Marguerite Stockman Dickson.

Vocational Guidance for Girls online

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The petty annoyances of the day are lessened, trust is increased,
and both man and woman find their strength increased rather than
depleted by the relation.

[Illustration: Courtesy of George Herbert Palmer
ALICE FREEMAN PALMER
Mrs. Palmer's was one of the ideal marriages in which husband and
wife each lived a fuller life than would have been possible without
the marriage. Happy in her home life, Mrs. Palmer yet had time to
achieve a brilliant success in administrative educational work]

Common interests are an almost certain safeguard in most marriages.
Common duties are more often than not a source of difficulty. An
untold number of matrimonial ventures fail because of inadequate
responsibility in adjustment of expenses to income. Many more are
rendered inharmonious by failure of parents to agree as to the
management of children. In both these directions increased knowledge
will do much to secure harmonious action. Family traditions are more
than likely to clash when they are adopted as principles of family
discipline. "Children must mind," says the father, in memory and
emulation of his father's method with him. "Children must not be
coerced," says the mother, who has been reared by a different method.
Clearly a course in child psychology would have been of value to these
parents in determining a common procedure. There is probably no
subject upon which either father or mother finds it so hard to yield
to the other's way as upon this. Each feels, and rightly, that the
material to be trained is so precious, and that failure, if it comes,
will be so stupendous, that neither dares do what seems wrong to his
own mind. Nothing but common knowledge and a predetermined policy can
solve this problem so near to the root of success or failure in
marriage itself.

Girls are commonly taught too little of the duties of married women to
their husbands. They look for a lifetime of unalloyed bliss. If they
fail to realize their impossible dream, they turn their faces toward
the divorce court. Many girls have had too smooth a pathway, too
little of responsibility, and too little of disappointment, before
undertaking the serious duty of establishing and maintaining a
lifelong partnership. There has been little in their lives to
prepare them for long-continued relations of any sort. On the other
hand, the same girls have equally little idea of what they have a
right to expect of marriage for themselves. Much of the necessary
adjustment is left to chance.

[Illustration: Photograph by Paul Thompson
AMELIA E. BARR
Far from interfering with her career, Mrs. Barr's home interests were
the inspiration for it. Thrown on her own resources by the death of
her husband, who sacrificed himself in a yellow fever epidemic in
Texas, Mrs. Barr took up writing to make a living for her children]

Scarcely any phase of woman's part in marriage is arousing more
attention at present than the question of childbearing. Women, and
especially educated women, are accused of sterility or of
intentionally avoiding motherhood. They are said to believe that
children interfere with their careers, that they can render greater
service to the world in public work than in childbearing. They "prefer
idleness and luxury to the care of a family." The "maternal instinct
is fading." They threaten us with "race suicide," the "extinction of
mankind," a silent world given over to dumb beasts who have not yet
learned the principles of "birth control" and "family limitation."
Thus on the one hand.

On the other: "The world is better served by the small family well
reared than by the large one necessarily less well cared for." "Women
are not merely the instruments of nature for multiplying mankind. They
have a right to some time for living their own lives." "The maternal
instinct has not faded, but merely come under control of a wisdom
which directs that it shall not bring forth what it cannot care for."

And so on, with added arguments for either side.

In all these discussions of birth control the fathers or the husbands
who desire not to be fathers are usually left in the background. As a
matter of fact, however, men as well as women desire luxury and
freedom from the care of a family. It is a general sign of the times,
not a characteristic of one sex alone. Men as well as women fear for
their ability to care for and educate large families. With the
demands of our present complex existence bearing heavily upon them,
one can scarcely wonder at the hesitation of either man or woman to
add again and again to their already pressing cares. There is but one
remedy - not to cut off education for women, as some suggest, but to
learn the joys of a simpler life which will afford people time and
strength and means to bear and rear their young. To this end let us
teach our girls and our boys something of the essentials of a useful
and a happy life, and teach them how to eliminate the non-essentials
which waste their time and spirit.

Who can best instruct the girl in what we may call the ethics of
marriage? Her mother? Usually the mother's viewpoint is too personal.
Her teacher? Most of her teachers are unmarried and know little more
about the subject than she does herself. A specially selected married
teacher? Perhaps, but only if she is a deep student of human nature
and of marriage from a scientific standpoint.

An ideal course for every girl somewhere before her education can be
considered complete would cover "woman's life" as (1) industrial
worker, (2) wife, (3) mother, (4) citizen, (5) civic force.

Here, without undue "dangling of the wedding ring," girls might study
marriage as an important phase of woman's life. Such a course,
simplified or elaborated to suit the circumstances of the girls who
participate, might well be given in all girls' schools and colleges,
in continuation schools, in settlement-house clubs and classes, in
rural clubs and neighborhood centers. For, reduced to its simplest
terms, marriage in the tenement rests upon the same principles as
marriage in the mansion.

Happily married, or happy unmarried, with her life work stretching
before her, the girl enters upon her heritage of work. We have
trained her to be a homemaker, but we need feel no regret in regard to
her training if she finds her life work in an office or a schoolroom
or a hospital. She may never "keep house," although we hope that she
will some time help to make a home. But, whether she becomes a
homemaker or not, a true understanding and appreciation of the value
of the home and a knowledge of the principles underlying its
maintenance will make her a broader woman and a better worker than she
could otherwise be. In the home, or wherever she may be, she cannot
fail to show the girls who are growing up about her what home means to
her and what it means to the race. And in her hands we may safely
leave the future of the home.




SUGGESTED READINGS


GENERAL BOOKS WHICH INTRODUCE THE READER TO THE LARGER PHASES OF THE
WOMAN MOVEMENT

BRUÉRE, MARTHA B. and ROBERT W. _Increasing Home Efficiency_. New
York: Macmillan.

COLQUHOUN, MRS. A. _The Vocations of Woman_. New York: Macmillan.

GILMAN, CHARLOTTE PERKINS. _Women and Economics_. Boston: Small,
Maynard & Co.

KEY, ELLEN. _Love and Marriage_. New York: Putnam.

SCHREINER, OLIVE. _Woman and Labor_. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co.

SPENCER, ANNA GARLIN. _The Challenge of Womanhood._

TARBELL, IDA M. _The Business of Being a Woman_. New York: Macmillan.

Some of these books are conservative, others very radical. They are
recommended, not because the writer agrees with them, but because
every mother and teacher who acts as a vocational counselor should
know both conservative and radical points of view.


MORE DISTINCTLY VOCATIONAL BOOKS

BLOOMFIELD, MEYER. _Readings in Vocational Guidance_. Boston: Ginn &
Co.

The following articles in this book are especially recommended:

"The Value, during Education, of the Life-Career Motive." By
CHARLES W. ELIOT.

"Selecting Young Men for Particular Jobs." By HERMAN SCHNEIDER.

"The Permanence of Interests and Their Relation to Abilities." By
EDWARD L. THORNDIKE.

"Survey of Occupations Open to the Girl of Fourteen to Sixteen
Years of Age." By HARRIET HAZEN DODGE.

BREWER, J.M. _Vocational-Guidance Movement_. New York: Macmillan.

BREWSTER, EDWIN T. _Vocational Guidance for the Professions._ Chicago:
Rand McNally & Co.

BUREAU OF EDUCATION, Washington, D.C.

_Bulletin 1913, No. 17._ "A Trade School for Girls."
_Bulletin 1914, No. 4._ "The School and a Start in Life."
_Bulletin 1914, No. 14._ "Vocational Guidance Association."
Papers presented at the organization meeting, October, 1913.

_Annual Reports_ of the Commissioner of Education:
1911, chapter viii, "A School for Homemakers."
1914, chapter xiii, "Education for the Home."
1915, chapter xii, "Home Economics."
1915, chapter xiv, "Home Education."
1916, chapter xvii, "Education in the Home."

BUTLER, ELIZABETH BEARDSLEY. _Women and the Trades._ New York:
Charities Publication Committee.

- - . _Saleswomen in Mercantile Stores._ New York: Survey Associates.

DAVIS, JESSE BUTTRICK. _Vocational and Moral Guidance._ Boston: Ginn &
Co.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR, Washington, D.C.:

_Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor._

Contains nineteen volumes on "Condition of Women and Child
Wage-Earners in the United States." The most comprehensive
study of conditions of women in industry before the war.

_Bulletin No. 175._ "Summary of the Report on the Condition of
Women and Child Wage-Earners in the United States." Gives
in condensed form the findings in the nineteen volumes.

GOWIN and WHEATLEY. _Occupations._ Boston: Ginn & Co.

HOLLINGWORTH, H.L. _Vocational Psychology: Its Problems and Methods._
New York: D. Appleton & Co.

LASELLE and WILEY. _Vocations for Girls._ Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

LEAKE, ALBERT H. _The Vocational Education of Girls and Women._ New
York: Macmillan.

MCKEEVER, A. _Training the Girl._ New York: Macmillan.

PRESSEY, C. PARK. _A Vocational Reader._ Chicago: Rand McNally & Co.

This book shows the teacher the kind of stories that can be
used for inspiration for grade-school girls.

PUFFER, J. ADAMS. _Vocational Guidance_. Chicago: Rand McNally.& Co.

WOMEN'S EDUCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL UNION OF BOSTON:

_Vocations for the Trained Woman_.

_The Public Schools and Women in Office Service_.




THE INDEX


Acting as a preparation for homemaking, 201

Adolescent girl, 130-150. _See also_ Girl

Agriculture, possibilities in and qualifications for, 173 ff.

Arithmetic applied to household problems, 114 ff.

Art courses as education for homemaking, 40, 118 f.

Artist, work of, as a preparation for homemaking, 201

Arts and crafts, possibilities in and qualifications for, 173

Auburn, Washington, Central School, manual arts courses in, 119


Bibliography, 241 f.

Bruère, Martha B., quoted, 18, 51 f.

Budgets, 50 ff.

Building problems, 32 ff.


Census, statistics regarding women in industry, 151, 152, 153, 154

Chapin, Dr., quoted, 50 f.

Child:
imitative instinct as influencing training of, 90, 102
training for habits of industry, 96 ff.
training for self-control, 93 ff.
training for sympathy, 90 f.
training for unselfishness, 95 f.
training the little, 86-101

Church:
as a means of betterment in the community, 67
girl influenced by, 84 f.
homemaking as influenced by, 84 f.
women and the, 67

Citizenship, woman and, 71 f.

Clothing (_see also_ Dress):
problems of, in the home, 57 ff.
problems of, for the adolescent girl, 139 ff., 147 f.

Community:
church as a means of betterment in, 67
home, relation between, and, 62 ff.
working women, relation to, 157 ff.

Consolidated school, 110

Continuation schools, 179 f.

Cooking classes in grammar schools, 110 f.


Decoration of the home, 40

Department stores:
continuation schools in, 179 f.
statistics concerning women employed in, 180

Dietetics, knowledge of, necessary to the homemaker, 54 ff.

Divorce, dangers of, 82, 218, 220

Doll's house as a means of teaching the child mechanics of
housekeeping, 102-121

Domestic work:
as a preparation for homemaking, 196 f.
as a vocation, possibilities in and qualifications for, 185 f.

Dress (_see also_ Clothing):
principles of selection, for the adolescent girl, 139 ff.
problems of, for the adolescent girl, 139 ff., 147 f.

Dressmaking, possibilities in and qualifications for, 171 f.

Education:
for homemaking, 25 f.
of women, effect on home life, 8 ff.

Educational agencies involved in "woman making," 75-85

Eugenics as influencing marriage, 230


Factory work:
as a preparation for homemaking, 200 f.
possibilities in and qualifications for, 170 f.

Father, characteristics of the ideal, 23 f.

Feeding problems in the home, 53 ff.

Financial knowledge necessary for homemaking, 49 ff.

Food production, possibilities in and qualifications for work in, 175 ff.

Food questions, study of, in schools, 118

Frederick, Mrs., quoted, 18

Furniture, principles governing selection of, 42


Games, training afforded by, 123 ff.

Geography applied to household problems, 116

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, quoted, 56

Girl:
adolescent, 130-150
church's influence upon, 84 ff.
dress problems of the adolescent, 139 ff., 147 f.
educational agencies involved in training the, 75-85
health of adolescent, methods of safeguarding, 130 ff.
inner life of, 122-129
plan for training adolescent, 136 ff.
school center of society of, 129 ff., 143 ff.
teaching the mechanics of housekeeping to, 102-121
work of, 151-217

Grammar school, part played in vocational guidance, 204 ff.


Hall, G. Stanley, quoted, 76

Handwork, classification of, 170 ff.

Health of adolescent girl, methods of safeguarding, 130 ff.

Heating apparatus, 35 f.

High school, part played in vocational guidance, 211 ff.

Home:
as a means of training for homemaking, 81 ff.
building problems in, 32 ff.
clothing problems in, 57 ff.
community, relation to, 62 ff.
decoration of, 40
establishing a, 27-48
feeding problems in, 53 ff.
furniture, principles governing selection of, 42
heating problems in, 35 f.
income in, apportionment of, 50 ff.
industrial revolution, effect of, on, 7 ff.
industries in, 12 ff.
labor-saving devices in, 44 ff.
running the domestic machinery, 49-72
servant question in, 44 ff.
site for, selection of, 31 f.
the ideal, 18-26
urban conditions as affecting, 10 f.
waste disposal in, 37 ff.
water supply in, 36 f.
women, effect of education of, on, 8 ff.

Homemaking:
community problems in country and city affecting, 28, 30
dietetics, knowledge of, necessary to, 54 ff.
education for, 25 f.
educational agencies involved in training for, 75-85
financial knowledge necessary for, 49 ff.
home's influence in training for, 81 ff.
tasks suitable for the small child, 109
teacher's responsibility in training for, 78, 80 f.
the real business of woman, 14 ff.
vocations as affecting, 194-202 (_see also_ the specific vocations)

Home work, school credit for, 105 ff.

