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preceding Manual, p. 40.

52. 3. Drawing and "Writing on slates and blackboard. See
Manual, p. 38, 40, 50, 51. Let pupils continue writing the lessons
on the early Charts in script, with Chart No. IX. before them.
Writing in -WTiting-books, from copies, may now be commenced,
but a sharp and long pencil would be preferable to a pen. It

N2



298 APPENDIX.

should be held as a pen. For drawing, see Manual, p. 52, and
Chart No. X.

53. 4. Oral and Written Compositions: Language. — Same
as before (28, 40), and see, also, Manual, p. 3G. Continue the
correction of ungrammatical expressions, etc.

54. 5. Lines, Measures, Forms, Solids, "Weights. — Same as be-
fore (17, 29, 41), and also Primary Object Lessons, p. 174-180,
and the preceding Manual, p. 80, 81, and 89.

55. 6. Colors. — Same as before (30, 42). — Let pupils bring in col-
ored objects, cloths, worsted, etc., and tell what colors they most
resemble — matching them first with the hand Color-cards, and
then with the colors on Chart No. XIII.

5G. 7. Animals. — Continue as before (31, 43). Manual, p. 130-
133, and Chart No. XV. Also use Chart No. XVIL, and let pu-
pils name and describe what reptiles and what fishes they have
seen. Introduce the subject of Insects. See Calkins's Manual
for lessons on insects. Interesting accounts of any of the animals
mentioned should be given.

57. 8. Plants. — Continue in the course of the previous exercises
(32, 44), and go through with the first six divisions of "Forms"
on Chart No. XIX., learning their names as far as it can easily be
done. See Manual, p. 178 to 186.

58. 9. Physical Exercises as before directed (9, 21, 33, 45).

59. 10. Manners and Morals, Maxims and Mottoes. — Same as
before ('10, 22, 34, 46). The teacher should be constantly accu-
mulating new stories, incidents, etc., for illustration. Eeview max-
ims and mottoes, and continue their use. Manual, p.

GO. 11. Miscellaneous Objects. — Eeview the ground previously

gone over. Teacher may exercise the pupils in naming the qual-
ities of objects, and writing them on the blackboard, or setting them
up with the Letter-cards. Thus an object may be (comparatively)
long or short, broad, narrow, light, heavy, etc., and thus through
all the varieties of form and size : similarly as to its color. Other
qualities, as hard, soft, elastic, opaque, solid, hollow, etc. Name
the objects, and let pupils tell and write down as many qualities as
they can. The pupils may then form these qualities into oral
compositions descriptive of the objects. Teacher may also name
qualities, and pupils name their opposites. Thus the teacher
names good, wet, hot, left, deep, loud, true, sIoav, up, hard, kind,
broad, open, tame, light, poor, just, old, bitter, weak, round, nar-
row, healthy, polite, white, crooked, grateful, transparent, etc., etc.
Pupils should tell the ^lses of things mentioned ; for example, of
leather, cloth, bucket, air, water, fire, sun, wood, paint, iron, stone,
brick, pen, book, ink, clock, slate, ear, eye, mouth, tongue, nose,
hands, feet, wings, knife, axe, hammer, nails, saw, chalk, sponge,



APPENDIX. 299

broom, pail, mirror, chimney, lead-pencil, newspaper, spade, hoe,
plow, harrow, etc., etc. See, also, Calkins's Manual.

61. 12. Construction.— Continue, occasionally, all the exercises
previously suggested under this head (24, 36, and 48), and, addi-
tionally, show the pupils how to form water-wheels, wind-mills,
etc. The younger pupils may get their parents or older pn])ils to
construct these for them. Explain what makes the water-wheel
turn— the force of the water ; the wind-mill— the force of the air,
etc. Explain why their wooden blocks, walls, etc., sometimes
tumble down ; wliy their marbles roll down hill ; why water runs
— rolls — down hill, etc.

62. 13, Geographical. — Continue the exercises of the preceding
term (49), and take up Fourth and Fifth Lessons of Manual, p.
83. See, also. Primary Object Lessons, p. 160 to 173 and 248 to
263.

