Place your ruler as though you were going to draw a line
from the point where the flap begins to narrow to the other
side where the flap folds over. Hold the ruler in this
position while you measure % 6 of an inch from the point
where the flap narrows, (d) Mark this point, (e) In the
same way mark a point on the opposite side, (f) Draw
straight lines % 6 of an inch from the edge and extending
from the place where the flap turns over to the points
you have just made, (g) Connect the ends of these lines
with the point you made first.
3. Show another way in which you could decorate
such an envelope. In order to do this, draw the front
and back of the envelope as it would look after it was
ARRANGED FOR INDIVIDUAL WORK 85
4. This is the pattern of another envelope that opens
at the side instead of the end. This could be used for
kodak films or pictures. For the pattern a piece of paper
about 9 inches by 12 inches is necessary, (a) The first
oblong should be placed about 3 inches from the top of
the paper. The long way is from side to side, and it
measures 7% inches. The other way it measures 4%
inches. The short lines are heavy. Draw this oblong.
(b) Measure % of an inch from the lines that are
4% inches long, and draw light lines at these distances.
(c) What are the measurements of the rectangle you have
just made? (d) The rectangle below this is exactly the
same size, and three of its sides will have heavy lines.
Draw this rectangle.
5. (a) Find the middle of the top line of the first
oblong. What is % of 7 inches! % of % of an inch?
Find the sum of these two. This will be the distance
from the dotted line to the middle point, (b) How far
will it be from this point to the outside line of this oblong?
(c) Extend the dotted lines, with heavy lines, 1% inches.
(d) From the ends of these lines to the point made in (a),
draw a part of a circle so that both sides will be rounded
6. (a) Cut out the pattern, (b) Fold over the little
oblongs that are 3 inches wide, (c) Fold the bottom oblong
over these, (d) Fold the top down, (e) Put the paste on
the little oblong and stick sides together by folding
squarely and keeping edges straight, (f) Draw some
kind of decoration on the flap.
7. Make one of these large envelopes out of manila
paper, water-color paper or of heavy colored paper and
decorate it in the way you like best.
86 SUGGESTIVE LESSONS IN NUMBERING
HOW TO MAKE A PATTEEN FOB A TOY PIG.
1. (a) Draw a rectangle that is Sy 2 inches long and
3% inches wide, (b) Mark off half inches in both sides
and both ends, (c) Draw the lines that divide this rect-
angle into half -inch squares, (d) How many squares are
there in the first row? (e) How many rows? (f) How
many half -inch squares are there?
2. (a) Find the third row from the top and the first
square to the left. In the lower left-hand corner of this
square, make a point, (b) In the top row, fourth square
from the left, near the upper right-hand corner, make a
point, (e) In the upper row, sixth square from the right,
in the upper left-hand corner, make another point, (d)
Locate a point in the lower right-hand corner of the fourth
square from the right, top row.
3. (a) Find the square in the third row from the top
and third square from the right. Put a point in the
middle of the right-hand side of this square, (b) In the
fourth row, first square to the right, place a point in the
center of this square. Place another point about an eighth
of an inch above this and just a little to the right. Place
a third point in the upper left-hand corner of the square
below this one.
4. (a) In the second row from the bottom and the
second square from the right, place a point in the middle
of the left-hand side, (b) In the third square of this
same row, place a point that is below the middle of the
left-hand side, (c) Make a point in the middle of the left-
hand side of the sixth square from the right, second row
from the bottom, (d) In the ninth square of this same
ARRANGED FOR INDIVIDUAL WORK 87
row, make a point in the lower left-hand corner, (e)
Bottom row, fifth square from the left, make a point in
the middle of the right-hand side.
5. (a) Bottom row, second square from the left, make a
point in the upper right-hand corner, (b) Third row from
the bottom, first square to the left, make a point in the
lower right-hand corner, (c) Connect all these points you
have made with slightly curved lines. Practice putting in
these lines until the drawing looks like a pig.
6. (a) Place the eye below and to the right of the
center of the fourth square from the right and second
row from the top. (b) The place where the front leg is
attached is a point in the middle of the left side of the
sixth square from the right, third row from the bottom,
(c) In the same row, third square from the left, bottom
line near the lower right-hand corner, make the point for
the attachment of the other leg.
Making the patterns for the legs and ears of the toy pig :
1. (a) Make a rectangle 6 inches by 3 inches. (b) Divide
this rectangle in %-inch squares, (c) How many squares
are there in the first row? (d) How many rows? (e) How
many small squares are there in the rectangle? (The long
way is at the top.)
2. (a) Just above the top line, beginning at the left-
hand side, number the squares 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. (b) Along
the left side, beginning at the top, letter each row a, b, c,
d, e, f, etc. (c) The first square in the upper left-hand
corner is la. Find 3 a, 10 a, 24 a, 2 d, 8 c, 7 b, 13 1, 19 k.
3. (a) Find 1 e ; place a point near the lower, left-hand
corner, (b) Find 6e; place a point near the lower, right-
88 SUGGESTIVE LESSONS IN NUMBERING
hand corner, (c) Find 3b; place a point near the upper,
right-hand corner, (d) Connect these three points with
a curved line.
