Marcus Tullius Cicero.

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bad effect.' Madvig^s me vis inserted
before mederi is bad. What could Cicero
now do with Caesar ?

ne rogari quidem] ' Caesar did not even
wait to be asked,* but granted at once a
complete pardon to Quintus when his son
came to him to ask for it.

istas impetraliones] < that these favours
granted to us by Caesar are valueless,'
that he can revoke them as easily as he

gave them. Impetratio is 'the gaining'
of one's request, and so ' a granted peti*
tion' or 'favour.'

2. Sulla . . . cum Messalla] These men
were invested by Caesar with the duty of
taking the legions to Sicily. * They are
running to Caesar, beaten back by the
legions who decline to stir a foot till
they receive their bounty.* Aec%per§ b
absolute in Att. v. 21, 6 (260), where see

in oppidum] No possible explanation
of these words can be given: the rendering
* in each town ' would require quodqve,
Lambinus cuts the knot by altering to in
oppidis : cp. Bell. Alex. 65.

laborem'^ • physical suffering.' The
meaning is, * which causes me physical
suffering in the midst of all my grief.*

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BRVNDISIUM ; SEPTBMBER I ; A. U. C. 707 ; B. C. 47 ; AET. CIC. 59.

M. Cicero tabellarios saos se exspectare scribit.


S. V. B. B. V. Nos totam diem tabellarios nostros exspecta-
mus : qui si venerint, fortasse erimus oertiores quid nobis faoien-
dnm sit faciemusque te statim oertiorem. Yaletudinem tuam cura
<liligenter. Vale. Kalendis Septembribus.



AET. CIC. 69.

M. Cicero consilium suum a bello discedendi demonstrat, Caesaris clementiam
laudat, quid C. Cassio agendum videatur interrogat.


1. Etsi uterque nostrum spe paois et odio civilis sanguinis
abesse. a belli pertinaoia voluit, tamen, quoniam eius consilii
princeps ego fuisse videor, plus fortasse tibi praestare ipse debeo
quam a te exspectare. Etsi, ut saepe soleo mecum reoordari,
sermo familiaris mens tecum et item mecum tuus adduxit utrum-

Not totam diem] So we have ventured 1 pertinaeitt] * obstinate prosecu-

to read, instead of eoiidie of the editors. tion.*

M has nosiodie; H and Pal. Sext. nostota plus , . . praestare] < I am, perhaps,

die. Cicero probably received word that more bound to give you satisfaction on

his letter-carriers might be expected on the point than to fexpect it from you.*

that day. Plus probably goes with debeo. It has,

tabellarios'] whom Cicero had sent either however, also been proposed to under-

to Caesar or to his friends. stand eonsilii. * I, perhaps, am bound to

Kalendis Septembribus] Caesar arrived give you advice raUier than to expect it

at Tarentum a few days later, and met from you.'

Cicero at Brundisium. Plutarch (Cic. £tsi] * however,' * be that as it may.'

39) relates that the meeting was most On Att. x. 8, 9 (392), Hofmaun notices

friendly^, and that Caesar walked a long a large number of cases where etsi has that

way with Cicero, and had a private dis- meaning. He says it belongs to epistolary

cussion with him. style.

I \

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qne nofltmm ad id oonffilinTn, ut nno proelio putaremiis si non
totam cansam, at oerte nostram iudioiam definiri oonyenire.
Neque quiflquam hano nostram sententiam yere umquam repie-
hendit praeter eos, qui arbitrantnr melias esse deleri omDino rem
publioam quam imminutam et debilitatam manere. Ego autem
ex interitu eios nullam spem scilicet mihi proponebam, ex reliqims
magnam. 2. Sed ea sunt oonsecuta, nt magis mimm sit aoeideie
ilia potoisse quam nos non vidisse ea futura nee, homines com
essemuB, divinare potoisse. Equidem fateor meam eoniecturam
hano f uissOy nt illo qoasi qnodam fatali proelio facto et Yiotores
oommuni saluti considi vellent et victi suae, ntmmqne antem
positum esse arbitrabar in oeleritate victoris. Quae si fuisset^
eamdem clementiam experta esset Africa quam oognovit Asia^
quam etiam Achaia, te, ut opinor, ipso legato ac deprecatore.
Amissis autem temporibus, quae plurimum valenty praesertim in

ad id eonsilium . . . eonvenire] * to this
conclusion, namely, the opinion that the
riglit course to take waa that our own
judgment at least, if not the whole cause,
should be determined by the result of a
single battle/ This recalls to one's mind
a celebrated passage in Clarendon about
Lord Falkknd fvii. § 231) :— * From his
entrance into this unnatural war, his
natural cheerfulness and vivacity grew
clouded, and a kind of sadness and dejec-
tion of spirit stole upon him which henad
never been used to. Yet being one of
those who believed that one battle would
end all differences, and that there would
be so great a victory on one side that the
other would be compelled to submit to
any conditions from the victor (which
supposition and conclusion generally sank
into the minds of most men, and pre-
vented the looking after manv advantages
that might have been laid hold of), he
resisted those indispositions, et in luetu
bellum inter remedia erat. But after the
kine's return from Brentford, and the
furious resolution of the two Houses not
to admit any treaty for peace, these in-
dispositions, which had before touched
him, grew into a perfect habit of uncheer-
fulness. And he who had been so exactly
f»iSY and affable to all men that bis face
ana countenance was always present and
vacant to his company, and held any
cloudiness and less pleasantness of the
visage a kind of rudeness or incivility,
became, on a sudden, less communicable,

and thence very sad, pale, and exceedingly
affected with the spleen.'

2. Equidem fateor] < For mj part I
confess that I thought this, that aft^ the
battle had been fought, which seemed like
one decreed by fate, the conquerors would
take measures for the safety of society^
and the conquered for their own lives.'
As frequently after antmtM, mme, etm^
silium, and such like words signifying
' opinion,' so here after eonieetura we nave
an expUmatory clause introduced by ut
JDrfiger ii. 249) : conieeturam meam fuisu
18 virtually =m« exspeetasse, Fatalie meana
what was roecially decreed by feite in her
ordering of human deatiniee, genemlly
with the additional idea that it was dis-
astrous : cp. Verg. Aen. vi. 616, eum/atmiie
equus saltu super ardua venit. Mr. Jeans
translates, *on which, one may say, hung
the issues of fate.'

ipso legato ac deprecatore] * you your-
self being the emissary sent to entieat
indulgence.' Cassius appears to have
met Caesar in Cilicia, at tlie mouth of
the Oydnus, and was pardoned by him'at
the intercession of Brutus (Plut. Brut. 6),
as is pointed out by Schmidt (p. 227).
The story told by Cicero (Phil. ii. 26), that
Casdus could have crushed Caesar heiB
in Cilicia but for an accident, rests on a
confusion of thin meeting of Cassius and
Caesar with that on the Hellespont
shortly after Pharsalia: cp. Mayor,
Introd. to Phil, ii., note 66.

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bellis oivilibus, interpositus annus alios induxit, ut yiotorlam
sperarent, alios, ut ipsum vinoi oontemnerent. Atque horum
malorum omnium oulpam fortuna sustinet. Quis enim aut
Alexandrini belli tantam moram huic bello adiunctum iri aut
nesoio quem istum Phamaoem Asiae terrorem illaturum putaret P
3. Nos tamen in oonsilio pari casu dissimili usi sumus. Tu enim
eam partem petisti, ut et eonsiliis interesses et, quod maxime
ouram levat, futura animo prospicere posses. Ego, qui festinavi,
ut Caesarem in Italia viderem — sio enim arbitrabamur — eumque
multis honestissimis viris oonservatis redeuntem, ad pacem our-
rentem, ut aiunt, inoitarem, ab illo longissime et absum et afui.
Yersor autem in gemitu Italiae et in urbis miserrimis querellis,
quibus aliquid opis f ortasse ego pro mea, tu pro tua, pro sua quis-
que parte ferre potuisset, si auotor adfuisset. 4. Qua re velim
pro tua perpetua erga me benevolentia scribas ad me quid videas,
quid sentias, quid exspeotandum, quid agendum nobis existimes.
Magni erunt mihi tuae litterae, atque utinam primis illis, quas
Luoeria miseras, paruissem! sine uUa enim molestia dignitatem
meam retinuissem.

venusia; OCTOBER 1 ; A. u. c. 707; b. c. 47 ; aet. cic. 59.

