Marcus Tullius Cicero.

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refers elsewhere to his intemperate habits, whence perhaps the gout
from which Balbus suffered.* When Caesar left for Spain Balbus
and Oppius were virtually given complete authority to act for
Caesar, according to their discretion ;t so that, however much
Cicero disliked Balbus, it was necessary to keep on good terma
with him. He appears to have always regarded Cicero with con-
siderable admiration, and he speaks enthusiastically of his literary
works.^ Cicero seems to have been anxious that Balbus should
see nothing of his but his best;§ he submitted to him his speeoh
for Ligarius, and also the letter which he wrote to Caesar about
Caesar's Anti-CatOj \\ — though, of course, it was criticism from the
political rather than from the literary point of view which. Cioero
desired in these latter cases.

Judging from his character and from that of Caesar, we should
say that there was no truth whatsoever in the stoiy that Balbus
induced Caesar not to rise to meet the Senate when the latter
came to inform him of extravagant honours which they bad paid
him.lT It was doubtless a story which was invented by the
jealousy of his enemies. On the death of Caesar the importance
of Balbus vanished. But with keen judgment he attached himself
to Octavius, and was probably one of the first to greet the young
man as Caesar.** In the summer of 710 (44) he frequently met
Cicero in Campania, and afterwards continued to write to him
from Cicero speaks severely of his insincerity — * Gk)od
heavens I how readily you can see that he is afraid of peace ; and
you know how guarded he is {quam tectua), yet for all that he^
began to tell me the designs of Antony. He complained of the

♦ Fam. ix. 17, 1 (480) ; yi. 19, 2.

t Fam. yi. 18, 1 (534) : cp. p. Iv., and Tacit. Ann. xii. 60, C, Oppius et OomeHus
Balbus Caesaris opibus potuere eondiciones pacts et arbitria belli tractare.

X Balbus urged Hirtius to write the continuation of Caesar's ' CommentarieB on tbe
Gallic War,' and Hirtius dedicated the eighth book to Balbus. The so-called * Diary
of Balbus,' mentioned by Sidonius Apollinaris (9, 14, qui Balbi ephemerid^m . . .
adaeguaverit)f is generally supposed to be this work of Hirtius : cp. Teuffel (ed>
Schwabe), { 196, 1.

§ Att. xiii. 21, 4.

II Att. xiii. 19, 2; 60, 1.

IT Plut. Caes. 60 ; Suet. Caes. 78.

♦♦ Att. xiv. 10, 3; 11, 2; 12,2.

ft Att. XV. 6, 4 ; 8, 1; 9, 1.

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hatred felt towards him, and his ivhole speech led me to believe
that he was devoted to Antonj ; in short, he is utterly insincere'
{quid quaeris ? nihil sinceri).*

Balbus appears to have been praetor under the triumvirs in
712 (42), to have administered the province of Gaul as propraetor
in 713 (41),t and to have been consul in 714 (40),J being, according
to Pliny, the first foreigner who rose to this dignity. The date of
his death is not known. By his will he left all his property to the
people, 26 denarii to each Boman citizen.

Caution was the main characteristic of Balbus. *You know
how guarded he is,' said Cicero, and to an impulsive and expan-
sive nature like Cicero's guardedness often appeared as insincerity.
He was a thorough man of business, and he always enjoyed the
full oonfidence of Caesar.§ His sound judgment and tact, which
were troubled with no ideals or ambitions beyond self-advance-
ment, enabled him to steer his course successfully in a troublous
time, and to obtain great power and influence. But worldly
success is not the main thing to strive for ; and we most endorse,
in reference to this Balbus, words used by Cicero in the same
oonnexion — ^ to a seeker after truth does it not appear that a man
whose aim is pleasure, and not right, is already dead in his

6. Gaius Opfius.

The shadow follows the man. The junior partner of Balbus,
the Spaniard, appears to have been the Boman knight, Gaius
Oppius. Indeed, sometimes we do not feel quite certain of his
existence at all, as he is so universally mentioned in connexion with
Balbus; but he really does appear to have had some sort of
individuality, for, as is noticed, he was probably made a sen-
ator at the same time as Balbus,1[ and we hear of a conversa-

• Att. xiv. 21, 2.

t Babelon, Mannaiea roHitUnet, i. 429. The club on this coin of Balbus doubtless
has reference to the Hercules of Gades : cp. Eckhel, y. 180.