4. (a) Find 3 j ; place a point near the upper, right-
hand corner, (b) Find 4k; place a point near the lower,
left-hand corner, (c) In 31, place a point in the lower,
right-hand corner, (d) In 81, place a point in lower,
right corner; in upper, right corner, (e) In 5 j, place a
point near upper, left corner, (f) Connect the points
you have made. There is a sharp turn at 4k. The place
for attachment is upper right of 3 e.
5. Place points at these places: (a) Upper, right cor-
ner 12 g; (b) near lower, left corner, lie; (c) near
upper, right, 14 a; (d) upper, right, 17 d; (e) upper, left,
17 i; (f) lower, right corner, 18 j ; (g) upper, left corner,
191; (h) lower, left corner, 191; (1) lower, right corner,
151; (m) center, 15 i. (n) Connect points you have made,
(o) The place for attachment is just above center 14 d.
6. Place points at : (a) Upper, right corner, 24 a ; (d)
upper, left corner, 24 g; (c) upper, center, 23 h; (d)
upper, left corner, 22 f; (e) upper, right corner, 22 c;
(f ) upper, right corner, 23 a. (g) Connect points you
have made, (h) The point for attachment is center 23 f.
7. When you are satisfied with your outlines, cut to
shape with sharp scissors. You will need one body, two
front legs, two hind legs and two ears.
8. These pigs may be made from heavy pasteboard
or wood. Lay your pattern on either material and trace
carefully around it. If the pig is made from pasteboard
or cardboard, the parts can be fastened together with pins ;
if wood is used, round head screws are better to fasten
ears and legs to the body. These pigs should be colored
or painted to suit your own ideas. The tail is put on
ARRANGED FOR INDIVIDUAL WORK 89
with color or paint. Use washers between all movable
parts, as they will operate more easily.
9. Mount the toy pig on a cart, (a) Use squared
paper (as you did in the other patterns) to lay out the
wheels. Be careful they are the same distance from side
to side and top to bottom. Why? (b) What else must
be true of them? (c) How can you make them perfectly
round? Always measure from the center to the outer edge
to get location of points for outside of wheel. Make your
pattern exactly true. (If you have a pair of compasses
or dividers, the circles can be easily made.)
How to get the right size in sketching a person: The
human figure is about eight times its own head length
(not counting the hair). Distance between finger tips,
with arms outstretched, is equal to the height. (Measure
one of your friends to see if this is true. Have some
one measure you.) Make a plate to show human pro-
1. (a) Near the middle of the paper make eight dotted
lines about three inches in length that are just one inch
apart, (b) One inch below the last dotted line make a
heavy line that is the same length as the others, (c)
Beginning with the bottom, number the spaces 1, 2, 3,
2. (a) Beginning at the middle of the dotted line
between the fourth and fifth spaces, draw a heavy line
that crosses the fifth, sixth and seventh spaces, (b) In
the eighth space draw a flattened-out circle to represent
the head, (c) Divide this head into four equal divisions
(use short dotted lines), (d) Find one-third of the width
90 SUGGESTIVE LESSONS IN NUMBERING
of the seventh space, two-thirds. Put a little mark in
the % down in space 7 to show the neck, (d) Mark the
second third with a large point. From this point draw
lines both to the right and to the left, each % inch in
length. Put small circles at the outer ends, and use heavy
points to join the lines and the circles. These form the
3. (a) Make small circles on the dotted line at the
bottom of the sixth space that are % inch from the main
body line that you drew first. These circles are the elbows
and come just at the waist line, (b) Connect these circles
with those at the end of the shoulder line. (Always use
the large points for this purpose.)
4. (a) The pelvis line is just % way up and down.
Find the dotted line upon which it is drawn, (b) It is
1% times the length of the head. What is its length?
How -long is it on either side of the body line? Use
circles to end these lines, (c) The circles for the wrists
are a little below the pelvis line (% inch) and are 1%
inches apart. How far would each be from the center of
the figure? Join wrists and elbow circles.
5. (a) The knees are just half way between the pelvis
and the ground. Make these circles % inch apart. Join
these circles with those at the end of the pelvis line,
(b) Measure up % of bottom space for the ankle circles.
They are a quarter of an inch apart, (c) Draw lines from
these circles that come together on the ground line, (d)
Draw other lines from these circles that meet the ground
line % inch from the point made in (c). The finger tips
end at % of the distance across space 4. Make a point
at this place which is directly under the wrist circle.
Draw the line (d). (Complete the hand by making other
two sides of a triangle short sides toward body.
ARRANGED FOR INDIVIDUAL WORK 91
6. Use this description to make pattern for a paper
doll, (a) Sketch in the neck and shoulders, (b) Show
how wide you will make the trunk; the arms; the legs.
(c) Cut out paper doll.
In sketching people, it is well to know this table:
18-year-old (adult) 8 head lengths
14-year-old 7% head lengths
10-year-old 6% head lengths
6-year-old 5% head lengths
2-year-old 5 head lengths
1. (a) Measure the length of the head of an adult.