Music should be introduced two or three times each day if the
teacher can sing, or if some of the older pupils can lead the others
in singing.

second term.

63. 1. Reading, Spelling, and Elementary Sounds. — Charts V.
and VI. reviewed, and Manual, p. 38, 39, 40. Also Primer or
First Reader. Occasional concert exercises as before. Attention
to inflections, punctuation, capitals, etc. See Manual, p. 39 and
41. Elementary sounds through A and E, p. 44-5 of Manual,
Chart VII. First Reader, and begin the Second. Continue spell-
ing exercises as before directed (25, 37, and 50). The si)elling-
book may also now be introduced.

64. 2. Numbers.— Continue as before (2, 14, 26, 38, and 51). See,
also, ]\Ianual, p. 40, 41. Counting from 1 to 100, forward and
backward. Use of numeral frame. Learn the Roman numerals
from I. to L., and form them on the blackboard or on slates, or
set them up with the cards to designate any given number. For
exercises, let one pupil place any given number, say twenty-nine
objects, of any kind, on the table ; let another set up the words
" twenty-nine" on the frame with the Letter-cards ; let another set
lip the same in figures, "29 ;" and another set up the same with
the Roman numerals, "XXIX."

65. 3. Drawing and Writing. — Continue as in the preceding term.

66. 4. Oral and Written Compositions : Language. — Same as
before (28, 40, 53). See, also. Manual, p. 33, 36, and 40. Attcn-
tion to punctuation, capitals, inflections, etc., and constant correc-
tion of ungrammatical expressions.

67. 5. Lines, Measures, Forms, Solids, Weights, Sounds.—
Same as before (17, 29, 41, 54). Also, Primary Object Lessons,



300 APPENDIX.

p. 182-185. Charts Nos. XL and XII., and Manual, p. 80, 81,
and 89, with simple definitions of terms, p. 90, 91.

68. 6. Colors. — Same as before (30, 42, 55), and also explain the
Primaries, Secondaries, Tertiaries, Sub-Secondaries, and Sub-Ter-
tiaries, from Chart No. XIV., Manual, p. 100, 101. Two or three
lessons each week.

69. 7. Animals. — Eeview the ground gone over, taking a general
view of the mammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes, and insects, and fin-
ish the subject of No. 1, Chart XV. Go over, briefly, the lower
half of Chart No. XV. Anecdotes, incidents, etc.

70. 8. Plants. — Continue as before directed (32, 44, 57), and go
through with the last two divisions of Chart No. XIX., Manual,
p. 186 to 189.

71. 9. Physical Exercises as before directed (0, 21, 33, 45).

72. 10. Manners and Morals, Maxims and Mottoes. — Same as
before suggested (22, 34, 46, 59). Continue maxims and mottoes
as far as practicable.

73. 11. Miscellaneous Objects. — Continue as before (23, 35, 47,
and 60), the teacher preparing a variety of object-lesson exercises —
taking up common objects — and being careful not to go beyond the
capacity of his pupils. See Calkins's Manual of Object Lessons.
If the teacher has a small collection of minerals, that subject
may now be taken up. Pupils should first learn to distinguish
and name the common metals — gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead,
zinc, and brass, a compound of copper and zinc, and bronze, a com-
pound of copper and tin. Let pupils tell their qualities and uses
as far as they can. Specimens should be examined. See Calkins's
Manual.

74. 12. Construction. — Continue all the previous exercises (24,
36, 48, and 61). Add new games and amusements, chiefly for
out-door recreation ; and, especially, introduce those which may
be used to illustrate philosophical principles. Show them the con-
struction of whistles, fifes, etc., telling them what kinds of wood
they may get, what bark peels easily, at what season of the year,
and why then. Show them how to make and raise a kite, and
explain, in familiar language, how it is carried up in the air. See
Pifth Keader, p. 350. Encourage pupils to make (out of school),
or to get others to make for them, kites, water-wheels, Avind-mills,
fifes, whistles, ships, wagons, machines, etc. The teacher should
spend as much time as possible, out of school, with his pupils, par-
ticipating in their games and amusements, and giving them a
proper direction.