X Dio zlviii. 32 ; Plin. H. N. vii. 136, quoted on pp. Ixiii., buy.

i Cp. Att. ziii. 62, 1.

I Att. zii. 2, 2 (469), Ferum n quoiris, homini rum reeta $$d volupiaria quaerenti

^ Pam. iL IS, 7 (394); Att. x. 11, 4 (396).

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tion which he alone had with Attioua in June, 707 (47) ;* but
elsewhere during these years he is always mentioned along with
Balbus. They would seem to have dissolved partnership after the
death of Caesar, for they appear to have separately espoused the
cause of Ootavius.f Oppius was something of a literary man;
and in the second century the credit of having written the
treatises on the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish wars was
divided between him and Hirtius.+ There is some reason to allow
this as regards the account of the Alexandrian War; but the
books on the African and Spanish Wars were written by men of
quite inferior culture, and actual participants in those campaigns.§
Oppius is said to have also written lives of Scipio Africanu8»
Marius, Cassius, Pompey,|| and Caesar. From the latter work
Suetonius and Plutarch appear to have derived some of the
materials for their biographies.1[ Plutarch, in his life of Caesar
[l,c,) tells a pretty story relative to this Oppius — * Once upon a
Journey Caesar was driven by a storm to seek shelter in a poor man's
cabin, where he found only one room, bcurely able to hold a single
person. Turning to his friends, he said that, while honours should
be given to the noble, necessaries should be given to the feeble,
and ordered Oppius to sleep in the room, while he and his com-
panions slept in the porcli of the door.*

6. Titus Ampids Balbus.

This headstrong man was tribune in 691 (63), but though sup-
ported by Pompey, did not gain the aedileship. He was praetor
in 695 (69), and was governor of Cilicia in 696 (68).** He was a
devoted satellite of Pompey's, and, along with Labienus, proposed
that at the games Pompey should wear a golden crown and the

♦ Att. xi. 17, 2 (432) ; 18, 2 (434).
t Att. xiy. 10, 3 ; xri. 16, 3.
X Suet Caes. 66.

{ Cp. Teuffel (ed. Schwabe), § 197, 3, 6.

B Cp. Flut. Pomp. 17 ; also 10, where Plutarch says that Oppius was a partial

% Cp. Suet. Caes. 63 ; Plut. Caes. 17.

♦♦ Schol. Bob. p. 267, Or. ; Fam. i. 3, 2 (97).

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triumphal dress.* When the Civil War broke out in 705 (49)
he was so very vigorous in raising a levy for Pompey, that he
was called the Clarion of the Civil Wcur (tuba belli emits). f Next
year we hear of his endeavouring to plunder the Temple of
Diana at Ephesus, but he was prevented by Caesar's approach ;
yet he was pardoned by Caesar in 708 (46), through the intercession
of Cimber, Pansa, and Cicero.]: Ampius appears to have written
biographies of eminent men, and Suetonius notices a very violent
statement of Caesar's, which, he says, was recorded by T. Ampius.§
At what time Cicero wrote the speech for T. Ampius noticed by
Quintilian (iii. 8, 50) is not clearly ascertained.

7. Caerellia.

Caerellia was a wealthy and cultivated lady, with whom
Cicero was on intimate terms of friendship. We read that she
copied out the De MnibuSy having apparently obtained that work,
against Cicero's vrishes, from the copyists of Atticus.H When
introducing her to Servilius, Cicero calls her ^my intimate friend'
[necessaria). She was very rich, and had property even in Asia.!!
Cicero appears to have borrowed some money from her, which
Attious thought was inconsistent with his dignity.**

• VeU. u. 40.

t Att. viii. 11 B, 2 (327) ; Fam. vL 12, 3 (490).

I Caea. B. C. iii. 105 ; Fam. vi. 12, 2 (490).

} Fam. Yi. 12, 6 (490) ; Suet. Caes. 77, nihil eue rempubUcam^ appeUationem modo
iine etrpore ac tpecie. Sullam neaeire Htteraa qui dictaturam deposuerit.

I Att. xiiL 21, 5 ; 22, 3.

Y Fam. xiii. 72(511).

