Marcus Tullius Cicero.

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ad superiores aegritudinos praeolaras generi aotiones ? Tu tamen
Tolim no intermittas, quod eius faoere poteris, scribere ad me,
etiam si rem de qua scribas non babebis. Semper enim adf erunt
aliquid mihi tuae litterae. Galeonis hereditatem orevi. Puto
enim oretionem simplioem fuisse, quoniam ad me nulla missa est.
Till. Idus Martias.

lonffe aliter esse inteUego] Cicero thought
the republican party would win, and peace
would be out of the question.

adiungatur . . . etiam Hispania] i. e.
Spain is now to be added to the strength
of the Pompeian party, having been alien-
ated from Caesar through the misconduct
of his lieutenant Q. Cassius Longinus.

4. erectiorem animo\ Lehmann, p. 83,
shows that this need not be corrected to
ereetiore animo,

eretionem'] Cretio is the declaration of a
legatee that he wiU take an inheritance.
That declaration had almost always to be
made within some definite time : if the time
was not specified in the will, the praetor
fixed it in the interests of the creditors of
the deceased. The limit was generally 100
days from the date on which the legatee
received information that he had been in-
stituted heir and was in a position to come
to a decision. This was called cretio vul-
garis. But occasionally a time was speci-
fied in the will to run from the date of
the testator's death, not from the date on
which the legatee roceived information ;
the important words quibus sciet poteritque
were omitted in tiie will. This was called
cretio continua (Gains ii. 166-173). But,
besides the limit of time, it is quite plain
that the testator might make several other

conditions with regard to the cretio, e.g.
the person before whom it was to be made,
the place, and such like. One such con-
dition is expressly mentioned, that the
cretio should be made in the presence of
witnesses : cp. Varro, L. L. vi. 81 , itaquc
in eretione adhibere iubent testes; Cic. Att.
xiii. 46, $x 90 eognovi eretionem {0 VestO'
rium ncglegentem f) liberam eretionem testi-
bus praesentibus »exaginta diebus. No other
conditions than the two specified are there
mentioned, so that Cicero says the cretio
is a free one, though we do not remember
to have met the expression libera cretio
elsewhere. Much the same meaning is
to be attached to the word simpUeem in
the present passage. *I declared,' says
Cicero, 'my acceptance of the inherit-
ance (that was sufiicient) ; for I think
that there were no special conditions laid
down in the will as to how the eretio was
to be made, and no statement of any such
conditions was sent to me.' Cretio is
understood with nulla : cp. Earlowa, B;om.
Rechtsgeschichte ii. p. 897. The condi-
tions attaching to eretiones were trouble-
some and annoying, and ultimately were
abrogated by Justinian, Cod. vi. 30, 17.
Cretionum serupulosam sollemnitatem hoc
lege penitus amputari decemimus : cp. Cod.
Theod. viii. 18, 8, 1.


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BRUNDI8IUM ; APRIL ; A. u. c. 707 ; b. c. 47 ; aet. cic. 59.

M. Cicero Attico soribit se neminem in se alieno animo esse intellexisse, de P.
Lentulo patre, de Lentulo filio, de Cassio ubi versari dicantur, de Q. fratris litteiis ad
se datis, de coheredibus Fufidianis, de fundo Fnisinati redimendo et de facultatibus
suis imminutis, de litteranim inter se commercio.


1. A Murenae liberto nihil adhuc acceperam litterarum. P.
Siser reddiderat eas, quibus rescribo. De Servii patris litteris
quod scribis, item Quintum in Syriam venisse quod ais esse qui
nuntienty ne id quidem verum est. Quod certiorem te vis fieri
quo quisque in me animo sit aut fuerit eorum, qui hue yenerunt,
neminem alieno intellexi. Sed quantum id mea intersit existimare
te posse certe scio. Mihi cum omnia sint intolerabilia ad dolorem
turn maxime, quod in eam causam venisse me video, ut sola utilia
mihi esse videemtur qusie semper nolui. P. Lentulum patrem
Khodi esse aiunt, Alexandreae filium, Ehodoque Alexandream
C. Cassium profectum esse constat. 2. Quintus mihi per litteras
satis f acit multo asperioribus verbis quam cimi gravissime aocusabat.
Ait enim se ex litteris tuis intellegere tibi non plaoere, quod ad
multos de me asperius scripserit, itaque se paenitere, quod animum

