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intelligent and healthy, no convulsions.

_Near Antecedents._ The child's mother is convinced that the
conception took place during _alcoholic_ intoxication.
Pregnancy was accompanied by generalised oedema from the fifth
month onward, due to albuminuria. No _eclampsia_. No fainting
fits, etc. Delivery timely, difficult, but accomplished
naturally. The child at birth was strong and not asphyxiated.
Was nursed by the mother for the first two months, after which
he depended upon hired nurses and artificial feeding (was sent
to the country where he was fed chiefly from the bottle). Was
returned to the mother at the age of eleven months; could not
walk; would eat anything within reach of his hands, coal,
excrements. Cried continually, day and night, to the great
disturbance of the neighbours. Cut his first tooth at five
months; and at the age of three years the first dentition was
not yet completed. Has a habit of swaying his body forward and
backward; beats his head against the wall, the chairs, etc.,
and strikes his forehead with his clenched fist. Has habitual
constipation. Is extremely affectionate, loves to be caressed.
Yet he will bite anyone who approaches him, including his
brothers and sisters. It cannot be learned whether when he
was staying with the wet-nurse he ever had convulsions. It is
certain that he had none after his return to the family. The
habit of _onanism_ dates from the time of his return from the
nurse. Vaccinated at 13 months, slight attack of varioloid
at the age of two years; no other infectious diseases. No
manifestation of scrofula; no traumatism.

_Objective Examination of the Patient_ (omitted). - The _history_ is
accompanied by eight photographs of the boy, taken respectively
at the ages of 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 15, and 16 years, three of
which, namely, those taken at the ages of 6, 11 and 16, are
reproduced on page 278.


DIARIES

_July 2._ - He is uncleanly (emissions of fæces and urine). Does
not know how to behave at table; when he eats he spills his
food over his clothing. Is gluttonous but not voracious; he
does not steal the food of his companions, but he protests when
he sees food given to others and not to him. Is mistrustful,
hides his bread for fear that it will be taken from him; and
if any one takes notice of this, he utters a cry of rage. He
is affectionate, very timid, jealous, obstinate, grumbling,
somewhat sullen, seldom laughs. Although weak, he fights his
companions and frequently falls into _fits of_ _anger_; then
he flings himself on the floor and beats his head against the
furniture. He sways his body forward and backward. His _power
of speech_ is limited to three words: _papa_, _mamma_, and
_no_. He is able to make himself understood when he wants
anything.

_August-September._ - Two slight attacks of ophthalmia. The child
has now learned to walk.

_January-March, 1885._ - Otitis (Inflammation of the ear).

_August._ - The ability to speak is developing progressively. He
has begun to give notice of his natural necessities; is seldom
uncleanly, so that it is now possible to let him wear trousers.
The habit of balancing his body back and forth is tending to
disappear. The accesses of anger have become rarer. He is less
jealous and plays indiscriminately with his companions.

_January, 1886._ - The improvement continues. D - - is now very
attentive in school. When out walking he takes an interest in
the things he sees and asks for explanations. Is doing well in
the first gymnastic exercises. Makes a good appearance.

_March._ - D - - has now become altogether cleanly. Furthermore,
he knows how to wash, dress and undress himself alone. At
table, can handle his spoon and fork quite properly, but
cannot yet manage his knife. Is less gluttonous; his speech is
fully developed. Although he cannot keep still in school and
constantly changes his position, he has succeeded in learning
to know his letters, the different colours, etc., can count up
to 50, and can name the greater part of the objects contained
in the boxes used for object lessons. The balancing of the
body has completely disappeared. D - - has a tendency toward
onanism. Accesses of anger an still noted, during which he is
very vulgar.

_December._ - Condition stationary. Misconduct in class, frequent
fits of anger, during which he abuses everyone and strikes his
smaller comrades.

_March, 1887._ - D - - is calmer and does better work. Can count up
to sixty. His general knowledge has increased. Can tell his
age, his name, the name of his parents, what their employment
is, where they live, etc.

_April, 1888._ - The improvement continues. His behavior is better.
Has learned the names of materials, of plane surfaces, of
solids; can distinguish vowels from consonants. It has been
impossible to induce him to trace simple strokes even upon the
blackboard.

_December._ - Is more diligent and has taken a fancy to writing.

_January-June, 1889._ - Is in the infirmary on account of anal
ulcers.

_December._ - Notable improvement in general knowledge. Has begun to
write certain letters in his copybook.

