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(From an Original Painting in the Palace of the Vice-
roys at Lima, Peru)

Makers of South America







Copyright, 191 6, by



Preface v

I Francisco Pizarro i

II Jose de Anchieta 21

III Jose de San Martin 39

IV Bolivar 59

V James Thomson 81

VI Allen Gardiner loi

VII Juan Manuel Rosas 123

VIII Domingo F. Sarmiento 141

IX Dom Pedro II 163

X David Trumbull 183

XI Francisco Penzotti 203

XII W. Barbrooke Grubb 223

Bibliography 243



Francisco Pizarro Frontispiece

Jose de Anchieta 23

Jose de San Martin, Equestrian Statue in Santiago, Chile.. 41

Simon Bolivar 61

The Cathedral, Lima, Peru 83

Allen F. Gardiner 103

Juan Manuel Rosas 125

Domingo F. Sarmiento 143

Dom Pedro II 165

David Trumbull 185

Francisco Penzotti, Imprisoned in Callao, Peru 205

W. Barbrooke Grubb 225

Map End


Some day we are going to know our friends in the
other America a great deal better than we do now.
Big ships are plying back and forth through the new
canal, and every year it grows a little easier to travel
in South America. Nowadays a trip to Callao is likely
to be advertised by enterprising steamship companies
along with tours to Bermuda or over the Great Lakes.

Here are twelve men who have done big things for
those countries beyond Panama — the men who ought
to head our list of South American acquaintances.
Whether a patriot like San Martin, or a rascal like
Pizarro; loved by his countrymen like Bolivar, or
hated like Rosas; a brilliant success like Mr. Grubb,
or a failure like Allen Gardiner — all had their share
in the making of the continent, as Washington and
Jackson and Lincoln helped in the making of our

Lord James Bryce, the Englishman who has written
the best history of the United States, went down to
South America not long ago, prowled around for a
few months, and then wrote the finest volume of
general information about the whole country that
we have ever had. In South America: Observations
and Impressions, he has selected just the things about
each republic, past and present, that every one wants



to know — history, romance, people and places, anec-
dotes, adventures and legends. William Prescott's
Conquest of Peru, the story of the glorious Inca
dynasty and old Pizarro's hairbreadth escapes, we have
most of us read long before this in the days when we
pored over Ivanhoe and The Last of the Mohicans.
For the story of the picturesque old mission towns of
Argentine and Paraguay, the Arcadia where the Jesuit
fathers once collected the Guarani Indians, there is
W. H. Koebel's In Jesuit Land. The best book on the
wars for independence will not be so easy to find in
your library, but it is worth hunting for. It is called
The Emancipation of South America, and Bartolome
Mitre, one of the greatest historians of his country,
wrote it. The translator has left out some cumber-
some details, but if it still seems overdetailed for gen-
eral reading, it is easy to skip without missing the
main points and the thrilling accounts of men and
battles. You will find in it many anecdotes of San
Martin and Bolivar, the battles they fought, the men
who helped them, and the story of their mysterious
interview. In those days it seems to have been the
fashion for every sea captain and army officer to
keep a journal and find some one to publish it for
him. Captain Basil Hall's Journal of Travels in
Chile and Peru is the best of dozens you might read.
He was cruising along the western coast just at the
time that San Martin went to Lima, and he tells story
after story of what happened during the campaign, of
meeting the great general, of picnics and balls and


merrymaking, and the customs of the people. An
Unknown People in an Unknozvn Land, written by
Mr. Grubb, is packed full of his adventures in the
Chaco, a region where few white men have ever dared
to go, and tells how he made friends of the Indians
who used to depend on the skulls of intruders for their
supply of drinking cups. For a general history of
the continent, from the time of the old navigators
who discovered the coast of America when they were
looking for India and the Spice Islands, down to the
present, read South American Republics, by Thomas
Dawson. The account of each country is given sepa-

Thanks are due to the American Bible Society and
to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions for the
use of annual reports and correspondence; to the
librarian of Fordham University for permission to
read a rare book on the life of Padre Anchieta; and
to Mr. E. E. Olcott for information which has not
been published before, given me in an entertaining
interview at his office down on the New York water-