1. eerte icio] The ordinary rule laid painful'; lit. * as regards the distress they

down as to the distinction between eerto cause.' For the use of ad cp. ad severi'

seio and eerte scio is, that the former tatemleniutetadcofntHunemsaluiemutiUn^

means ' I know for certain,' and the latter Catil. i. 12 ; ad existimationem turpiuty ed

* certainly I know.' Some editors deny dolorem acerbitu, De Or. ii. 200.

the validity of the distinction, and Boot eau9ani\ 'my case is now this, that

holds that certe may always be used for the issue I have always disliked seems

eertOf though it is not true that eerto can now the only one that will serve my in-

always take the place of eerte. At all terests ' ; he means the victory of Caesar,

events there is no reason here to change In sentences like this, eattea means much

eerte of the mss to eerto , because even if the same as condicio, and may be rendered

we rejected the doctrine of Boot, and ac- * case.'

cepteathe distinction laid down, certe tcio Rhodi ease] Caesar, B. C. iii. 102, 7,

would suit the passage very well ; Cicero tells us that the Rhodians refused to receive

would say, ^ Surely 1 am aware that you Lentulus, and this is confirmed by a letter

can judge how important it is to me that from the son of Lentulus, Fam. xii. 14, 3.

no one should have feelings of enmitv 2. eatit faeit'] * in excusing himself

against me.' Certe can be used with aU (apologising to me) he uses much bitterer

verbs, eerto only with scio, expressions than in his most virulent de-

intolerabilia ad dolorem] * insufferably nunciations of me.'

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tuum offenderity sed 86 iure feoisse. Deinde perscribit — sed
spuroissime — quas ob causae feoerit. Sed neque hoc tempore neo
antea patefeoisset odium suum in me, nisi omnibus rebus me esse
oppressum videret. Atque utinam vel noetumis, quem ad modum
tu scripseras, itineribus propius te aecessissem ! Nunc neo ubi neo
quando te sim visurus possum suspicari. 3. De coheredibus Fufi-
dianis nihil f uit quod ad me scriberes. Nam et aequum postulant
et quidquid egisses recte esse actum putarem. 4. De fundo Fru<
sinati redimendo iam pridem intellexisti voluntatem meam, etsi
turn meliore loco res erant nostrae neque tarn mihi desperatum iri
videbantur, tamen in eadem sum voluntate. Id quem ad modum
fiat tu videbis. Et velim, quod poteris, oonsideres ut sit undo
nobis suppeditentur simiptus necessarii. Si quas habuimus faoul-
tates, eas Pompeio tum, cum id videbamur sapienter f acere, detuli-
mus. Itaque tum et a tuo vilico sumpsimus et aliunde mutuati
sumus, cum Quiutus queritur per litteras sibi nos nihil dedisse,
qui neque ab iUo rogati sumus neque ipsi cam pecuniam aspeximus.
Sed velim videas quid sit quod confici possit quidque mihi de
omnibus des consilii, et causam nosti. 5. Flura ne scribam dolore
impedior. Si quid erit quod ad quos scribendum meo nomine
putes, velim, ut soles, facias : quotiensque habebis cui des ad me
litteras, nolim praetermittas. Vale.

sed spureissime] * but most coarsely* ;
yet apurcitsime seems to be £ar too violent
an expiessioD. We should much prefer
to accept C. F. Hermann's correction of
the MS ipurcissime, and read pareissime,

* most grudgingly,* parce is often used in
this kind of context : cp . a letter of Caecina,
Pam. vi. 7, 3 (532), where the context
iUustrates the phrase seripH de te puree :
cp. also et quidem muUo parcius seripsi,

* indeed I used much less qualified kn-
guage than the occasion warranted,* Fam.
xii. 14, 3. Exigue is similarly used in
Att. xi. 16, 1 (431. Shakespeare uses
lenten in a similar sense in Twelfth Nighty
i. 6, 9 :—

Chvm. Let her hang me ; he that is well
hanged in this world needs to fear no colours.
Maria. Make that good.
Clown, He shall see none to fear.
Maria. A good lenten answer.