Housekeeping:
tasks suitable for the small child, 109
teaching the mechanics of, 102-121

Hygiene, study of, as a preparation for homemaking, 120


Income, apportionment of, 50 ff.

Industrial revolution, effects of, on home life, 7 ff.

Industries (_see also_ Vocations):
in the home, 12 ff.
women in, Census statistics concerning, 151, 152, 153, 154
women's wage statistics, 160

Industry, teaching the child habits of, 96 ff.

Imitation, evils of, 59 f.

Imitative instinct, influence of, in training the child, 90, 102


Labor-saving devices in the home, 44 ff.

Leominster, Massachusetts, a school lunch room, 111

Library work, possibilities in and qualifications for, 189 f.

Literary work as a preparation for homemaking, 201


Marriage, 218-240
age of, for women, 152, 219 f.
factors influencing, 226 f.
ideals of, 226 f.

Massachusetts plan of school credit for home work, 106

Millinery, possibilities in and qualifications for, 172

Montclair, New Jersey, school lunchroom, 111

Montessori materials as means of teaching habits of industry, 98

Mother (_see also_ Woman):
characteristics of the ideal, 21 ff.
community institutions, relation to, 65 ff.
school, duty to, 65 ff.


Nearing, Scott, quoted, 18

Newark, New Jersey, Central High School, lunch room in, 111

New York City, Public School No. 7, model school home, 113

Nursing:
as a preparation for homemaking, 197 ff.
possibilities in and qualifications for, 190 f.


Occupations. _See_ Vocations; _see also_ the specific occupations

Office work:
as a preparation for homemaking, 199
possibilities in and qualifications for, 180 ff.

Oppenheim, quoted, 120

Oregon plan of school credit for home work, 106


Physiology, study of, as preparation for homemaking, 120

Puffer, J. Adams, quoted, 152, 155


Reading for the adolescent girl, 146 f.

Reform, woman's opportunities in, 68, 70 f.

Salesmanship:
as a preparation for homemaking, 200
possibilities in and qualifications for, 178 ff.

School:
art courses contributing to homemaking knowledge, 118 f.
consolidated, 110
continuation, 179 f.
cooking classes in, 110 f.
homemaking, duty to educate for, 35, 47 f., 76 ff.
mothers' relation to, 65 ff.
sewing classes in grammar, 110, 111 f.
vocational guidance, responsibility in, 167 ff., 204 ff., 211 ff.

School credit for home work, 105 ff.

School gardens, 108

Schreiner, Olive, quoted, 152

Servant question, 44 ff.

Sewing classes in grammar schools, 110, 111 f.

Sex knowledge, instruction in, 80, 128, 148 ff.

Social work, possibilities in and qualifications for, 191 ff.

Society:
school and playground center of girls', 126 ff., 143 ff.
woman's place in, 3-17

Suffrage, 71


Tarbell, Ida M., quoted, 15

Teacher:
as a vocational guide, 167 ff., 204 ff., 211 ff.
homemaking, responsibility of, in training for, 75 ff., 78, 80 f.

Teaching:
as a preparation for homemaking, 197 ff.
possibilities in and qualifications for, 188 f.


Urban conditions as affecting home life, 10 f.


Vocational guidance:
considerations in, 163 ff., 194 ff.
grammar school's part in, 204 ff.
high school's part in, 211 ff.
need for, 161 f.
object of, 216
school's part in, 167 ff., 204 ff., 211 ff.
teacher's part in, 167 ff., 204 ff., 211 ff.

Vocations (_see also_ the specific vocations):
as affecting homemaking, 194-202
choice of, considerations in, 163 ff., 194 ff.
classification of, 163-193
determined by training, 203-217
distributing group, 178-183
producing group, 169-177
service group, 184-193


Wage statistics, 160

Ward, Lester F., quoted, 15

Waste disposal, 37 ff.

Water supply, 36 f.

Womanhood, present-day ideals of, 1-72

Woman (_see also_ Mother):
and citizenship, 71 f.
as buyer, 70 f.
church, relation to, 67
community's relation to working, 157 ff.
education of, effect on home life, 8 ff.
in industry, Census statistics, 151, 152, 153, 154
marriage age 152, 219 f.
reform, opportunities in, 68, 70 f.
society, place in, 3-17
status of, views concerning, 5 f.
the real business of, 14 ff.
wage statistics, 160



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Online LibraryMarguerite Stockman DicksonVocational Guidance for Girls → online text (page 14 of 14)