M. D.

Lower Warner, New Hampshire

August I, 1916



On a large farm in Truxillo, a town of old Spain,
about the time that Columbus discovered America,
young Francisco Pizarro held the useful but unro-
mantic position of swineherd. His parents cared
nothing for him, he hardly knew what a piece of
money looked like, no one ever thought of teaching
him to read or write; but his heart was full of pluck,
and his head of vague plans for great adventures.
Those were exciting years in Spain, for wonderful
stories of her new possessions poured across the
Atlantic, and certainly lost nothing in glamour and
romance as they were repeated. Sailing off to an
unknown land on an uncharted sea held no terrors for
Pizarro, and the rumors of gold-mines sounded pleas-
antly in his ears. Fired with ambition to begin life
afresh, in 1509 he set out from Seville for the New
World where all men stood an equal chance of win-
ning fame and treasure. His baggage consisted of a
sword and a cloak. His two sole assets were pure
grit, and a dogged perseverance that knocked difficul-
ties out of the way like ninepins.

As yet only a small fragment of America had been
explored : the West Indies where Columbus landed
on his first voyage; the Atlantic coast region of



what is now Central America; and the neighboring
South American shore to the east of the Isthmus of
Panama, or Darien as it was called then. By the end
of ten years Pizarro was neither rich nor famous, but
he had made a name and place for himself in the new
colony, and was engaged in raising cattle with a busi-
ness partner named Almagro. He owned his own
house on the outskirts of the city of Panama, his farm
and his Indian servants, and was held "as one of the
principal people in the land . . . having distinguished
himself in the conquest and settling, and in the ser-
vices of his Majesty." During these years Pizarro had
many times experienced the emergencies and hard-
ships of the explorer's life, and he had seen before
his eyes the rainbow vision of gold. A hard worker,
afraid of nothing under the sun, always dependable,
he became the right-hand man of Balboa, who was a
leading spirit in many excursions over the isthmus.

Balboa, unlike most of these Spanish leaders, was
diplomatic in his relations with the Indians, and soon
made friends with the caciques, or chiefs, of neigh-
boring tribes. It was in 151 1, when they were paying
a visit in the home of a powerful cacique named
Comogre, that Pizarro and Balboa first heard the
dazzling tale of the wealth of Peru. As a polite little
attention their host presented them with many golden
trinkets. At this windfall the guests completely lost
their heads and good manners and began such a "brab-
bling" about the dividing of the gold, that the digni-
fied Indians listened in astonishment and disgust.


Finally, as the chief's son stood watching the beautiful
ornaments being weighed and haggled over as if each
Spaniard's Hfe depended on grabbing the most, he lost
his temper and struck the scales with his fist. As the
gold scattered about the room he cried the fateful
words which led to the conquest of Peru :

"What is this, Christians; is it for such a little
thing that you quarrel? If this is what you prize so
much that you are willing to leave your distant homes
and to risk life itself, I can tell you of a land where
they eat and drink out of golden vessels, and gold is
as cheap as iron is with you." The Indian prince
pointed toward the west, and told about a sea of
which the white men had never heard. It lay beyond
the mountains of the isthmus, and whoever would
find the land of gold must sail south for a distance of
six suns. "But," he added, "it is necessary for this
that you should be more in number than you are now,
for you would have to fight your way with great

Two years later Balboa proved the truth of the
Indian's words when he crossed the isthmus and dis-
covered the Pacific Ocean. Pizarro, his chief lieu-
tenant, was the first man to scramble after him to the
top of a high peak and look down upon the southern
sea. When this news reached the court of Spain the
king appointed a governor named Pedrarias to go to
the isthmus and superintend the sending out of expe-
ditions to the south. Hundreds of adventurers clam-
ored to sail with him, for they had heard that in the


New World "the sands sparkled with gems, and golden
pebbles as large as birds' eggs were dragged in nets
out of the rivers."