M. Cicero in Tusoulano res ad adyentum suum necessarias parari iabet.

In Tusculanum nos ventures putamus aut Nonis aut postridie.
Ibi ut sint omuia parata. Plures enim fortasse nobiscum erunt

iptum vinetj 'defeat itself.* For this (488) Cassium sibi Ugavit (sc. Caesar),

substantival inf. Mr. Watson compares currentem^ ut aiunt^ incitarem] op.

Alt. vii. 11, 2 (304), hoe iptum velle. (rxf^ovr' irpdptiv and note on Q. Ft. i.

neicio quem ietum Phamaeein] * Phar- 1 ,45 (30) ; also Otto, Spriehworter, p. 102.

naces or whatever they call him* (Jeans). H auetor adfuisset] * if the master hini-

From October, 70S (48), to July, 709 (47), self were here * : an auetor is one who can

Caesar was at Alexandria. He defeated authorize actions to be done.

Phamaces at Zela on August 2nd, and 4. primis iUis quas Lueeria miseras"]

returned to Italy in September. These letters were probably written fn>m

putaret'] ' could suppose.' In absolute the headquarters of Pompey at Lueeria

strictness this should be i^MtoMtf/, just as in before the departure of the latter for

English it should be 'could have sup- Greece, and advised Cicero not to leave

posed': cp. Phil. viii. 14, Num igitur Italy.
emn, si turn esses, temeraHum eivem

putares, ut sint] It is not very usual to leave out

3. eonsiliis interesses] cp. Fam. vi. 6, 10 fac or euruy yet sometimes the omission

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CCCCL. (FAM. XV. 21),

6t, ut arbitror, diutius ibi commorabimur. Labrum si in balineo
non est, ut sit : item cetera, quae sunt ad victum et ad valetudi-
nem neoessaria. Yale. Eal. Octobr. de Yenusino.


ROME ; TOWARDS THB END OF THE YEAR ; A. U. C. 707 ; B. C. 47 ;

AET. CIC. 69.

M. Cicero C. Trebonium rogat, ut sui absentifl desiderium epistolis crebris et longis
leniat : de Calvo oratore iam mortuo quid sentiat exponit.


1. Et epistolam tuam legilibenter et libmm libentissime, sed
tamen in ea voluptate huno aocepi dolorem, quod oum inoendisses
cupiditatem meam consuetudinis augendae nostrae — nam ad
amorem quidem nihil poterat acoedere — , turn disoedis a nobis
meque tanto desiderio adficis, ut unam mihi consolationem
relinquas, fore ut utriusque nostrum absentis desiderium crebris
et longis epistolis leniatur. Quod ego non modo de me tibi
spondere possum, sed de te etiam mihi. NuUam enim apud me
reliquisti dubitationem quantum me amares. 2. Nam ut ilia
omittam, quae civitate teste feoisti, cum mecum inimicitias corn-

is found in Early Latin and in the Comic
Drama. Diager (i. 314) quotes Cato R.
R. 2, reliqua quae sient ut compareant :
si quid deait in annum uti paretur : quae
iupertint ut veneant; Plaut. Poen. iv. 2.
90;Ter. Ad. ii. 4. 16.

Labrum'] In the Caldarium of the Old
Baths at Pompeii there is an apse at one
end, and in it a labrum (Aowttjp). This
was a large round basin raised about 3
feet from the floor ; and standing round
this, the bathers used to wash them selves.
It was different from the piscina into
which they descended. For a picture of
the labrum see Smith's Diet, of Antiq. i.
p. 277.

quae sunt ad victum neeessaria'] * which
are necessary for any place where one is
to live and enjoy health.' This is the
last letter written to Terentia. All Cicero's
letters to his wife at this time are very

business-like; this one is the most so,
being almost brusque in tone. Shortly
after this, Cicero, when in want of money,
divorced Terentia.

For Trebonius see Introduction. At
this time he was acting as pro- praetor in
Spain, whither he had been sent by Caesar
towards the end of 47.

1, ut , . . Uniatur"] * that the loss of
each other's society may be compensated
by frequent and long letters.'

2. inimicitias'] We gather from this
passage that in the year 694 (60) Trebo-
nius was quaestor, and vigorously supported
the consuls Afranius and Metellus Celer,
cp. Att. ii. 1,4 (27), in opposing the tribune
C. Herennius, who brought forward a law
on the subject of the transference of Clo-
dius to the plebeians : see Att. i. 18,
4 (26). Drumann (ii. 66) conjectures that

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CCCCL. [FAM. XV. SI), 273

municaviflti, cum me oontionibas tuis defendisti, oum quaestor in
mea atque in publioa oausa oonsulum partes susoepisti, oum
tribune pi. quaestor non paruisti, oui tuus praesertim collega
pareret, ut haeo reoentia, quae meminero semper, oblivisoar, quae
tua sollioitudo de me in amus, quae laetitia in reditu, quae oura,
qui dolor, oum ad te ourae et dolores mei perferrentur, Brundisium
, denique te ad me yenturum fuisse, nisi subito in Hispaniam
missus esses, — ut haeo igitur omittam, quae mihi tanti aestimanda
sunt, quanti vitam aestimo et salutem meam, liber iste, quem
milii misisti, quantam habet deolarationem amoris tui ! primum
quod tibi faoetum videtur, quidquid ego dixi, quod aliis f ortasse
non item : deinde quod ilia ; sive f aoeta sunt sive seous, fiunt
narrante te venustissima. Quin etiam ante, quam ad me veniatur,
lisus omnis paene oonsumitur. 3. Quod si in iis soribendis nihil
aliud nisi, quod neoesse fuit, de uno me tam diu cogitavisses,
ferrous essem, si te non amarem. Gum yero ea, quae scriptura
perseoutus es, sine summo amore cogitare non potueris, non
possum existimare plus quemquam a se ipso quam me a te amari.
Oui quidem ego amori utinam eeteris rebus possem ! amore oerte
respondebo : quo tamen ipsi tibi confide futurum satis. 4. Nunc
ad epistolam yenio, oui oopiose et suayiter scriptae nihil est quod
multa respondeam. Primum enim ego illas Calyo litteras misi,
non plus quam has, quas nimo legis, existimans exituras. Alitor
enim scribimus quod eos solos, quibus mittimus, alitor quod
multos lectures putamus. Deinde ingenium eius maioribus extuli

the colleague of Trebonius in the quaestor- annoyed at Cicero, and had expressed a

•hip was a son of Metellus Creticus, com- wish that he would go over to the enemy,

paring Att. iv. 7, 2(111). But, as Pompey was now dead, we cannot

JBruntUsium . . . fuisu] governed by suppose that he is referred to.

cbUvisear. sive aecui'] The msb give sie. But we

iffitur] resumptive as often : cp. on cannot find a parallel for this use of m« =

Att. i. 10, 1 (6). *80, 80.' Accordingly we have adopted

liber iste] Trebonius appears to have the correction of Corradus approved by

made a collection of Cicero's bons mot* Lambinus and Wesenberg.

{inro^4yfutra). For Cicero's witticisms Quin etiami] *why, even before you

see Macrob. Sat. ii. 3. come to me, the laugh is almost over.'

aliis] * others might not think so. ' The Trebonius had related, in such an amusing

M86 give a/ft, but we must read aliis with manner, the circumstances imder which

Cratander. Alii would naturally refer to each of Cicero's bons mots were made, that

a definite person, and who could that the reader had laughed as much as he

person be ? Cicero 16 probably Uiinking could beforo he came to the joke itself.

of the offence which his sharp sayings had 3. quae scriptura persecuius es] * which

caused when he was in the camp of Pom- you took the trouble to commit to

pey (Plut. Cic. 28 : Cic. Phil. ii. 39, and writing.'

Mayor's note). Pompey had been justly ^.maioribus] The uss give inelioribus


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laudibusy quam tu id vere potuisse fieri putas. Primum, quod ita
iudicabam : aoute movebatur, genius quoddam sequebatnry in quo
iudioio lapsus, quo valebat, tamen adsequebatur, quod probarat.
Multae erant et reconditae litterae : vis non erat. Ad earn igitur
tidhortabar. In exoitando autem et in aouendo plurimum valet,
si laudes eum, quern oohortere. Habes de Calvo iudioium et
consilium meum : consilium, quod hortandi causa laudavi, indicium,
quod de ingenio eius valde existimavi bene. 5. Beliquum est ui
tuam profectionem amore prosequar, reditum spe exspectem,
absentem memoria colam, onme desiderium litteris mittendis acci-
piendisque leniam. Tu velim tua in me studia et officia multum
tecum recordere : quae cum tibi Cceat, mihi nefas sit oblivisd,
non modo yirum bonum me existimabis, verum etiam te a me
amari plurimum iudicabis. Yale.

which is retained by Btr. Or. conjectures
amplioribtu. Em., followed by M, and
Wesenberg, reads maioHbua.

acute movsbatur] sc. ingenio, * he was
a man of keen mental activity.' This is
Dr. Beid*s translation: cp. his note on
Acad. i. 36.

genue quoddam aequehatur] * he followed
a certain style/ i.e. the so-called Attic.
For Calvus, see Teuffel, J 213, 5-7.

in quo , , , vie non erat\ < in which
he failed where he was especially strong,
namely in judgment, but for all that he
succeeded in acquiring the style which
commended itself to him. He was a man
of wide and deep reading, but wanted

/•• excitando . . . eohortere'] * In rous-

ing and stimulating a man the best way b
to praise him if you wish to encourage

Sabes . . . bene'\ 'Ton understand now
the judgment I expressed of Galyus and
my reasons for it ; my reasons were that I
praised him in order to encourage him ; my
judgment was that I held his natural gifts
in very high estimation.'

6. Eeliquum eef] * It only remains for
me to send mv love with you on your
departure, to hope for your return, to
remember you in your absence, and to
lessen our mutual regret by a frequent
interchange of letters.' For absentem
Lambinus proposed abtentiam, and Boot
adds te before abeentem (obs. crit. 26).
But no change is necessary.

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A. U, C. 708 ; B. C. 46 ; AET. CIC. 60.


Thovoh his relations with Terentia were rather strained, and finally issued in
diTorce, yet daring this year, Cioero appears to haye been fairly happy, at
least after the time of the defeat of the Pompeians at Thapsus. Some time
towards the end of the year, or beginning of the next, in order to extricate
himself horn money difficulties, he married his rich ward Publilia ; but the
marriage was not happy, and he soon diyorced her. During the whole of this
year he was on friendly terms with many of the principal Caesarians, and he
was able and willing to use a certain amount of influence in favour of exiled
Pompeians. To those whom he could not help he addressed letters of sympathy.
His sportive letters to Paetus are a sign of his recovery from the dark despair
of his sojourn at Brundisium. He also spoke once or twice in public. He
thanked Caesar in the Senate for granting the restoration of Marcellus, and
defended Q. Ligarius before him in a brilliant speech. He also began again to
write literary treatises, and composed during this year the Paradoxa, BrutWy
Orator^ a panegyric on Cato, and perhaps the PartiUones Oratoriae.


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ROME ; EARLY IN YEAR ; A. U. C. 708 ; B. C. 46 ; AET. CIC. 60.

M. Cicero M. Bruto, quern Oaeear in Africanum bellum prafectarus Galliae
Cisalpinae praefecerat, M. Yaironem quae8ton>m sorte datum commendat.


1. Cum ad te tuus quaestor, M. Varro, proficisoeretur, com-
mendatione egere eum non putabam. Satis enim commeudatuni
tibi eum arbitrabar ab ipso more maiorum, qui, ut te non fugit.
banc quaesturae ooniunctionem liberonim necessitudini proximam
Yoluit esse. Sed cum sibi ita persuasisset ipse, meas de se accurate
scriptas litteras maximum apud te pondus faabituras, a meque
contenderet, ut quam diligentissime scriberem, malui facere, quod
meus familiaris tanti sua interesse arbitraretur. 2. Ut igitur
debere me facere hoc intellegas, cum primum M. Terentius in
forum yenit, ad amicitiam se meam contulit. Deinde, ut se
corroborayit, duae causae accesserunt, quae meam in ilium bene-
Yolentiam augerent : una, quod yersabatur in hoc studio nostro,
quo etiam nunc maxime delectamur, et cum ingenio, ut nosti, nee
sine industria, deinde, quod mature se contulit in societates publi-

1. M. Varro\ Of course not the great
scholar ; for after having hdd command of
an army he was not likely to be a mere
quaestor, and besides he was at this time
living in retirement and study. The M.
Varro here referred to is sometimes called
M. Terentius Varro Gibba. In conjunction
with Cicero he defended Saufeius when
accused of vis in 52 (Asoon. in Mil. p. 65).
In 43 he was trib. plebis ; and when he
found that the great Varro was proscribed
he published a notice, says Dio Cassius
(xlvii. 11), to assure the people that he
was not the Marcus Varro referred to, and
for this he incurred much ridicule.

proJiciseeretur]AB the quaestor of Brutus
is only leaving Kome now, we may sup-
pose that this letter was written early in
the year. The other letters written to
Brutus during this year we place in im-
mediate connexion with this letter, though
it is uncertain in what months they were

quaesturae coniunctionem] cp. note on
Fam. xiii. 29, 3 (457) ; and { 4, below.

2. in forum ffenif] 'entered on public

ut se eorroboravif] 'when he took a
firm position in the world' : cp. Cael. 11,
eum is iam se eorroboravisset ae vir inter
vivos esset,

in hoc studio nostni] i. e. public ora-

se eontulit in societates'] 'he became
acquainted with the companies of the
publicans,' ordinis refers to the equites.
These companies were called soeietaie*
vectigalium in Cic. Sest. 32 and in the
Digest (17, 2, 5), and societates provin'
durum in Caesar, B. C. iii. 3, 2. The
members are caUed soeii publieorum veeti'
g<Uium in the Digest (3, 4, 1 pr.) : cp.
Marq., St. V., ii. 300, 2. The mss give
publieorum^ wrongly altered to pubUea^
norum. For publiea = * public taxes,' cp.
Q. Fr. i. 1, 33 (30) ; Hor. Epp. L 1, 77.

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comm, quod quidem noUem: maximis enim damnis adfeotim
est. Sed tamen oausa oommunis ordinis mihi oommendatissinii
fecit amioitiam nostram firmiorem. Deinde versatus in utrisque
subselliis optima et fide et f ama iam ante hano oommutationem rei
publioae petitioni sese dedithonoremque honestissimum existimavit
fruotum laboris sui. 3. His autem temporibus a me Brundisio
oum litteris et mandatis prof eotus ad Caesarem est : qua in re et
amorem eius in susoipiendo negotio perspezi et in oonfioiendo ao
renuntiando fidem. Yideor mihi, oum separatim de probitate eius
et moribus dioturus f uissem, si prius oausam our eum tanto opere
diligerem tibi exposuissem, in ipsa oausa exponenda satis etiam de
probitate dixisse. Sed tamen separatim promitto in meque redpio
fore eum tibi et voluptati et usui. Nam et modestum hominem
cognosces et pudentem et a cupiditate omni remotissimum, prae-
terea magni laboris summaeque industriae. 4. Neque ego haec
polliceri debeo, quae tibi ipsi, cum bene cognoris, iudicanda sunt :
sed tamen in omnibus novis coniunctionibus interest qualis primus
aditus sit et qua commendatione quasi amicitiae fores aperiantur.
Quod ego his litteris eflScere volui : etsi id ipsa per se necessitudo
quaesturae effecisse debet. Sed tamen nihilo infirmius illud hoc
addito. Oura igitur, si me tanti facis, quanti et Varro existimat
et ipse sentio, ut quam primum intellegam hano meam commen-
dationem tantum illi utilitatis attulisse, quantum et ipse sperarit
neo ego dubitarim.

in utrUqite subtelHW] as banister and

3. ad Caesarenf] We do not know the
purpoee for which Cicero sent Varro to
Caeenr ; but it may have been to get his
authorisation to remain in Italy, which
Antonius was not very ready to allow;
or it may have been to refute the calum-
nies which his brother Quintus and young
Quintus were pouring into Caesar's ears :
op. Att. xi. 10. I (425).

dietwrm fuisaem] ' I had intended to

pudentefnl So Corr. rightly for pru-'
dmtem of the mss, which could not well
come in between two negative character-
istics, as they may be called. * For you
will find him to be a quiet and modest man,
altogether incapable of any kind of self-
seelang ; moreover, extremely bard work-

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