3. aequum postulant'] * their demand
is a fair one, and in any case I should

have approved of any step taken by

4. ut sit unde nobis'] = ut sit qui utamur,
Att. xi. 11,2 (426).

detulimus] *put into the hands of
Pompey * ; this was a sum amounting to
nearly £19,000, the profits of his govern-
ment of Cilicia. Cicero tells Eufus, in
a letter written two years before the pre-
sent, that Pompey appropriated the whole
sum, which was in the hands of publicans
at Ephesus, for the purposes of the war,
Fam. V. 20, 9 (302). He says that at
the time of his brother's request he had
* never laid eyes on * the money : but he
speaks as if it was not yet completely

eausam nost\\ The meaning is, Won
know the details of the case* ; but the
expression is stronger, more like *you
have your brief.'

5. Si quid erit quod ad quos] cf. ne
quando quid emanety Att. x. 12, 3 (397),
and note there.

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BRUNDISIUM ; APRIL OR MAY ; A. U. C. 707 ; B. C. 47 ; AET. CIC. 69.

De misera condicione sua, quod iam ne socios qnidem habeat, certior cupit fieri
quid Caesar ad Balbum et Oppium de se scripserit, de Dolabella genero, de Q. firatre
do rebus domesticis.


1. Non me offendit Veritas litterarum tuarum, quod me cum
oommunibus turn praeoipuis mails oppressum ne inoipis quidem,
ut solebasy consolari f aterisque id fieri iam non posse. Nee enim
ea sunty quae erant antea, oum, ut nihil aliud, oomites me et sooios
habere putabam. Omnes enim Aohaici deprecatores itemque in
Asia, qmbus non erat ignotum, etiam quibus erat, in Africam
dicuntur navigaturi. Ita praeter Laelium neminem habeo eulpae
sooium, qui tamen hoc meliore in causa est, quod iam est reoeptus.
2. De me autem non dubito quin ad Balbum et ad Oppium
scripserit, a quibus, si quid esset laetius, certior ftu^tus essem,
tecum etiam essent locuti : quibusoum tu de hoc ipso ooUoquare
velim et ad me quid tibi responderint scribas, non quo ab isto
salus data quidquam habitura sit firmitudinis, sed tamen aliquid
consuli et prospici potent. Etsi omnium conspectum horreo,
praesertim hoc genero, tamen in tantis malis quid aliud velim non
reperio. 3. Quintus pergit, ut ad me et Pansa soripsit et Hirtius,
isque item Africam petere cum ceteris dicitur. Ad Minucium
Tarentum scribam et tuas litteras mittam; ad te scribam, num

I. commnnibus, . .praecipuis'] For the Aekaiei deprecatores] ' the Achaian pe-

antithesis between these two words, by titioners* for Caesar's pardon,

which Cicero denotes troubles which ignotum] participle from igno9eere ; we

*afifect all in common,' and others which find the pass, impers. of xgnoicereui iffno-

* affect himself specially ' : cp. Att. xi. 3, turn est, taciturn est, Ter. Ad. iii. 4, 28.

2 (411), and Lehmann, p. 27. 2. ab isto salus data'] He distrusts

cum, ut nihil aliud] * when, though I Caesar's pardon, because he was in a

had nothing else, I thought I had com- position to revoke at any time what he

panions and partners in the course I had granted, Att. zi. 20, 1 (444).

took'; eomites only denotes those who hoe genero] 'with such a son-in-law';

accompany one, sodus indicates a par- for the ablative see on Fam. v. 8, 4 (131).

tidpationin a policy or design (his return 3. pergit] 'is going on as before,' i.e.

to Italy). is abusing me.

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quid egerim. HS xxx potuisse mirarer, nisi multa de Fufidianis
praediis. Sed avide tamen te exspeoto, quern videre, si uUo modo
potest — poscit enim res — pervelim. lam extremum ooncluditur ;
fibi faoile est quod quale sit hio gravius existimare. Vale.


BRUNDISIUM ; MAY 14 ; A. U. C. 707 ; B. C. 47 ; AET. CIC. 69.

M. Cicero consilium requirit ab Attico quid sibi nunc, cum iam paene solus sit,
figendum sit, de negotio Minuciano, de Q. fratre et Q. filio, de summo dolore suo, quod
peccasse sibi videatur, et diutius Brundisii non amplius posse manere, de genero, de
Aesopi filio, de Fufidianis coheredibus.


1. Quoniam iustas causas adfers, quod te hoc tempore videre
lion possim, quaeso quid sit mihi faciendum. lUe enim ita videtur
Alexandream tenere, ut eum soribere etiam pudeat de illis rebus.

HS xxxpotuisse mirarer] AtUcus had
undertaken to repay the representatives
of Minucius in Kome any sum not ex-
ceeding 30,000 sesterces (£260). Cicero
says that he would be surprised that Atti-
cus could have undertaken the repayment
of 80 large an adyance were it not that he
understood that the property inherited
from Fufidius had turned out well.

potuisse] PC cot^ficere, 'to raise that
sum.' But perhaps we should read esae^
which could well have fallen out of the
poiuitse^ * that the sum could have been
•o large.*

Sed avidg tamen] Though he had said
above that he would tell Atticus by letter
how the affair went, and how far he had
succeeded {adte seribam numquid egerim),
* yet,* he adds, ' all the same, I am eagerly
looking forward to a personal interview
with you.'

poUsi] sc. Jleri ; the impersonal use of
potest, * it is possible,* is frequent in the

Jam extremum coneluditur] * already
the final issue is drawing to a close * ; the
meaning of these words is explained and
developed in Att. xi. 26, 3 (436), where

he says that all hope of peace is ^ne,
and that the Caesarean party has in it the
elements of its own dissolution.

t ibi faeile est"] We can only obelise
these words. They might possibly have
run thus : ibi faeilius quid quare sit hie
graoius existimare, 'at that point (when
things have come to the worst) it will be
easier to judge what would be the more
fatal issue of things here, and why.' But
ibi, for ' at that point, when things have
come to that' is an unlikely mode of
expression. The passage might also
have nm (to develop a suggestion of
Wesenberg) thus: — ibi tibi facile Kiudi-
eium faoerc>, quod quale sit hie gravius
est existimare, * where you are you will
find it easy to form a judgment, but the
task of greater difficulty will be to esti-
mate its value here in Brundisium.'

1. eausas a<(fers, quod . . . possim"] Boot
would read cur for quod, but there are
abundant examples of quod with the subj.
in Cicero*s letters and the comic drama,
as well as in later poetry, e. g. Hor. £p.
ii. 1, 30.

lUe'] Caesar.

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248 CCCCXXX. {ATT. XL 15).

Hi autem ex Africa iam adfaturi videntur ; Aohaioi item ex Asia
reditori ad eoe aut libero aliquo looo oommoratori. Quid mihi
igitur putas agendum ? Video difficile esse consilium. Sum enim
solus aut cum altero, cui neque ad illos reditus sit neque ab his
ipsis quidquam ad spem ostendatur. Bed tamen scire velim quid
censeas, idque erat cum aliis cur te, si fieri posset, cuperem videre.
2. Minucium xn sola curasse scripsi ad te antea : quod superest,
velim yideas ut curetur. Quintus non modo non cum magna
prece ad me, sed aoerbissime scripsit, filius vero mirifico odio.
Nihil fingi potest mali quo non urgear. Omnia tamen sunt
faciliora quam peccati dolor, qui et maximus est et aetemus:
cuius peccati si socios essem habiturus ego, quos putavi, tamen
esset ea consolatio tenuis. Sed habet aliorum omnium ratio
exitimi, mea nullum. Alii capti, alii interdusi non veniunt in
dubium de voluntate, eo minus scilicet, cum se expedierint et una
esse coeperint. li autem ipsi, qui sua voluntate ad Fufium
venerunt, nihil possunt nisi timidi existimari. Multi autem sunt,
qui quocumque modo ad illos se recipere volent, recipientur.
Quo minus debes mirari non posse me tanto dolori resistere.
Solius enim meum peccatum corrigi non potest et f ortasse Laelii.
Sed quid me id levat ? Nam C. quidem Cassium aiunt consilium
Alexandream eundi mutavisse. 3. Haec ad te scribo, non ut
queas tu demere soUicitudinem, sed ut cognoscam ecquid tu ad ea

Hi auUm] He enumerates all the Pom- captive, some cut off, and so cannot incur

peians ; those in Africa, and those in any suspicion of a want of loyalty to

Achaia, who afterwards went to Asia. Pompey (in not going to Africa afier Phar-

redituri'] * are going to join the Pom- salia), the more especially as they have

peians in Italy, or to remain in some place now succeeded in effecting a junction

not in the hands of Caesar.' there.'

eum altera] sc. Laelio. ad Fufium] These are the Aehaici,

ad iUoa] the Pompeians. who yielded to Q. Fufius Calenus, whom

ab hii ipsii] the Caesareans. Caesar had made governor of Greece after

2. zii »ola] 12,000 sesterces, only a Pharsalia. Cicero fears that his return to

little more than £100, whereas he required Italy might be regarded as a distinct over-

about £250. ture to Caesar.

eum magna preee] 'with earnest en- Solius enim] seen, of Fam. y. 6, 1 (16).

treaty.' Nam] This explains the clause wUua . . .

peccati dolor] * my mortification at the Laelii, the words sed quid me id levat refer-

mistake I made ' in returning to Italy ring parenthetically to Laelius : * for the

after Pharsalia. case of Cassius cannot be quoted as

quos putavi] * as I thought I should parallel to ours, as he has given up his

have had ' ; he refers to his brother and design of going to Alexandria to join

nephew. Caesar.' If he had persevered in that

Sed habet aliorum omnium ratio] * the design he would have laid himself open

case of all the rest admits of some plea of to the imputation of having made direct

extenuation (has a way out, ^Kfiaa-ts), overtures to Caesar like Cicero, and per-

but mine does not. Some were taken haps Laelius.

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adferas, quae me oonfieiunt, ad quae gener acoedit et cetera, quae
tletu reprimor ne scribam. Quin etiam Aesopi filius me excruciat.
Prorsus nihil abest quin sim miserrimus. Sed ad primum reverter,
quid putes faciendum, occultene aliquo propius veniendum an
mare transeundum. Nam hie maneri diutius non potest. 4. De
Fufidianis qua re nihil potuit confici ? Genus enim condicionis
eius modi f uit, in quo non solet esse controversia, cum ea pars,
quae videtur esse minor, licitatione expleri posset. Haec ego non
gine causa quaero. Suspicor enim coheredes dubiam nostram

3. genei'"] *tlie oondnct of my 8on-in-
law, Dolabella.'

Aesopi/iUus] another character common
to Cicero's letters and Horace, who, as well
as Cicero, designates him as Aesopi Jiliut,
He was an utter profligate, who had in-
herited a very large fortune from his
father Aesopus, a celebrated tragic actor
of the time when Roscius was so famous
in comedy. This Aesopus junior was a
rival of Dolabella's for the favours of a
notorious adulteress, Metella, wife of P.
Com. Lentulus Spinther. Palmer, on Hor.
Sat. ii. 3, 239, thinks that the coincidence
of expression indicates a recent study of
Cicero's letter on the part of Horace. It
was the bad influence of this young man
on Dolabella which gave Cicero such

4. licitatume.'] In the division of any
common property in definite proportions,
it must often nappen that an exactly
accurate partition cannot be effected. The
instance token by Justinian in the Insti-
tutes (iv. 17, 6) is that of *a man or a
mule' ; and certainly in the case of these
commodities a division could not be made
with much profit to the persons interested.
But even in the case of lands and houses
difficulty would often be caused as to how
to effect a division without serious incon-
venience to the owners, or without entail-
ing considerable diminution in the value
of the property. So that the only method
of procedure was to assign the property to
one or more persons, and to compensate
those who obtained a less share than was
their due. This was generally done, no
doubt, by friendly arrangement ; but often
all parties were unable to agree, with the
result that an actio familiae trciaeundae or
oommuni dividundo ensued. The essential
character of these two actions was the
same: the only difference was that the
former referred to inheritance, the latter

to property owned in common. The iudex
adjudicated the property in the most
advantageous manner to one or more per-
sons, and fixed the amount of compen-
sation to be paid to the person or pei-sons
who either had shares which were less
than their due, or no shares at all. (Cp.
Dig. X, 2, 66, Si familiae erciseundae
eommunive dividundo iudieium agalvr et di-
visio tarn difidlie tit ut paene impotsibilis
esse videatuTf potest iudex in uttius perso^
nam totam eondefnnationetn con/erre et ad-
iudieare omnes res.) But the itidex could
also put up the inte^pid portion (wliich it
was impossible to divide) for auction among
the co-heirs or co- partners (and sometimes,
though exceptionally, even for public
auction), and divide the sums thus rea-
lized among them. This is apparently
the process to which Cicero is referring
in our passage ; and a somewhat similaur
procedure would appear to be laid down
in the Code, iii. 37, 3, 1 : Cutn autem
regionibtis dividi aliquis ager inter soeios
non potest f vel ex plurihus singuli aestimO'
tione tusta facta unieuique sociorum adiudi"
eantur^ eompematione invieem pretii facta
eoque, ctti maioris res pretii obvenit, ceteris
condemnato, ad licit ationem nonnunquatn
etiam extraneo emptore admissOy maxime si
se non sujicere ad ittsta pretia alter ex
soeiis sua peeunia vincere vilius licentem

dubiam nostram causam] What made
Cicero so anxious about this matter was,
that he feared his co-heirs looked on his
chances of making his peace with Csesar
as problematical ; if he failed, his pro-
perty might be confiscated; they there-
fore wished the transaction to be kept
open as long as possible, rem in integro
esse, so that if Cicero incurred the anger
of Cssear, they might leave him out in
the apportioning of the estate of Fufidius
to the different legatees.

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260 CCCCXXXI. {ATT. XL 16).

causam putare et eo rem in integro esse-malle. Yale. Pridie
Idus Maias.


BRUNDISIUM ; JUNE 8 ; A. U. C. 707 ; B. C. 47 ; AET. CIC. 59.

De miaera condicione sua, qua quo modo bb ezpediat et salutem inyeniat nescire se
ait, de Q. fratre et Q. filio, de Terentia.


1. Non meo vitio fit, hoc quidem tempore — ante enim est
peocatum — , ut me ista epistola nihil oonsoletur. Nam et exigue
Boripta est et suspioiones magnas habet non esse ab illo, quas
animadvertisse te existimo. De obviam itione ita faciam, ut
suades. Neque enim uUa de adventu eius opinio est, neque, si
qui ex Asia veniunt, quidquam auditum esse diount de pace,
ouius ego ^pe in banc fraudem inoidi. Nihil video quod sperau-
dum putem, nunc praesertim, oum ea plaga in Asia sit acoepta, in
Illyrico, in Cassiano negotio, in ipsa Alexandrea, in urbe, in Italia.
Ego vero, etiam si rediturus ille est, qui adhuo helium gerere
dioitur, tamen ante reditum eius negotium oonfeotum iri puto.
2. Quod autem soribis quamdam laetitiam bonorum esse com-
motam, ut sit auditimi de litteris, tu quidem nihil praetermittis, in
quo putes aliquid solaoii esse, sed ego non adduoor quemquam

1. itta epA a letter sent to Cicero by Q. Cassius Longinus had been abandoned

Atticus, and purporting to have been by his army, and left to perish ; in Alex*

written by Caesar. andria, Caesar had received a check ; in

exigue] * grudgingly/ see on Att. xi. the city, there were dissensiona between

13, 2 (428). the Caesarean tribunes; and Italy wu

habet] * causes, gives rise to,' a mean- alienated from that cause by the miscon-

ing which habeo often has, as t(x^ ^ ^^^ ^^ Antony. Boot quotes for the

Greek. above details the writer de bello Alexati'

obviam itione'] These words (sometimes drino.

written as one word) perhaps confirm negotium confectum iri] Bc.'hyih.QBTny9\,

the conjecture of exitionem for EKI- of the Pompeians in Italy : cp. Att. xi.

TAONON in Att. x. 13 fin. (399). He 16, 1 (430).

elsewhere uses the word kiri¥r7\ffis to sig- 2. ut ait auditum de] < on the news of

nify an accueil or welcome given to a re- Caesar's conciliatory letter to me.'

turning friend or patron. non adducor] Addueor is here used as if

plaga in Asia] In Asia, Cn. Domitius, it were addueor in opinionem^ addueor ut

a lieutenant of Caesar's, had been unauc- credatn ; and still more anomalously, the

cessf ul against Phamaces ; in lUyricum, object clause quemquam bonum . . . putan

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