His height is how many times this length? (b) Find his
height. Measure his height to see if your answer is about
right, (c) Measure the length of the head of a 10-year-old
boy. His height is how many times this length? Find his
height. Measure his height to show how nearly correct
your answer is.
2. (a) Measure the length of the head of a 14-year-old
girl. Her height is how many times this length? (b) Find
her height. Find her height by measuring, (c) Measure
the length of the head of a six-year-old girl. What shall
you multiply by to find her height? (d) What is 5%
times the length of her head? Measure this girl to see
how tall she really is.
3. (a) If an adult measured 6 feet in height, what part
of a foot would his head length be? (b) This would
equal how many inches? (c) If you were drawing this
person to the scale of 1 in. = 1 ft., how long would the
drawing be? (d) How long would the head in the draw-
92 SUGGESTIVE LESSONS IN NUMBERING
4. If a two-year-old child measures 2% feet, what
should be the length of his head? (b) 2% feet equal
how many half feet? (b) The height of a two-year-old
child is how many times its head length? (c) What is
% of 5 half feet? One-half foot equals how many inches?
(d) The length of a two-year-old child's head is.. inches.
(e) If you were drawing this child to the scale of
1 in. = 1 ft., how long should your drawing be? (f)
What. would be the length of the head in this drawing?
How to make a picture of all five of these ages on the
5. (a) Take a sheet of paper 8" by 10". Measure up
from the bottom % inch on each side of the paper. Draw
a heavy line across the paper at this place, but stop
within % inch of each side, (b) Measure off a distance
of iy inches from the left-hand side of the paper. Place
your ruler this distance from the edge and, beginning
at the heavy line, draw a light line that is 8 inches long,
(c) Mark this last line off into inch length, (d) Follow
the instructions given in last lesson, and use this line to
construct the figure of a full-grown person. How large
is the head? Across which spaces do you draw the trunk
line? Where is the neck located? The shoulder line?
(e) How long is the shoulder line? (f) How far apart
are the elbows in your drawing?
1. (a) Measure off a distance of 1^4 inches from the
right-hand side of the paper. Place your ruler this distance
from the edge and, beginning at the heavy line near the
paper, draw a light line 3% inches long, (b) 3% inches
equal how many eighth inches? (c) What is % of this
ARRANGED FOR INDIVIDUAL WORK 93
number? (d) In making five equal spaces on a line
inches long, each space is ________________ inch wide, (e) Divide
this line 3% inches into five spaces, each % inch wide.
2. On this line make the figure of a two-year-old child
by following the directions given in Lesson XXXVIII.
Make the shoulder lines % inch long on each side of the
trunk line, and the pelvis line is *4 inch on each side
of the trunk line.
3. (a) Place your ruler so that the edge will come at
the very top (in the middle) of the head of the adult
and also at the very top (in the middle) of the head of
the two-year-old child, (b) Now hold it steady while you
draw a broken line (light) from one of these points to
the other, (c) Now place your ruler so that it will come
at the bottom of the head of the adult and at the bottom
of the head of the two-year-old child. Sketch lightly
another broken line at this place, (d) Place your ruler
so that it comes at the point where the shoulder line
crosses the trunk line of the adult and also of the child.
Draw a broken line in between these points, (e) Connect
the circles that represent the left-hand shoulders with a
broken line, (f) Those that represent the left elbows.
(g) The left wrists, (h) The left knees, (i) The ankles.
4. (a) Measure the distance from the point between
the feet of the adult to the point between the feet of the
child, (b) What is one-half of this number? (c) Show
on the heavy line at the bottom of the paper where this
point would be. (d) Place your ruler so that it makes a
square corner at this point, draw a broken line from this
point to the broken line drawn from the tops of the heads.
(e) Draw a head for another figure on this line. (It will
come between the line drawn at the top of the head and
the one at the bottom of the head.) (f) Draw a broken
94 SUGGESTIVE LESSONS IN NUMBERING
line from the right shoulder of the adult to the right
shoulder of the child. This locates the right shoulder of
this figure. The line already drawn from the left shoulder
of the one to the left shoulder of the other, locates the
left shoulder of this figure, (g) Do you see how to locate
the right elbow? The left elbow? The right hip? The
left hip? Complete the figure. It will represent a 10-year-
5. (a) Find the middle of the space on the heavy line
at the bottom between the adult and the 10-year-old, (b)
Draw a broken line from this point to the top head-line,
(c) On this line draw the figure of a 14-year-old.
6. (a) Find the middle of the space (on the heavy line
at the bottom) between the 10-year-old and the 2-year-old.
(b) Draw a line from this point to the top head-line.
(c) On this line draw the figure of a 6-year-old, (d)
Under the heavy line at the bottom name each one "2 yrs.,"
"6 yrs.," "10 yrs.," 14 yrs.," "18 yrs."
7. (a) On another sheet of paper draw any one of these
figures dressed in a clown suit, (b) Color to suit your-
8. (a) Select one of these to make a pattern for a
Jumping Jack, (b) Cut out a body, (c) Cut arms and
legs, (d) Fasten them to the body with pins.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY