg/l 195

68. Effect of Various Dosages of Alum on the Destabilization
of a Silica Suspension at Final pH Range 4.6 - 5.2. UCAR-
Submicron, Average Particle Size 0,12jt, Suspension Con-
centration 400 mg/l . 197

69. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationio Polymer on the
Destabilization of aKaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sample 30-4, Suspension Concentra-
tion 25 mg/l 193

70. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Kaollnite Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sample 30-4, Suspension Concentra-
tion 50 mg/l ,...,. .199



jci



Table

71, Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaollnlte Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sample 30-4, Suspension Concentra-
tion 100 mg/1 201

72, Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sample 30J<., Suspension Concentra-
tion 150 mg/1 . 202

73, Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Infomation Service Sample 30J1|', Suspension Concentra-
tion 200 mg/1 . 203

7^-, Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the

Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sample 30-5) Suspension Concentra-
tion 25 mg/1 20«|.

75. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Infomation Service Sample 30-5, Suspension Concentra-
tion 50 mg/1 205

76. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sanqsle 3O.5* Suspension Concentra-
tion 100 mg/1 206

77. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Infozmation Service Sample 3()-'5» Suspension Concentra-
tion 150 mg/1 207

78. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabillzation of a Kaolinite Clay Suspension. Particle
Information Service Sample 30-5 1 Suspension Concentra-
tion 200 mg/1 ..... 208



xii'



LIST OF JIOURES
Figures Page

1. Projection on the YZ Plane of the Sphere of Influence

Assumed to Surrotind Particle atO.,,, 6

2. Effect of Particle DLameter upon the Optical Densily of
Honodisperse Latex Suspensions at Various Weight Concen-
trations • 22

3. Dosages of Cationic Polymer Required for Maximum Destabili-
zation of Three Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspensions

at Various Concentrations 25

4. Effect of Particle DLameter upon the Optimum Cationic
Polymer Dosage Required for MaxLnum Destabilizatlon of
Monodisperse Latex Suspensions of Given Weight Concen-
trations - Variation of System Area with Particle Size • • 26

5. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilizatlon of a Polydisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension Comprising Tw Discrete Particle Sizes, as Con^ared
to the Effect on Each of the Ifonodisperse Cosqponents Taken
Separately (86 dim. Partide Diameter at 10 mg/l. and Z6k m
Particle Diameter at 25 mg/l.). 28

6. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilizatlon of a Polydisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
poision Comprising Two Discrete Particle Sizes, as Compared
to the Effect on Each of the Monodisperse Components Taken
Separately (88 m Partide Diameter at 20 mg/l. and 264 m
Particle Diameter at 50 mg/l.), ............... 29

7. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilizatlon of a Polydisperse Polystyrene Latex Sus-
pension Comprising Three Discrete Particle Sizes, as Compared
to the Effect on Each of the Monodisperse Components Taken
Separately. 30

8. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the Electro-
phoretio Mobilities of the Three Suspensions Compared for
Residual Turbidity in Figure 5* . 3I



xlli



Figures Page

9. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationio Polymer on the
ELectrophoretic Itobilities of the Three Suspensions
Conpared for Residual Turbidity in figure 6 Jl

10. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Electrophoretic Mobilities of the Four Suspensions

Coii5>ared for Residual Turbidity in Figure 7 •.••••• . 3I

11. Effect of Calcium Chloride upon the Stability of Mono-
disperse Latex Suspensions of Various Concentrations

and Particle Sizes *••••.•...... 34

12. Effect of Dosages of Nonionic Polymer on the Destabili-
zation of Four Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspensions
of Different Diameters and Concentrations, in the Presence

of 2.0 g/l Calci\un Chloride 36

13. Effect of Various Times of Mixing, Esqpressed as Total
Number of Paddle Revolutions, on the Destabilization of
Three Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspensions vith
Cationic Polymer. (Mixing Rate 20 rpm). 39

14. Effect of Various Times of Mixing, Expressed as Total
Number of Paddle Revolutions, on the Destabilization of
Three Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspensions witti
Cationic Polymer. (Mixing Rate 100 rpm). • 40

15. Effect of Particle Concentration (Expressed as Weight
Concentration) on the Approximate Times of Mixing Required
for the Appearance of the First Visible Floe for Three Mono-
disperse Latex Suspensions, at Optimum Dosages of Cationic
Polymer (Mixing Rate 100 rpm) 42

16. Plot of Surface Areas of Several Latex Suspensions Versus
Approximate Times of Mixing Required for the Appearance of

the First Visible Floe (Mixing Rate 100 ipm) 43

17. Dosages of Cationic Polymer Required for Maximum Destabili-
zation of Various Silica Suspensions ..... 48

18. Particle Size Distribution of the Two Kaolinite Clay

Samples Investigated •••• 54

19. Dosages of Cationic Polymer Required for Maximum Destabili-
zation of Two Kaolinite Clay Suspensions with Different
Particle Size Distributions 56



xiv



Elgares Page

20. Particle Size DLstrlbutlons of the Three Carbon Saioples
Investigated . . . «. • 59

21. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
DestabLlization of a Konodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle DLaneter 88 n\i. Suspension Concentration

5 mg/l. . . 72

22. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the

De stabilization of a Ifonodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 88 mp,. Suspension Concentration
10 mg/l 73

23. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the
Destabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 68 m(i, Suspension Concentration

20 mg/l. . 7^

24. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a ^bnodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 88 m\i. Suspension Concentration

25 mg/l 75

25. Effect of Vazlous Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Konodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 88 mix. Suspension Concentration

50 mg/l 76

26. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 88 m(i, Suspension Concentration

100 mg/l 77

27* Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
sta1:^lization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 88 m(i, Suspension Concentration
200 mg/l. ....... 78

28. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion* Particle Diameter 88 n(i, Suspension Concentration

500 mg/l. 79

29. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 126 m^ Suspension Concentration

50 mg/l 80



XV



Figures Page

30. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion* Particle Diameter 126 nii, Suspension Concentration
100 mg/l 81

Jl, Effect of Vaxlous Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Particle Diameter 126 m^. Suspension Concentration
200 mg/l. . 82

32. Effect of Various Dosages of Cationic Polymer on the De-
stabilization of a Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Suspen-
sion. Parti de Diameter 264 m^i Suspension Concentration


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