** Att. xii. 51, 3. Tt was absurdly supposed in later ages that Cicero bad an
intrigue with her, though she was reputed to be seventy years of age : cp. Calenus jn
Die Cass. zItI. 18, 4, olH' iKtiyrir (Publiliam) fi4proi icar4<rx9s Xva K^ptWiay ^ir*
i^tlas ^XP^9 ^^ roaovrtp trptcrfivrSpcof cravrov oZ<ray ^fMix^iffas Bff<p vtwripaof r^v K6priv
fyilfiMS' wpbs ^r Koi aMir roia^ras iirtaroXiis ypd<f>€ts olas &v ypdijfeiw itt^p aKwxr6\7is
iBvpiykmaaos wphs ywauca ifiiofiiiKorrovTiif ir\iiiiCTiC6fi€vos, Cicero undoubtedly
earned on a correspondence with Caerellia (Quintil. vi. 3, 112), and it is argued that
in Ausonius IdyU. 13 we should add tneminerint eruditi in praeceptit omnibus
<Cieiromt> exstare severitatemy in epistolia ad Caerelliam subette petulantiam. But this
charge is sufficiently refuted by the fact that Fublilia, Cicero's second wife, whom he
dxToroed so unfeelingly, asked Caerellia to reconcile her with Cicero (Att. zy. 1, 4 :
cp. xiv. 19, 4).

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Quintus Ligarius was a Sabine by extraction.* We first hear
of him in 704 (50) as legatns of G. Considius Longus in Africa.
On the departure of Considius to stand for the consulship^ Liiga-
rius took temporary command of the province when the Civil War
broke out. Inasmuch as L. Aelius Tubero, the governor appointed
by the Senate, did not come, while a former propraetor of Africa,
P. Attius Varus, who had been defeated by Caescur near Auximum,
did come, and was warmly received by the provincials, Ligarius
received the latter, acknowledged him as governor, and finally,
when Tubero at last arrived, would not allow him to set foot in
the province.t Hence arose a bitter enmity between Tubero and

In 705 (49) Ligarius fought with Varus against C. Curio ; and
in 708 (46) against Caesar at Thapsus. Caesar pardoned him,
but refused to allow him to return to Italy. J A scholiast, cited
by Gronovius, in a graphic introduction to the Pro LigartOy says
that Caesar was especially hostile to his enemies in Africa, not
only because they brought him into serious peril, but principally
because he considered that they were fighting, not from devotion
to Pompey, but from sheer obstinacy .§ The two brothers of
Ligarius and his uncle T. Brocchus, as well as Cicero, were earnest
in their efforts to secure his restoration ; but in an audience which
Caesar granted them on November 26th, 708 (46), he refused
their petition, || deciding apparently that the case of Ligarius
should come to a formal trial. Accordingly, shortly afterwards,
Tubero prosecuted Ligarius under the law de vi for his conduct in
Af rica.1[ Cicero defended him in a brilliant speech, which is still
extant, and which succeeded in moving Caesar so effectually, that

♦ Cic. Lig. 32. t Caes. B. C. i. 31.

X BeU. Afr. 89; Cic. Fam. vi. 13, 8 (489).

§ Orell. p. 415, quia iam nonpro Fompeio pugnabant ted pertinada^ aooorcUiig to a
probable restoration.

(I Fam. vi. 14, 2 (498).

H The scholiast is fairly vivid here — Cum Caeaar veUet paene ignoaeere smreiit
Tubero cut iam indulgentiam dederat et dixit *In Africa fuiV: scit emm quia eot
maxime exseerabatur qui in Jlfriea/uerant,

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9. AULU8 CAECINA. Ixxiii

he allowed Ldgarios to return.* In the Caesarian circle Cicero's
speech for Logarius was regarded as a master-piece,t and in after
ages it was held in the highest esteem, as we may judge from the
many quotations which are made from it by Quintilian.

ligarius was thus allowed to return, but he 'bore Caesar
hard'; so, like a true Boman noble, he accepted the favour, but
repaid it by conspiracy against his generous opponent.f Plutarch
(Brut. 11) tells a story, which Shakespeare has introduced into
JuUm Caesar, that at the time of the conspiracy Ligarius was
lying ill in bed, and that Brutus, having come to visit him, said,
' Ligarius, at what a time you are sick'; straightway i^ising himself
on his elbow, and laying hold of the hand of Brutus, Ligarius
ADSwered, * But if you, Brutus, are designing anything worthy of
yourself, I am welL' It would appecur that Ligarius, during the
proscriptions, was betrayed by his slaves, and put to death.§

