Marcus Tullius Cicero.

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ezploratum est in rationibus dumtaxat referendis — de ceteris
rebus adfirmare non possum — nihil eum feoisse soientem quod
esset contra aut rem aut existimationem tuam : dein, si rationum
referendarum ius vetus et mos antiquus maneret, me relaturum
rationeSy nisi tecum pro ooniunctione nostrae necessitudinis oontu-
lissem confedssemque, non fuisse. 2. Quod igitur fecissem ad
urbem, si consuetude pristina maneret, id, quoniam lege lulia
relinquere rationes in provincia necesse erat easdemque totidem
verbis referre ad aerarium, feci in provincia ; neque ita feci, ut
te ad meiim arbitrium adducerem, sed tribui tibi tantum, quan-
tum me tribuisse numquam me paenitebit : totum enim scribam
meum, quem tibi video nunc esse suspectum, tibi tradidi : tu ei
M. Mindium fratrem tuum adiunxisti. Kationes confectae me



Bufus to Cicero, in which he complained
of TariouB irregularities committed by
Cicero* both in the haste with whidi he
sent to the Treasury the ^blic accounts
without any interview with Bufus him-
idf , and in the accounts themsdves. We
most remember that the quaestor was
leeponaible to the State, so that the com-
plaints of Bufus were not at all vexatious.

1. M. IWfttM] A freedman of Cicero's.
His fnU name was M. Tnllius Laurea
(Plin. H. N. TTxi. 7). Freedmen gene-
laiiy took the prenomen and nomen of their
master : cp. note on Att. iv. 16, 1 (143).

deittl if looked at closely it seems
somewhat hard to understand 'I can
assure you ' out of pouum icribere ; but
the ellipse naturally supplies itself if we
read the sentence rapidly. Wesenberg
(Em. 68), following Martyni-Laguna,
wishes to supply icito after dein.

im9 veiwi] i.e. the old system in force
prior to the Lex Julia, which ordered the
accounts to be deposited in the two prin-
cipal towns of the province as well as at
Bome (see Addenda to vol. iii., p. 296).

fueeitUudinii] For the close bond of
relationship, almost that of father and
SOD, which existed between the goveinor
and his quaeetor see Diy. in CaeoiL 61 ;
Mayor on Phil. ii. 71.

eoHtulisifm eof^fteUt^mgue] < examined



and settled ' The eon- refers probably to
the comparing and balancing the debit
and credit sides of the account.

2. ad urbem] * before the city.* Ci-
cero was waiting outside the city in hopes
of obtaining a triumph. On the phrase
cp. note to Fam. iii. 8, 1 (222).

ut te ad meum arbitrium addueerem}
< my object was not to bring ^ou over to
what was my own individu^ judgment,*
i. e. I did not endeavour, by thus making
up and sending in my statement of
accounts without an interview with you,
to force you to alter your accounts so as
to make them exactly tally with mine.
The accounts of quaestor and governor
ought to agree ; and it might be thought
that Cicero, by hastily sending in his
accounts without having had any con-
ference and discussion with Bufus, wished
to hide certain discrepancies and irregu-
larities in his own accounts and to force
Bufus either to alter his accounts so as to
bring them into harmony with Cicero* s,
or else to incur the scandal of a different
presentation of accounts by quaestor and
governor; in which case the quaestor
would have the greater difficulty in es-
tablishing his honesty.

Jf. Mtndium^ first cousin of Bufus.
He was a banker at Elisin Greece and made
Bufus his heir: Fam. xiii. 26, 2 (521).



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8 CCCIL {FAM. r. SO).

absente sunt teoum, ad qnas ego nihil adhibui praeter leotioDe^* :
ita aooepi librum a meo [servo] soriba, ut eundem acoeperim a
f ratre tuo. Si honos is fuit, maiorem tibi habere non potui : si
fides, maiorem tibi habui quam paene ipsi mihi : si providendum
f uit ne quid aliter ao tibi et honestum et utile esset referretur, non
habui oui potius id negotii darem quam cui dedi. Illud quidem
oerte factum est, quod lex iubebat, ut apud duas oivitates, Laodi-
oeensem et Apameensem, quae nobis maximae videbantur, quoniam
ita neoesse erat, rationes oonfectas oollatasque deponeremus.
Itaque huio loco primum respondeo, me, quamquam iustis de
causis rationes referre properanm, tamen te exspeotaturum f uisse,
nisi in provinoia reliotas rationes pro ralatis haberem ; quam ob
rem . . • 3. De Yolusio quod soribis, non est id rationum : docuerunt



ita ... , tuo] * while I received a
book of the accounts from my scribe, I
also received a duplicate from your cousin':
tervo IB certainly to be bracketed, for M.
Tullius, as is proved by his very name,
was a freedman and not a slave.