The 1,500 men who set out for Panama with such
high hopes found disease and fever instead of gems,
and hunger instead of gold. In the first month 700
died. The cavaliers in their brocaded court costumes
could be seen in the streets choking down grass to
keep themselves alive, or trying to exchange a gor-
geous embroidered cloak for a pound of Indian meal.
As time went on a few adventurers who had sailed a
little way down the coast brought back gloomy reports,
and most af the colonists had had enough of expedi-
tions which usually turned out to be all danger and no
reward. Pizarro saw his opportunity. He was over
fifty years old then, but he had lost none of his adven-
turous spirit, and if there was any gold in Peru he
determined to find it.

In 1524 he and his partner sold their farm, and
with a third associate formed a company to fit out an
expedition. Each promised to contribute his entire
fortune, and since Pizarro had the least money he
agreed to do the most dangerous part of the work,
the taking command of the exploring party. It was
almost impossible to find volunteers, and the crew had
to be made up largely of newcomers who had no idea
what lay in store for them, and "black sheep" who
felt that they could be no worse off than they already

By the end of the year one little ship was tossing its


way through heavy tempests along the shores of an
unknown land, and one hundred miserable men were
complaining bitterly because Pizarro had brought
them on a wild-goose chase. They had found neither
food nor inhabitants, only tangled, dripping forests
and vast swamps. Sheets of rain closed in about them
day and night; they could see nothing but the black,
angry ocean and gray sky; none knew where they
were going or what worse horrors lay in store for
them. The ship had to be sent back for supplies and
while it was gone twenty-seven of the men who
remained behind with Pizarro died of exposure and
starvation. When they finally discovered a few soli-
tary hamlets, the Indians were suspicious and un-
friendly and attacked the little party. Only Pizarro's
fierce bravery, so spectacular that it awed the Indians,
saved the expedition from ending then and there. No
explorers ever chose a worse time of year or wore a
more inappropriate costume; there in the dreadful
humidity of the rainy season, right in the region of
the equator, these poor soldiers, every time they landed
to search for food or villages, had to drag along as
best they could under the weight of full suits of

It was all a dismal failure, but Pizarro had not
the slightest intention of going back empty-handed.
Instead he went back part of the way and waited until
another expedition could be organized by his partners.
Then he started out all over again. For 500 miles he
sailed along the coast of what is now Colombia, and


the farther his ship went the more mythical seemed the
great empire he was seeking. Again and again the
ship would have to be sent back for supplies or repairs,
while Pizarro and some of his men stayed behind in
the midst of every danger of disease, starvation and
Indians. Through all these periods of desolate wait-
ing Pizarro never allowed himself to show a moment's
discouragement before his soldiers. No one worked
harder than he in foraging for food, and in caring
for those who were too weak to look out for them-
selves. *'In labors and dangers he was ever the first."
Whenever he had a chance he would remind the men
of the great rewards that lay before them, the gold
they were going to find, and the triumph of bringing
it home to show the scoffers in Panama.

When the ship returned they would sail a little
farther. One time when Pizarro landed, hoping to
have a chat with the Indians, an ominous troop of
warriors gathered on the beach. The only thing that
saved the Spaniards, too few in number to protect
themselves, was a cavalier who fell off his horse. The
Indians had never seen a horse before, and supposed
that horse and rider were all one great monster.
When they saw it divide into two pieces they fell back
in alarm and the Spaniards had time to hurry on
board their ship.

The greatest difficulty always came when Almagro
would go back for supplies. On one occasion the
soldiers, angry at the thought of another long, miser-
able wait, wrote letters to their friends protesting


against "the cold-blooded manner in which they were
to be sacrificed to the obstinate cupidity of their
leaders." These letters Pizarro ordered to be de-
stroyed, but one ingenious soul wrote a gloomy account
of all their sufferings and hid it in a ball of wool which
he sent to the governor's wife as a sample of a
product of the country. He added a postscript m
the form of a rhyme which caused great excitement
in Panama :

"Look out, Senor Governor,

For the drover while he's near;

Since he goes home to get the sheep

For the butcher who stays here."

This not only prevented any new volunteers from
joining the expedition, but the governor was so enraged
at the loss of life and at Pizarro's stubbornness that he
sent off two ships with orders for every Spaniard to
return. When the ships came to take them back to
home and comfort, Pizarro and his men were half
dead with hunger and exposure, and so haggard and
unkempt that they were hardly recognizable.

Pizarro had sunk his whole fortune in this enter-
prise. His good name depended on it. He was not
a young man with the world before him. Life would
hold nothing more if this great hazard failed. It was
an investment and he intended to collect the dividends.
With the ships riding at anchor behind him, he stood
on the beach and faced his little company. Draw-
ing his sword he traced a line in the sand from east
to west. "Friends and comrades," he said, pointing


with his sword as he spoke, "on that side are toil,
hunger, fatigue, the drenching storm, desertion and
death ; on this side ease and pleasure. There lies Peru
with its riches ; here, Panama and its poverty. Choose,
each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian. For
my part I go to the south." And he stepped across the
line. Thirteen others followed him and together they
stood and watched the ships, bearing their compan-
ions, vanish on the horizon. They had no food, no
shelter,. only the clothes they wore, no ship to take them
farther, and they knew nothing of the empire they
were seeking. Building a crude raft, they conveyed
themselves to an island not far off where they were
able to shoot game with their crossbows, and there for
seven months they waited for help to come.

Meanwhile the two partners in Panama argued with
the stubborn old governor until they won his consent to
fit out a relief ship on condition that within six months
Pizarro return and report what he had been able to
accomplish. It was on this little ship that Pizarro
reached Peru and the Empire of the Incas.

Just three years after he had sailed from Panama,
Pizarro anchored off Tumbez, on the Gulf of Guay-
aquil, about where Ecuador joins Peru to-day, and sent
friendly messages and presents to the Indians. The
messenger returned with such marvelous stories of
wealth that none believed him until they had seen for
themselves. There were houses of stone, vessels of
gold and silver, a temple lined with plates of gold, and
gardens adorned with animals carved from gold. The


Spaniards went wild with joy; the last grumbling
skeptic had to admit that they had found their El
Dorado. The Indians were generous and hospitable,
and when the six months were nearly over Pizarro had
been presented with enough gold ornaments and llamas
to convince any one of the glorious success of his expe-
dition, and he returned to Panama in triumph. But
a new governor now held sway on the isthmus, and he
refused to be impressed with Pizarro's report. "I
have no desire to build up other states at the expense
of my own," he told them ; "nor throw away more lives
than have already been sacrificed by the cheap display
of gold and silver toys and a few Indian sheep." The
three partners had no more money. Yet there lay the
magic empire waiting to be plundered, the greatest
prize a nation ever dreamed of appropriating. Pizarro
made up his mind to go to Spain and tell his wonderful
story to the king, Charles V, carrying with him speci-
mens of the treasures he had found. Charles,
impressed with the sincerity and reliability of the rough
old soldier, appointed him governor of Peru with the
title of marquis, and put into his capable hands the
double duty of converting the Indians and stealing
their empire.

This race of Indians, whose country stretched for
2,000 miles along the western coast, were far more
intelligent and civilized than any other natives of the
western hemisphere with the exception of the Aztecs
of Mexico. Their government was orderly and pros-
perous, a veritable Utopia founded upon implicit obe-


dience to their king, called the Inca, and devoted wor-
ship of their deity, the sun-god. Land and work were
allotted to the head of each family, and rigid laws pro-
tected the lives and rights of the people. Not a foot
of land was wasted. By a remarkable system of irri-
gation dry ground was prepared for cultivation; the
Indians had spent years of labor in making land by
carrying earth in baskets and covering up the bare
rocks. Their fine roads and fortresses, and the plen-
tiful provisions of grain which they thriftily stored
away in their great granaries each year were used to
good purpose by the Spaniards and in no small degree
helped them in the conquest.

Within two years the conquerors, or conquistadores,
though at no time numbering more than 300, had sub-
dued these hordes of prosperous, contented Indians,
and had replaced the Inca dynasty with the first
Spanish viceroyalty. The real stimulus behind all
their bravery and sacrifice was wealth and fame ; relig-
ion was their ostensible reason for the conquest, and
in the name of the Church they practised all the cruel-
ties and treacheries necessary to crush the empire.

When Pizarro arrived in Peru an Inca had just died
and bequeathed his kingdom to two sons who were
now fighting each other. In the midst of the war
Atahualpa, Inca of the northern half, heard that a
party of strange white men had landed in his country,
that they carried extraordinary weapons, and rode
upon great, terrifying beasts which galloped over the
ground with marvelous speed. He consented to an


interview with the white chief. With a force of about
150 soldiers the dauntless Pizarro struck into the heart
of the Indian territory. In the native city of Caja-
marca, 200 miles south of San Miguel, the first Spanish
settlement, he met the Inca.

Pizarro had conceived a plan so daring that an-
other man would never have d^-eamed of its possibility.
He believed there was only one way for so small a
band of men to conquer so great a nation. Atahualpa
must be kidnapped. The Indians from the beginning
of their national existence had been so completely
under the domination of their Inca, whom they believed
to be a divine being, that without him they must fall
into utter confusion. If, as Pizarro reasoned, the Inca
with his huge armies had treacherous designs on the
Spaniards, their only hope lay in trapping Atahualpa
before he could trap them. In the open square in the
middle of the city he pitched his camp and sent word
to the Inca that he was waiting to receive him as "a
friend and a brother."

The next morning the royal procession passed
through the city gates. First came 300 Indian boys
with bows and arrows, singing, followed by 1,000 men
resplendent in livery of red and white squares like a
chess-board. Other troops wore pure white and carried
silver hammers. Eighty chiefs in costumes of azure
blue bore the glittering throne of the Inca in an open
litter high above their heads. As Atahualpa ap-
proached the square not a Spanish soldier was in sight,
but a priest, Pizarro's chaplain, stepped forward to


greet him, with a Bible in one hand and a crucifix in
the other. The pope, he announced briskly, had com-
missioned the greatest monarch on earth to conquer
and convert this land and people, and in a learned theo-
logical discourse he pointed out to the Indians the
necessity of being baptized at once. The Inca gravely
inquired where he had learned these things.

"In this," said the priest, handing him the Bible.

The Inca opened the book eagerly and held it up to
his ear.

"This is silent," he said. "It tells me nothing," and
he threw it to the ground.

This so enraged the priest that he cried to the Span-
iards : "To arms. Christians, to arms ! Set on at once !
I absolve you."

The governor gave the signal and the soldiers rushed
from their hiding-places. With their horses, muskets
and swords, they terrified and slaughtered the helpless
Indians until they fled in confusion. Pizarro himself
snatched the Inca from his throne and carried him off
to the Spanish camp.

The governor treated the prisoner with much kind-
ness. The Indian was quick and intelligent. In
twenty days he had learned enough Spanish to con-
verse with his jailers, and was a good match for them
in chess and cards. He soon perceived that what the
Spaniards were after was gold. One day he made a
bargain with Pizarro. In return for his freedom he
promised to fill the whole room in which they were
standing as high as he could reach with gold orna-


ments. The room was seventeen feet wide and twenty-
two feet long, and the point he had touched on the wall
was nine feet from the floor. He dispatched his mes-
sengers to all parts of the empire, and the Spaniards
marveled at the treasure which was being heaped up
in their camp without effort on their part. As the
gold in the room rose higher and higher they became
too impatient to wait until all of it had been brought;
they began the melting and weighing. When all was
ready for division the entire amount was valued at the
equivalent of $15,500,000, the largest sum in gold
that men ever saw in one place at one time. One fifth
had to be reserved for the crown; the rest was divided
among the men. The outcome of the adventure was
far greater than the wildest hopes and dreams of those
who shared in it.

Now that Atahualpa had paid his magnificent ran-
som he naturally demanded his freedom. But Pizarro
knew too well the danger of allowing the Inca to
return to his own people. On the pretext of punish-
ment for conspiracy, of which there was never one
particle of evidence, he was condemned to death after
the formality of a mock trial.

"What have I or my children done, that I should
meet such a fate? From your hands too," he said
to Pizarro; "you, who have met with friendship and
kindness from my people, with whom I have shared

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