75. 13. Geographical. — Review the ground previously gone over
(49 and 62), and continue in the order marked out on p. 86, 87,
and 88 of Manual. See, also. Primary Object Lessons, p. 263 to 268.

Music as before directed.



APPENDIX. 801

FOURTH SCHOOL YEAR.

FIRST TERM.

76. 1. Reading, Spelling, and Elementary Sounds. — Continue
the use of the blackboard, the Charts V. and VI., if necessary, and
the Letter-cards, and proceed witli the Readers. No word should
be passed by until the pupil has a correct idea of its meaning as
used in the lesson. Yet the pupil may understand the meaning of
the sentence without being able to define each word separately.
The latter is not so important as the former. Question pupils
'thoroughly on the meaning of each sentence rather than upon the
mere abstract meaning of separate ivords. Pay particular atten-
tion to correct ])ronunciation, distinct articulation, inflections, em-
phasis, etc. Make a spelling lesson out of every reading lesson.
See, also, Calkins's Programme in his Manual, 2d and 3d steps
of 2d grade, etc. Elementary sounds reviewed, and continued
through the vowel sounds. Manual, p. 45-6, Chart VII. Concert
exercises, both in reading and in the elementary sounds. Spe/l
all important words in the reading and other lessons. Regular
lessons from the spelling-book. Also, continue as suggested (25,
37, 50, and 63).

77. 2. Numbers. — See previous suggestions (26, 38, 51, and 64).
Mental arithmetic may now be taken up, INIake all examples as
practical as possible. Continue Roman numerals from L. to C,
as directed for preceding term.

78. 3. Drawing and Writing. — For drawing, see Manual, p. 52-3,
and Chart No. X. Let the pupil also draw the "forms of leaves,"
and forms of their margins, both from Chart No. XIX., and from
Nature. It is supposed that they have already learned the appro-
priate terms descriptive of these forms. Continue writing from
Chart No. IX., etc., and from writing-books.

79. 4. Written Compositions : Language. — Let pupils write com-
positions on the subjects of Natural History especiall}-, which they
have already gone over from the Charts, under the heading of
"Animals," "Plants," etc. ; also, in connection with such other
subjects of study for the term as the teacher may select. This
may include "Manners and Morals," "Maxims," "oMiscellaneous
Objects," "Construction and Collections," etc. Sec, also, the sub-
ject of " Compositions" throughout the Manual. Continue correc-
tions of language, etc.

80. 6. Colors. — Continue the exercises as before (55, 68), and go
through the semi-neutral colors, Manual, p. 101-2, Chart XIV.
Also return to Chart No. XIII., and go through the exercises,
Manual, p. 94-5.

8L 7. Animals. — Go over the subjects of Nos. 1, 2, and 3, Chart



302 APPENDIX.

XV., and Manual, from p. 130 to 141. Continue the subjects of
Birds, Eeptiles, Fishes, and Insects, as before. Also, describe brief-
ly, and point out on the Chart, No. XVII., the first order of Birds,
Manual, p. 170-1 ; the four orders of Reptiles, Chart No. XVIII.,
and Manual, p. 174-5.

82. 8. Plants. — Review, and continue the course of the previous
exercises (32, 44, 57, and 70) ; also, if it is the right season of the
year, commence a critical examination of the different parts of a
flower, and the classification of plants on the Linnsean System.
See Manual, p. 189 to 193, and Chart No. XX.

83. 9. Physical Exercises. — As before directed (9, 21, 33, 45).

84. 10. Manners and Morals, Maxims and Mottoes. — Same as
before suggested (22, 34, 46, 59, 72). Continue maxims and mot-
toes, and review, daily, tliose gone over.

85. 11. Miscellaneous Objects. — Continue as before suggested
(23, 35, 47, GO, and 73). Explain to pupils the three great divi-
sions of Nature : the Animal Kingdom, the Vegetable Kingdom,
and the INIineral Kingdom. Tell them all material objects that are
not either animal or vegetable are called 7ninerals. Let them tell
what things, therefore, belong to the mineral kingdom — all which
have not organized forms. All rocks are minerals ; all soils also,
unless they are formed by the partial decay of vegetable or animal
substances. Teacher should have a cabinet of the principal rocks,
and pupils should learn to recognize and name them.* See, also,
Calkins's Manual — Minerals.

86. 12. Construction: Cabinet Collections, etc. Continue
such of the previous exercises as are of fiirther interest and utility
(48, 61, and 74). Pupils may now begin to make collections of
plants for hei-bariums. See Manual, p. 201. Separate collections
of preserved specimens of leaves of as many kinds of trees as pos-
sible, with names of the trees ; also, of different kinds of wood, in
small blocks. Once each week, a half hour or more may be de-
voted to an examination of the museum thus collected, machines,
instruments, etc. Questions and explanp,tions.

87. 13. Geographical and Historical. — Continue the geograph-
ical exercises as before suggested (49, 62, and 75). Also, begin
now to draw from the pupils the history of the immediate neigh-
borhood, or School District, in the following manner: 1. Let them
tell the names of the residents, where they reside, on what streets,
in what direction from the school-house, and how far from it. 2.
The occupations of the inhabitants — as farmers, mechanics, mer-

* The writer hopes to make arrangements for providing cheap geological cabinets
for school use. Very little can be done in giving pupils a knowledge of geology with-
out the aid of a well-arranged cabinet ; and with such aid pupils will almost teach
themselves.



APPENDIX. 803

chants, manufacturers, etc. 3. Names and residences of the trust-
ees, directors, or other school officers of the district, and their gen-
eral duties. 4. Any historical incidents of the district or neigh-
borhood that may be proper to be narrated.
Music as before directed.

SECOND TERM.

88. 1. Eeading, Spelling, and Elementary Sounds. — Same di-
. rections as before given, llcvicw elementary sounds, and con-
tinue through p. 4G-7 of Manual, Chart VII. Spelling as before
directed (25, 37, 50, and G3).

89. 2. Numbers. — See previous suggestions (26, 38, 51, G4, and 77).
Mental Arithmetic, Multiplication Table, etc. Exercises in rapid
combinations of numbers should be introduced, and should be fre-
quent ; easy at first, and gradually increasing in difficulty. Thus :
teacher repeats aloud and slowly, "2, add 3, add 10, subtract 5,
multiply by 2," and pupils tell the result. Let the teacher devise
a series of such combinations.

90. 3. Drawing and Writing. — Continue as before (52 and 78).
See, also, p. 52-3-4 of Manual, and Chart No. X. Make draw-
ings of every thing on Chart No. XIX., and also copy the same
forms from the natural objects, if possible. Writing continued.

91. 4. Written Compositions: Language. — See directions (6G,
79). Require pupils to use the pocket blank-books, as suggested
in the Manual, p. 17-18. Let them write sketches of most of their
lessons.

92. 6, Colors. — Review. Also the same as preceding term.

93. 7. Animals. — Same as the preceding term. Also describe
briefly and point out the birds in the second and third orders,
Chart No. XVII., Manual, p. 171-2 ; also the first order of Fish-
es, Chart No. XVIII., and Manual, p. 175-6; also go over the
subjects of Nos. 4 and 5, Chart XV., and Manual, p. 141-7.

94. 8. Pl.vnts. — Continue the course of the previous exercises (44,
57, 70, and 82). A critical examination of the parts of the flow-
ers of various plants, etc. Also, take np, in familiar talks, the sub-
ject of the "Economical Uses of Plants," " Our Common Fruits,"
Manual, p. 209, through Apple, Pear, Peach, Quince, Plum, and
Apricot, to p. 214, using the •illustrations. Chart No. XXI. Also
drawings, specimens, etc.

95. 9. Physical Exercises as before directed (9, 21, 33, 45).

96. 10. Manners and Morals, ]\Iaxims and Mottoes. — Same as
before suggested (22, 34, 46, 59, 72, 84). Continue maxims and
mottoes as far as practicable.