quam eui dedi] This is the reading of
Graevius, * and so clear and certainly cor-
rect is it/ says that scholar, 'that not even
Cameades could doubt of it' In H T we
find quam dedi ; in M, quam darem, which
Weeenberg (£m. 71) altered into quam
quoi dederam.

eonfeetai eolUUasque] For the phrase
see J I. The reading collatatquev^ioxoA
in T. In M it is contolata* (conaolo'
tatque H) whence the generally adopted
reading is eonsolidatas 'balanced,' which
is found in a Palatine ms and in all Liun-
binus's M88, possibly rightly : cp. Asoon.
on 2 Yen*, i. 92, p. 185 (on the word
quadrarinfj, * Solida facta sint ut neque
plus quisquam neque minus inveniatur in
summa : ubi enim ratio sine fraude est,
difficile est sexcenta, detractis auadrin-
ffentis, ^uadrare et tolidari vel solida
fieri, quin aut minus aut plus aUquid
reperiatur.' Sohmalz adopts eonsolidaUu
in Antibarbarus, p. 309.

rationet referre] not deferre, as is read
in the mss : see Keid on Arch. II. * The
phmse deferre in aerarium (Balb. 63) is
especially used of the benejleia [see § 7],
while referre in aerarium is used of money
and accounts.'

pro relatit] * as good as sent into the
Treasury.'

quam ob rem . « . ] This word is either



the beginning of a sentence which has
been lost, or has somehow arisen from
dittography of haberem,

8. De Volusio] The exceedingly per-
plexed events alluded to in this section and
the next appear to be as follows : — Volu-
sius, one of Cicero's most trusted follow-
ers as we see from Att. v. 21, 6 (250), had
made some contract with the State, per-
haps to collect some branch of the revenue,
but had made it on terms too advantageous
to the State. He made the bargain nomi-
nally for himself, but really for a banker
Yalerius, who appeared in the transaction
as a surety for Volusius. The praefectus
fiibrum and a legatus of Cicero became
sureties for Valerius. When the loss had
to be met, Valerius paid up a considerable
sum, and paid it in a way conveying an
acknowledgment that he was the purchaser
of the contract. As regards the remain-
der of the money due, Valerius tried to
transfer the obligation to Volusius ; but
Valerius, having acknowledged that he
was purchaser and having paid a large
sum as such, could not pass on the obli-
gation up to Volusius, the obligatiou
passed rather the other way dotcn to the
BuietieB of Valerius. These, as we have
seen, were trusted officers and dose frienda
of Cicero, so they had to be extricated
from their difficulty some way or other.
Cioero accordingly remitted the amount
due, and entered the sum remitted in the
accounts as arrears. He satisfied him-
self that the loss sustained by the State
was no real loss, for the State had nude
too advantageous a bargain, and had



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CCCII. [FAM. r. SO).



9



etksm, me periti homines, in liis omn omnium peritissimus tum
mihi amioissimus, G. Gamillus, ad Yolusium traferri nomen a
Valerie non potnisse, praedes Valerianos teneri. (Neque id erat
HS xxx.y ut BoribiB, Bed HS xix.) Erat enim ourata nobis
peounia Yalerii mancipis nomine, ex qua reliquum quod erat in <
rationibus rettuli. 4. Bed sio me et liberalitatis fruotu privaa
et diligentiae et, quod minime tamen laboro, mediocris etiam
prudentiae : liberalitatis, quod mayis scribae mei benefioio quam
meo legatum meum praefeotumque [Q. Leptam] maxima oalami-
tate levatos, oum praesertim non deberent esse obligati: dili-
gentiae, quod existimas de tanto officio meo, tanto etiam perioulo^
neo soisse me quidquam neo oogitavisse, soribam, quidquid voluisset,
oum id mihi ne recitavisset quidem, rettulisse : prudentiae, quod
rem a me non insipienter exoogitatam ne cogitatam quidem putas.



obtained wbat was a fair price in the stun
paid by Yalerius (popuiu$ sumh servaret).
Cieeio does not, bjrany means, wish to hide
what he did^^uite the reyerse, to take
considerable credit to himself for it. We
must snp^ote that no yery great strictness
wan reqiured in the accounts of the pro-
Tincial gOTemors, that a certain margin
was allowed, and that Cicero, not greedy
for himself, chose that the margin should
be used in extricating good fnends and
tmsty officers from a rash suretyship into
which they had entered.

nan est id ratumuml * that has nothing
to say to the accounts.' Yolusius was
%mte free from the transaction now ; there
was no need that his name should appear
at aU in the accounts ; no remission had
been made to him. Another error on the
part of Bufus was in the sum remitted ;
It was only 1,900,000 sesterces, not
),uOO,000. Valerius had paid up most of
the sum due, but there remained 1 ,900,000
sesterces as arrears. This is an incidental
matter to which Cicero refers, so we have
pot it in a parenthesis.

Cmm % l lu 9\ a lawyer friend of Cicero :
Att V. 8, 3 (193); Fam. xiv. 14, 2
(309).

SrtU #film] ' It is Valerius and hii
sureties who are liable; for the money
was paid us in the name of Valerius as
the purchaser ; the balance, or arrears, I
ha?e duly returned in my accounts.' Man*
«tpi is applied to purchasers of State-
eontraets, Feat., p. 161, Mull. < Matuep$
didtur qui quid a populo emit oonducitre.



quia manu sublata significat se auctorem
emptionis esse : qui idem praes dicitur
quia tam debet praestare populo quod pro-
misit quam is qui pro eo praes factus
est ' ; also Ascon. on Diy. in Caecil. { 38,
p. 113. In rationet referre, * to make
an entry in the accounts * ; in rationibus
referre, * to return to the Treasury in the
accounts.'

4. Q, Leptam] As it is not in H this name
is to be omitted. Ruf us knew the i>er8on8
who were inyolyed in the whole transac-
tion, so there was no necessity for Cicero
to specify the names. Wesenberg (Em. 76)
thinks that, so far from cutting out Q.
Leptam, we should add JT. Anneium after
meum : cf. Att. y. 4, 2 (187).

non deberent etse obliffati'] as being only
praedee, not principals, in tne transaction.
Hence the sum for which they became
liable is called multa below.

perieuh] We should haye expected
amioorum, or meorum, or something of
the kind to haye been added with this
word.

quod] so we read with Lamb., instead of
M8S eum, both for the sake of symmetry
(for quod is used after liberalitatis and dily-
gentiae)^ and because eum would require
the subjunctiye.

ne ec^atam] ' eyinced no thouppht at
aU.' This is the admirable addition of
the early editors. Rufus had attributed
the whde remission to Cicero's scribe ;
and, in criticising the remission, said that
it showed a complete absence of thought.
Cicero now takes credit for the whole



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10



CCCIL {FAM. r.



Nam et Yolusii liberandi meum fuit consilium et, ut multa tarn,
^avis Valerianis praedibus ipsique T. Mario depelleretur, a me
inita ratio est : quam qiiidem omnes non solum probant, sed etiam.
laudant, et, si verum scire vis, hoc uni soribae meo intellexi non
nimiimi placere. Sed ego putavi esse viri boni, cum populus
43uum servaret, consulere fortunis tot vel amioorum vel civium.
6. Nam de Lucceio est ita actum, ut auctore Cn. Pompeio ista



transaction, and sajs that RufuB has, to all
intents and i)urpo8e8, accused him of want
of ordinary intelligence (prudentiae), for
the plan had heen most carefully thought
out {exeoffitatam)f and just the one person
who was displeased at it was Cicero's
flcrihe. For eogitare and cxcogitare con-
trasted, cp. Att. ix. 6, 7 (360).

T. Mario] perhaps a surety of one of
the sureties of Valenus.

6. The difficulty in this and the follow-
ing section is that there are two sums of
money, one deposited hy Cicero's order
and used hy Pompey, another deposited
by Ruf us's order and used by Sestius :
while both sums appear to be referred to
^as ista pecunia. The only explanation
we can offer is that Sestius, who was on
State service in Asia, took the latter sum
for his own ex]^ses, while he took over
the former sum in trust for Pompey. This
is probable, as Pompey had certunly not
yet left Italy.

As to the explanation of the whole pas-
sage, we offer the following with the
greatest hesitation, leaving tibe ultimate
interpretation, whatever it may be found to
be, to better manuscripts or clearer insight
for its establishment. At the direction
•of Pompey, Cicero had ordered a certain
sum of money in dispute between one
Lucceius and uie State to be deposited in
■a temple. *■ I acknowledge that I ordered
it to be deposited,' says Cicero, * and that
Pompey took that sum for State pur-
poses, just as Sestius took a similar sum
which you deposited. I am sorrv J did
not add that the sum was deposited by
my orders, but I have no reason to deny
it. The handing over of the money to
Sestius was so very well authorized, and
the documents in the transaction so formal
and regular, that I never dreamed that there
could be any difficulty in the matter, nor
thought that it could affect you at all.'
But why then did Kuf us find any fault
with Cicero F The whole letter shows



that the grievances of Rufus were not
altogether imaginary ; but this does seem
to have been a somewhat trivial mat-
ter, and as being trivial, Cicero yields
to the request of Rufus with a great deal
(rf circumstance. The point appears to
have been that odium naturally attached
to the appropriating by the State of money
not properly adjudicated upon ; and Sestiua
and the otheroptimates (who were nothing
if not rapacious) blamed Rufus for hav-
ing deposited the money and thus having
acknowledged that it was questionable
whether it was State property while the
money ought to have been simply ap-
propriated in the first instance. That
Pompey took money from the temples is
stated by Caesar (Bell. Civ. i. 6, 8).
Rufus indeed gave an order for its pay-
ment to Sestius ; but he had never au-
thorized the acknowledgment that thit
money in which Lucceius was concerned
was in dispute, or was not the rightful
property of the State.

Cicero continues — The case is quite dif-
ferent about the HS 900,000 : that entry
was authorized by you, or at any rate by
your cousin, so you should not evade the
responsibility of it now. [The en try appears
to have been to the debit of the Treasury.]
But while in the former matter I, for my
part, shall see what can be done to alter
the accounts, you, on your part, certainly
ought not in the account of money raised
(or ' collected ') to disagree so widely from
my accounts already sent in — governor
and quaestor ought not in their accounts
to exhibit sucn a wide discrepancy —
though of course I may be in error, but
be assured I shaU do everything I can for
you.

Nam^ For this use of nam, introducing
a transition to a new subject, Manutius
compares { 6 ; also Fam. i. 9, 19 (163)
Nam de Appio; Att iu. 10, 2 (67) ; iii.
16, 2 (88). Still there is no doabt that
iam would be more naturaL



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11



X>e(mnia in f ano poneretur : id ego agnovi meo iussu esse factum :
qua pecunia Pompeius est usus, ut ilia, quam tu deposueras,
Sestius. Bed haeo ad te nihil intellego pertinere. Illud me non
animadyertisse moleste ferrem, ut asoriberem te in fano peouniam
inssa meo deposuisse, nisi ista peounia gravissimis esset certissi-
znisque monimentis testata, oui data, quo senatus consulto, quibus
tuis, quibus meis litteris P. Sestio tradita esset. Quae eimi
viderem tot vestigiis impressa, ut in iis errari non posset, non
asoripsi id, quod tua nihil referebat. Ego tamen asoripsisse
mallem, quoniam id te video desiderare. 6. Siout soribis tibi id
esse referendimi, item ipse sentio, neque in eo quidquam a meis
rationibus discrepabunt tuae. Addes enim tu meo iussu, quod
ego, qui non addidi, neo causa est cur negem, nee si causa esset et
tu nolles, negarem. Nam de HS nongentis milibus certe ita
relatum est, ut tu sive frater tuns referri voluit. Sed, si quid est,
quoniam de Lucceio parum provisum est, quod ego in rationi-
bus referendis etiam nunc corrigere possim, de eo mihi, quoniam
senatus consulto non siun usus, quid per leges liceat considerandum
est. Te oerte in peouniam exactam ita referre ex meis rationibus



(ft fino poneretur^ For the lodgment
of diBputed money in a temple ep, Att.
T. 21,12(260).

S^ius] was pnetor in 701 (63), and is
said (DicU Biogr.) to have been propnetor
of Cilida in 706 (49) ; but that is very
unlikely, as he appears to haye been in
Italy and to have composed a manifesto
for Pompeius in the spring of this year
ep. AU. Tii. 17, 2 (316). He was more
probably sent out by Pompeius as a kind
of commissioner to see after affairs in the
East, and try to raise money for the
azistocratic war-chest. In later times we
find him sent to take command of some
soldiers in Pontus (BeU. Afr. 34).

mnimadvertUte . , , ut] * take care to ':
cp. LiT. iy. 46, 4, adterUrent animo$ ne
fuid nopi tumuUut oreretur.

6. item] So we read with Wesenberg
(£m. 76) for idem. The latter would
haye been right if quody not iieut^ had
preceded.

Adde$] polite f ut. for imperat. ' Tou
win kindly add.'

qui nony So HT, confirming the emen-
dation of Wesenbera (£m. 76). The usual
leading is that of M, quidem non,

Luceino] Host mss giye lo0a$o, H



has Uffato, perhaps rightly. ^

parum provisum ett] This is the reading
which is generally adopted. It is obtained
from parum gravisum of M.

tenatus consulto] Cicero did not make
use of a decree of the Senate which allowed
him to hold back his accounts for a con-
siderable time ; on the contrary, he sent
them in long before the necessary time,
probably because he wished to have done
with his proyince and all its affairs. We
must now, says Cicero, see what the law
allows us to do in the way of altering the
accounts already sent in. It is not known
to what senatus oonsultum Cicero is allud-
ing.

tft peouniam exactam] It is difficult to
feel certain as to the correction of this
passage. We haye adopted that of Wesen-
berg (£m. 74), followed by Elotz : but it is
harsh to translate ex meis rationibus relatis
* irfter my accounts are sent in,' as referre
ex would certainly suggest * entering /rom
my accounts.' Still it is hard to suggest
a less yiolent alteration of the mss reading
which will giye as good a sense. Could
the reading be ista referre nongenta^ i.e.
IX, the numeral hayiog been corrupted
into Bx ?



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12



CCCIL {FAM, r. SO).



relatis non oportuit, nisi quid me fallit : sunt enim alii peritiores.
Sed illud cave dubites quia ego omnia faoiam, quae interesse tua
aut etiam velle te existimem, si ullo modo faoere possim. 7. Quod
soribis de beneficiis, soito a me et tribunes militares et praef eotos
et contubemales dumtaxat meos delates esse. In quo quidem me
ratio fefellit : liberum enim mihi tempus ad eos deferendos existi-
mabam dari: postea certior sum factus triginta diebus deferri
necesse esse, quibus rationes rettulissem. Sane moleste tuli non
ilia beneficia tuae potius ambitioni reservata esse quam meae, qui
ambitione nihil uterer. De centurionibus tamen et de tribunorum
militarium contubemalibus res est in integro : genus enim horum
beneficiorum definitum lege non erat. 8. Eeliquum est de HS
centum milibus, de quibus memini mihi a te Myrina litteras esse
adlatas, non mei errati, sed tui : in quo peocatimi videbatur esse.



Sed illud] We have ventured to add
sed before illud : it may have been lost
after the a of peritiores, A particle of
transition is certainly required.

7. benejieiis] On the return of the
governor to Home he presented to the
Treasury a list (headed * Beneficia') of
persons on his stsiff or in his suite {cohors
praetoria, 2 Yerr. i. 36) whom he thought
deserving of special reward : op. Reid on
Arch. § II. We may compare the peers
which are created on the resignation of a
ministry. The quaestor seems to have
sent in a similar Ust, it being a kind of
pendant to the accounts : cp. Mommsen
St JR. u«. 288.

contubemales'] The same as the oomites :
cp. Q. Fr. ii. i. II (30).

dumtaxat meos] Accordingly not those
of the quaestor.