9. AuLiJS Caecina.

Aulus Caecina, the correspondent of Cicero, was son of the
Caecina, or Ceicna, of Yolaterrae in Etruria, whose case Cicero
oonduoted in 689 (65) in the speech Pro Caecina, which has come
down to us. This younger Caecina fought on the side of Pompey,
and after the African campaign was pardoned by Caesar ;|| but he
was not allowed to return to Italy, most probably because during

* Plutarch gives a most grapbic account of Cicero*8 speech {Cie, 39) — * There is a
ttory too that, when Quintns Ligarius was put on trial for being one of Caesar's
enemies, and Cicero was his adyooate, Caesar said to his friends, << Why shouldn't we
hear a speech of Cioero*s after a long time, since Ligarius has been long since adjudged
t villain and an enemy f " But when Cicero, at the commencement of bis speech,
began to move him in a remarkable manner, and the oration, as it went on, was yaried
in emotions and wondrous in charm (t^ci tc xoikIKos Koi x^P^"^^ Oavfiaffrhs), Caesar's
bet often changed colour, and he was evidently subject to every possible movement of
noDd. But when finally the orator touched on the Battle of Pharsalia, Caesar's
emotions got the better of him {^mroBri y€p6fAtvop)f his body trembled, and he let some
pipers faU from his hands. Accordingly he acquitted Ligarius of the charge perforce

t Att. ziii. 19, 2, Lifforianamf ut video, praeelare auetorxtat tua eommendavit,
Scnpmt emm mdm$ Balbm et Oppitu mirifice teprohare, oh eatnque eauaam ad Caetarem
4Mm M watimteulam mi$i9$e,

I Appian, B. C. iL 113.

f Appian, B. C. it. 22.

I BdL Alex. 89.

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the war he wrote a violent inveotive against Caesar. Caesar bore
this, says Suetonius, as any ordinary citizen would hear it ; but
this is questionable,* for Caesar was, as Mr. Jeans justly says,
at this time more afraid of repuhlioan writers than of republican
warriors. Caeoina wrote a most ahject palinode, which he called
his * Remonstrances ';t but Caesar apparently did not pay any heed
to the work, notwithstanding the anxious care with which it was
composed, J for he did not allow him to return to Italy. During
the latter part of 708 (46) Caecina was in Sicily, and Cicero wrote
for him a commendatory letter to Furf anius, the proconsul of that
province.§ Early in 709 (45) Caecina left for Asia, as he was not
allowed to remain any longer so near Rome as Sicily, and Cicero
gave him a letter of introduction to Servilius the governor. || No-
thing more is known ahout the life of Caecina. Besides his * Re-
monstrances,' Caecina was also author of a work on the Etruscan
system of augury {De Etrusca disciplina)^ which is mentioned by
Pliny ,ir from which Seneca quotes passages about the different
kinds of flashes of lightning. Cicero wrote to Caecina three extant
letters— Fam. vi. 5 (533), 6 (488), 8 (527), and Caecina wrote one
to (Cicero, vi. 7 (532).

10. Marcus Claudius Marcellus.

Marcus Marcellus was a candidate for curule aedileship in
698 (56), but apparently was not a very vigorous canvasser, for
Cicero, who was his next-door neighbour, complained that at the
time of his candidature his snoring was so loud that it was quite
audible.** But he was probably elected, and in the same year

^ Suet. Cues. 76, oriminoiitnmo libro laeeratam exittimationem tuam eivili anitmo

t Fam. yi. 6, 8 (488), Liher Querellarum, Wieland supposes that this was a ceil-
lection of poems, like Ovid*s Tristia ; Teuffel ( j 199, 6) says it was a prose work,,
possibly in the form of a letter to Caesar.

% Fam. yi. 7, 4 (532).

§ Fam. vi. 9 (528).

II Fam. xiii. 66 (506). We regret that we were in error in placing this letter in
708 (46). It was written early in 709 (45).

H Hist. Nat. i. 10, p. 10, ed. Jan: cp. Cic. Fam. yi. 6, 3 (488) ; Seneca, Qnaeet.
Nat. ii. 39 ff.