97. 11. Miscellaneous Objects. — Continue as before suggested
(60, 73, and 85). Teachers should exercise their ingenuity in ar-



804 APPENDIX.

ranging suitable exercises under this head. Continue the subject
of Minerals, if the teacher has a suitable cabinet. See, also, Cal-
kins's Manual of Object Lessons. Call the attention of pupils to
the subject of trades, professions, etc., and prepare for them Object
Lessons relating to their different employments, such as the farm-
er, the blacksmith, the carpenter, the mason, the shoemaker, the
merchant, the lawyer, the teacher, the printer, various manufac-
turers, etc. ; the tools used by each, the products of each, etc., etc.

98. 12. Construction : Cabinet Collections, etc. — Continue in
accordance with directions for preceding term (61, 74, and 86).
Collections of Mosses from the woods, and of Lichens from old
fences and rocks, are very interesting. Many of these plants are
exceedingly beautiful. By the aid of paste or glue they may be
used to cover a cheap pine frame of a picture. They make a hand-
some border.

99. 13. Geographical and Historical. — Continue the course
of the previous exercises under this head (62,.^75, and 87), making
the historical henceforth keep pace with the geographical. The
physical geography of the neighborhood — its natural history, pro-
ductions, Avith its political geography, etc. — should be introduced
as suggested, p. 85, 86, 87, and 88 of Manual. Call up the his-
tory of the early settlements made in the neighborhood, as far as
possible, and bring down the general history of the neighborhood
to the present time, ascertaining ivhen the present families moved
into the neighborhood, and whence they came. Historical inci-
dents, etc.

Music as before directed.

FIFTH SCHOOL YEAR.
first term.

100. 1. Reading, Spelling, and Elementary Sounds. — Same di-
rections as for the fourth year. Pupils may also now be required
to define separate words in the reading lesson. For this purpose
each should be provided with a dictionary. Continue practicing
upon the elementary sounds, as directed in the Manual, p. 43 to 48,
Chart VIL Take up Phonic Spelling and Phonetic Anal-
ysis, Manual, p. 49, and Chart VIII. Continue the spelling ex-
ercises as before directed (25, 37, 50, and 63).

101. 2. Numbers. — Continue throughout the remainder of the
course in accordance with such plans as the teacher may adopt.
See, also, previous suggestions (26, 38, 51, 64, 77, and 89). Rap-
id combination exercises, gradually more and more difficult.
Thus : "2, add 3, add 10, subtract 5, multiply by 2, divide by 4."
" 10, add 8, subtract 5, add 7, multiply by 4, divide by 10." Let
the teacher form numerous sets of such exercises adapted to the



APPENDIX. 805

capacities of his pupils. Slate arithmetic whenever the pupils are
prepared for it. Frequent exercises.

102. 3. Drawing and Writing. — Continue as before (52, 78, and
90). For drawing, see, also, Manual, p. 5-t. Charts Nos. XXI.
and XXII. furnish good copies. Copy from Nature as much as
possible. Geometrical drawing may be commenced. See Man-
ual, p. 54-5-G-7, and Chart No. X.* Writing continued.

103. 4. Written Compositions : Language. — See directions (66,
79, 91). Require pupils to use the pocket blank-books, as sug-
gested in the Manual, p. 17-18. Written sketches, etc.

104:. 6. Colors. — Review preceding exercises. Take up the Chro-

matic Scale, Chart XIV., and go through the "Exercises on the
Primaries, Secondaries and Tertiaries," as directed, Manual, p.
103-4.

105. 7. Animals. — Review the ground previously gone over. Birds
in the fourth and fifth orders, Chart No. XVII., and Manual, p.
172-3 ; second order of Fishes, Chart No. XVIII, Manual, p.
176-7 ; Insects, see Calkins's Manual. Also the subjects of Nos.
6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, Chart No. XV., Manual, p. 147 to 156.

106. 8. Plants. — Continue the course of the previous exercises (44,
57, 70, 82, 94). Examination and classification of plants on the
Linna^an System, Manual, p. 193 to 198, Chart No. XX. ; " Eco-
nomical Uses of Plants," in familiar talks; the '■'■ Common Fruits,"
INIanual, p. 214, through Grape, Currant, Filbert, Gooseberry,
Raspberry, Blackberry, Strawberry, Nuts, etc., to p. 220, using the
illustrations. Chart No. XXL, together with drawings by the pu-
pils, specimens, etc. Pupils make written sketches.

107. 9. Physical Exercises as before directed (9, 21, 33, 45).

108. 10. Manners and Morals, Maxims and Mottoes. — Same as
before suggested (22, 34, 46, 59, 72, 84). Continue maxims and
mottoes as far as practicable.

109. 11. Miscellaneous Objects. —Continued in accordance with
previous suggestions (60, 73, 85, and 97), five minutes daily.

110. 12. Construction : Cabinet Collections, etc. — Continue
in accordance with previous suggestions (61, 74, 86, and 98).
Collections of minerals — different kinds of rocks, etc. — for geo-
logical cabinets, may be commenced. Even if the navies of the
different rocks are not yet known by either teacher or pupil, an
examination of specimens will still be valuable. Collections of
shells may also be made. Fresh-water shells are abundant. In
time, such collections will make not only a handsome, but a valu-
able school museum.

* For making these geometrical drawings on the hlackboard, a pair of blackboard
co77ipa.s.ses, adapted to hold a chalk or talc pencil, is much needed. We hope some one
will construct such an instrument.



806 APPENDIX.

111. 13. Geographical AND Historical. — Extend geography and
history to the whole town on the principles suggested (87 and 99),
and pages 86, 87, and 88 of Manual.

Music as before directed. Declamations.

SECOND TERM.

112. 1. Eeading, Spelling, and Elementary Sounds. — Same
directions as for preceding term. If the reading-books used be
the School and Family Readers, and the subject should be the
Mammalia (p. 87-242) in the Third Reader, let the pupils read
with Chart No. XVI. before them. At the beginning of each
lesson let some pupil point out on the Chart, and give an abstract
of, the orders and families of the Mammalia as far as they have
gone in their reading, and tell to which order, family, etc., the
reading lesson of the day is to be assigned. Suggest to them the
reading out of school of such books as Children's Picture-book
of Quadrupeds, Hooker's Natural History to p. 1 15, and any other
similar works. Whatever be the reading lesson of the day, as
soon as it is finished let pupils close their books. Teacher should
then call upon pupils to tell what they have been reading about,
and to give in their own language an analysis of the lesson.
Continue the spelling exercises as before suggested (25, 37, 50,
and G3).

113. 2, Numbers. — Frequent combination exercises, reviews, etc.
Also, continue as before suggested (64, 77, 89, and 101).

114. 3. Drawing and Writing. — Draw outlines from engravings,
and also copy from natural objects. Manual, p. 52-3-4. Con-
tinue geometrical drawings, Manual, p. 58-9, and Chart No. X.
Writing continued.

115. 4. Written Compositions : Language. — See directions {QQ,
79, 91). Recpiire pupils to use the pocket blank-books, as sug-
gested in the Manual, p. 17-18. Written sketches, etc.

lie. 6. Colors. — Reviewing, together with the directions (104) for

the preceding term, will be sufficient for the present term.

117. 7. Animals. — Birds in the sixth and seventh orders. Chart No.

XVII., and Manual, p. 173. Third order of Fishes, Chart No.
XVIII., Manual, p. 177. Insects. Also the subjects of the re-
maining ten numbers of Chart No. XV., Manual, p. 156 to 162.
As introductory to the reading lessons on the Mammalia, Third
Reader, which are sujiposed to be taken up this term, point out,
on Chart No. XVI., the four great divisions of the Animal King-
dom — Vertebrates, Articulates, Mollusks, and Radiates. Also
point ou^t and describe the diii"erent races of mankind.

The separate consideration of the subject of "Animals" may
now be dropped, as it is continued from time to time, from this
point forward, under the head of "Reading."



APPENDIX. 807

118. 8. Plants. — Continue as before directed (82, di, lOG). Exam-
ination and classification on the Linnajan System, Manual, p. 193
to 198. *' Economical Uses of Plants," in familiar talks through



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