In quo quidem] * In which matter
indeed I made a miscalculation ; for I
thought there was no fixed limit of time
within which I should return the names.
I was afterwards informed that they must
be returned within thirty days after I had
sent in my accounts.'

Sane] The men mentioned as deserv-
ing of oenejieia would of course be Ukely
in after times to help the governor or
quaestor who recommended them. I am
sorry, says Cicero, that I returned this
list as my own : you want influence as
your career is just commencing : I have
reached the highest positions and I am
not ambitious. But you can return a list
of centurions and companions of the mili-



tary tribunes ; for there is no specification
in the law of the time within which the
list of these henefidarii must be returned.

lege] Apparently the Lex Julia de
Bepetundis.

8. Reliquum est] From some book-
keeping error on the part of Bufus (or his
cousin, or Cicero's clerk, Tullius) the
accounts showed Bufus indebted to the
Treasury for about a himdred thousand
sesterces. Bufus, in a letter from Myrina,
had acknowledged that the mistake was
his, not Cicero's : but the language of
Cicero shows that he himself was at least
partially responsible. But the accounts
had been returned, Cicero had left hi»
province, and so no correction could be
made. Accordingly, Cicero pays Rufus
in words ; but is careful to let Bufus
know that he must not consider these
words as anything moro than those of
ordinary politeness. Bufus is to con-
sider the loss of the money as so much
deduction from his allowances and from
the presents given him by the governor.
It must not, however, for an instant
be supposed that Cicero misappropriated
the money ; vulgar avarice was certainly
no failing of his : no, the money all went
into the Treasury and was appropriated
by the great Pompey. But still Rufus
was hardly dealt with; and perhaps he
and the rest of the cohws may have had
some reasons for regarding wiui less com-
placency than Cicero did the extreme
eUgantia of the latter's administration.

Myrina] A seaport toWn in Aeolia.



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CCCIL {FAM. r. SO).



13



fii modo eraty fratris tui et Tullii. Sed oum id oorrigi non posseti
qaod iam depositis rationibus ex provinoia deoesseramus, oredo me
qmdem tibi pro animi mei voluntate proque ea spe faoultatum,
qiiam turn habebamus, quam humanissime potuerim resoripsisse.
Sed neque turn me humanitate litterarum mearum obligatum puto
neque me tuam hodie epistolam de HS centum sio aooepisse, ut
ii accipiimt, qmbus epistolae per haeo tempera molestae simt.
9. Simul illud oogitare debes, me omnem peouniam, quae ad me
aalvis legibus pervenisset, Ephesi apud publicanos deposuisse : id
fuiflse HS XXII : eam omnem peouniam Fompeium abstulisse.
Quod ego sive aequo animo sive iniqiio fero, tu de HS centum
aequo animo f erre debes et existimare eo minus ad te vel de tuis
cibariis vel de mea liberalitate pervenisse. Quod si mihi expensa
ista HS centum tulisses, tamen, quae tua est suavitas quique in
me amor, noUes a me hoc tempore aestimationem accipere : nam
numeratum si cuperem, non erat. Sed haec iocatum me putato,



die$t$eramu9] The indicatiye should
nndoabtedly follow qttod, Crat. and most
«dd. read deeetaissemua (mss deeesnmus).
They would explain the subjunctiye pro-
hablj as a virtual oblique 'because (as
I aaid) I had left the province.'

epistoiae] sc. creditorum pecuniam cre^
ditim exufentium,

kaee iempora] i. e. the uncertain con-
dition of affairs, owing to the Civil 'War,
when a man woiJd be very loth to part
with whatever he had. Besides, Cicero
had hopes of a triumph, and he would
want all his resources for that.

9. JPbmpeium] cp. Att. xi. 1 (406),
«nd following letters.

eUariW] 'allowance for your mainte-
nance.' For other meanings of cibaria^
vix. (1) soldier's pay, (2) money paid by
provincials in commutation of Uie com-
suptJy imposed on them, see Mommsen,
8t.tL ii<, 287. Doubtless it was this
latter meUiod of obtaining money, added
to the economy with which Cicero spent



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