** Att. iy. 3, 5 (92), Marcellus eandidatus ita iterUbat ut ego viemm aueUrem,

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defended Milo against a charge of vh brought by Clodius.* In
700 (54) he, with five other advocates, defended Scaurus, and, in
702 (52), Milo.t We have abready given an account of his actions
from his consulship in 703 (51) to the outbreak of the Civil War
in 705 (49). J He left Italy with Pompey, not very willingly,
and was no very zealous prosecutor of the war : he and his cousin,
C. Marcellus, would have remained in Italy, says Cicero,§ had
they not feared the sword of Caesar. After the Battle of Phar-
salia he gave up the struggle, and retired to Mytilene, where he
studied philosophy under Cratippus the Peripatetic. || The scene
in the Senate at which the return of Marcellus was voted has been
already described (p. lii.). He does not appear to have been
very anxious to return, as may be seen both from his letter of
thanks to Cicero, and also by the fact that he did not make any
haste to leave Mjrtilene.lT On his journey home he was murdered
in the Piraeeus by one Magius (51o, in May, 709 (45).**

Marcellus appears to have been an average specimen of the
better class of Boman aristocrat, respectable, ponderous, and in a
measure capable, but intolerant, hard, and ungracious. Caelius
says he was slow and ineflScient,tt and (]licero gives as a reason
why Magius Gilo murdered Marcellus, that Cilo, being in debt,
made some request to Marcellus, and that the latter, true to his
character, replied with considerable determination.^^ Cicero saya
he was a most excellent orator, and he is one of the few then living
orators mentioned in the Brutus.

• Q. Ft. ii. 3, 1 (102). t Aflconiufl, pp. 20, 35, 40, 41.

I Vol. iii., IntrocL, f 3. § Att. ix. 1, 4 (363).

I Cic. Brut. 250, Vidi (so. Bmtus) tnim Mytilenis nuper virum atque^ ut dixi, vidi
plmts virum, Itaque cum eum antea tut (sc. Ciceronis) titnUem in dicendo viderimy turn
«#ro mme a doctistimo viro tibiquef ut intettexi^ amieistimo Cratippo inttructum omni eopia
wrnUo tidebam similiorem : Senec. ad Helv. 9, 4, Brutus in eo libro, quern de Virtute
wmpotuity ait te MareeUum vidiste Mytileni$ exuiantem et, quantum modo natura hominis
paUrttur, heatissime viventem nequ$ umquam cupidiorem honarum artium quam itto
t§mpor0 ; itaque adieit viwm tibi ie magit in exilium ire qui $ine illo reditttrua esset,
quam ilium in exilio reUnqm, fortunatiorem MareeUum eo tempore quo exilium tuum
Bruto adprobavit quam quo reipublieae eonsulatum. The rest of the chapter too is worth

n Fam. iv. 11, 2 (496) ; iv. 10, 1 (636). ♦♦ Fam. iv. 12, 2.

ft Fam. Till. 10, 3 (226), Notti MareeUum quam tardus et parum ijfflcax sit,

X% Att. ziiL 10, 3, credo eumpetiisae Marcello aliquid, et ilium, ut erat, eonstantius

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Nigidius Figulos was considered the most learned man in
Borne after Varro.* He was the chief exponent of what was
called the New Pythagoreanism, and was especially distinguished
in physical science and astronomy, which studies, however, with
him degenerated into magic and astrology. Apuleius says that
he was able to restore stolen goods by magict Lucan (i. 639 ff.)
introduces him as making a long astrological speech at the be-
ginning of the Civil War. Nigidius, however, was not a mere
ancient Paracelsus. He felt it to be the Roman's and the Pytha-
gorean's duty to take an active part in public life, and thus he
rendered good service to Cicero during the Catilinarian conspiracy,
and played a considerable part in subsequent politics, j: He stood
with Pompey in the Civil War,§ and died in exile 709 (45). In
708 (46) Cicero wrote him a very elaborate letter of consolation,
in which he holds out some faint hope of restoration, and promises
to use all his efforts to effect that end.||

We f smcy that the man was much greater than his studies.
His works on grammar, according to G-ellius, were too obscure and
minute to be useful, and his etymologies were especially absurd,
e.g. he derived f rater from fere alter, ^ However, Cicero speaks
warmly of him, and considers him to have been an acute and
hard-working investigator of the more recondite departments of

• GeU. iy. 9, 1.

t Suet Aug. 94 ; Apul. De Magia 42 : Mommsen, E. H. iv. 562-3 ; Zeller, Phil,
der Griech. y«. 79-81.

{ SuU. 42 ; Q. Fr. i. 2, 16 (63) ; Att. ii. 2, 3 (28).

§ Att. vii. 24 (323).

g Fam. iy. 13 (483).

IT Gell. xiii. 10, 4 : cp. xyii. 7, 6 ; xix. 14, 3, where examples are giyen of hia
discussions. The learned editor of his fragments, A. Sfrohoda, confesses that they are

** Tim. 1, Fuii enim vir iUe eum^ ceteris artibut quae quidem dignae libero eeamt
ornatus omnibui turn aeer invettigator et diligent earum rerum quae a natura involutae

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ServiuB Sulpioius Buf us, of the Lemonian tribe, was bom in

649 (105). His father was of equestrian rank, but his grand-

&ther was an ordinary citizen. He early devoted himself to the

study of oratory and law, and, along with Cicero, attended Molon

at Bhodes. On his return to Borne he directed his attention

e^)ecially to jurisprudence, choosing to be first in this secondary

pursuit rather than second in the primary department of oratory.*

But he did not shrink from political Ufe, and in 680 (74) was

quaestor of Ostia, and in 689 (65) praetor : during the tenure of

this office he presided over the court for peculation.f In 691 (63)

he stood for the consulship, but was defeated by licinius Murena,

probably owing his failure to the bribery of the latter. At any

rate, Sulpioius and Cato prosecuted Murena for bribery. Cicero

defended Murena in a lively speech, which is still extant, and

obtained his acquittal, virtually by the argument that the State

required men of action, like Murena, in the crisis of the Catili-

narian conspiracy, rather than students of the stamp of Sulpicius.|

We hardly hear again of Sulpioius till 702 (52), when, as Interrex,

he nominated Pompey as sole consul.§ In 703 (51) he at length

attained to the consulship, but showed no particulcur activity in

that magistracy ;|| Cicero complained that he prevented the raising

of reinforcements in Italy for the armies of Cicero and Bibulus.lT

During the early part of the Civil War Sulpioius was one of

those lukewarm Pompeians who left Rome with the other senators,

* Brut. 151, videtur mihi in seeunda arte primus esss maluisae guam in prima
KetmduM. Pomponius, in the Digest (1, 2, 2, 43), says that his deep studj of juris-
prndeiioe arose from a rebuke adminiBtered by Mucins Scaerola, for his ignorance at
faiUng to understand a legal opinion which Mudus had given him. Sulpicius was
quite the foremost lawyer of his own day : cp. Cic. Leg. i. 17, ab eo uno ntme iut civile
mmma auetoritate et $eientia auatinetur. He was also a tolerable speaker. Besides the
speech against Murena, his speech in defence of Aofidia against Messallawas especially
finnous : cp. Quintil. x. 1, 22, 116 ; also Ti. 1, 20.

t Cic Muren. 18, 42.

X See Mr. Heitland's admirable Introduction to his edition of the speech for

{ Pseud. -Asoonius, p. 37, Orell.

I lUmque Servitie^ guam euneiator, says Gaelius, Fam. viii. 10, 3 (226).

% Fam. iii. 8, 1 (191).

TOL. IT. g

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but very soon returned to the city; and he attended Caesar's senate
of April Ist.* However, the son of Sulpioius, like many young
men of the time, threw himself energetically into Caesar's cause,
and served with the army that blockaded Brundisium. For this
Sulpicius inctured much odium with the Pompeians, though the
blame was due in all probability rather to Postumia, the restless
and energetic wife of Sulpicius. t In May, 705 (49), Sulpicius
had an interview with Cicero, who appears to despise him some-
what for his timidity, his tears, and his desire * to die in his bed'; J
but the man of law was positive on one point, that if the exiles
were restored he would leave Italy, and go into exile.

Online LibraryMarcus Tullius CiceroThe correspondence of M. Tullius Cicero arranged according to its chronological order.. → online text (page 7 of 70)