_December, 1890._ - D - - 's conduct is good. He is no longer
disorderly; and if at times it is necessary to reprove him,
he recognises his fault, cries, and promises to do better. He
fears above all that his misconduct will be reported to his
mother. Has a fairly accurate notion of right and wrong, is
no longer so extremely jealous and shows affection for his
comrades. Has learned to write syllables well; is able to copy
short paragraphs; can do simple sums in addition; gives clear
answers to questions. Walking, running, jumping, going up and
down stairs have become easy for him. The child uses his fork
and knife at table; chews his food well, does not suffer from
any digestive disturbance. Is orderly, and attends to himself
in all details of his toilet.

_April 21, 1891: Objective Examination._ - The child's face has a
uniformly ruddy complexion; lips full-blooded; skin smooth,
without scars or eruptions, excepting a slight scaliness due
to eczema. Two small ganglia in the left submaxillary region,
but no others in any other locality. Cranium symmetrical;
volume and form normal. Frontal and parietal nodules slightly
prominent; occipital nodule quite prominent (pentagonoid
cranium). Hair light blonde, abundant, fine, growing low
upon the forehead. Posterior vortex normal, forehead wide,
but not high. Visage oval; with a slight depression of the
nostril and corner of the mouth on the right side; has on the
whole an intelligent expression; it is mobile and reflects
the moods and feelings natural to boyhood. The superciliary
arches are only slightly arched. The eyebrows are chestnut
in colour and scanty; the lashes are abundant and long. Iris
dark blue; pupils equal in size and react under the influence
of light. No functional disturbance, and no lesion in regard
to the eyes. Field of vision normal. D - - recognises all
the colours. Nose small, and straight, with a pronounced
aperture of the nostrils. Zygomata regular, without exaggerated
prominences; naso-labial furrows barely indicated. Aperture
of mouth very wide and habitually half open. Lips thick and
slightly drooping. Tongue normal. Palatine vault distinctly
ogival. Tonsils enlarged; the boy is subject to tonsillitis.
All these parts show quite a blunted sensibility, which permits
of an examination of the pharynx, without causing nausea. Chin
rounded, without indentation. Ears long and thick, the outer
edge is normal, including the fold of the helix; the ears
protrude conspicuously from the cranium and are very peculiar
in shape; namely, the upper two-thirds of the external ear form
with the lower one-third an obtuse angle of such nature that
the _concha_ or shell really represents the outline of a very
deep and almost hemispherical sea-shell. The lobule is thick,
regular, and notably detached. The ear is the seat of frequent
attacks of erythema, complicated by swelling. Neck rather short
and quite stout; circumference 26 centimetres. The lobes of the
thyroid glands are plainly palpable to the touch.

_Thorax and Abdomen._ - No notable peculiarities. Auscultation
and percussion show that the internal organs are normal. Body is
hairless. Genital organs are normal. The upper and lower limbs are
normal in all their segments.

_Icthyosis_ of the skin on thighs and knees. General sensibility
normal; usual physiological reflex actions.

_Treatment._ - Regular application of the medico-pedagogical method:
tonics during the winter; hydrotherapy annually, from the first of
April to the first of November.

_April 24._ - The mother, finding the child much improved, takes him
home on leave (March) and later (end of April) requests his
dismissal, which is granted reluctantly, in the fear that the
boy may lose part of what he has so laboriously gained.

_May 19, 1892._ - The boy, having become insubordinate and not
making satisfactory progress in the public school (to which he
was sent, so that he would not be present at the scenes between
the mother and the father, who is habitually intoxicated), has
been sent back to the asylum.

_June._ - The physical evolution continues. The child is very timid
and sensitive, cannot bear to be reproved and cries when he is
corrected. Reads fluently, but without expression. Has begun
to write familiar words from dictation. During his absence from
the asylum he learned to know the numbers and to do simple
examples in addition and subtraction.

_Treatment:_ School work; gymnastics; hydrotherapy.

_July._ - D - - is at present conducting himself in a way difficult
to control; he plays ill-natured jests upon his companions;
places needles and tacks in seats; during the assembly he
amuses himself by sticking little pins into the backs of the
girls who sit in front of him.

_December._ - The boy is very lazy, and often refuses to read or to
do his tasks; he grins and sneers if he is corrected. But he
carries out very well all the movements in the lower gymnastic
course. Has been sent to the _tailor's work-shop_ and seems to
have taken a fancy to the trade.

_April, 1893._ - D - - has become quite reasonable, does good work
in school, does not like to be inactive, has ceased to grin
and sneer. His writing has improved; his reasoning power is
good; he is careful of his clothes to the point of vanity; eats
with propriety, has ceased to bolt his food; yet it is still
noticed that he has a tendency to appropriate the wine of his
companions.

_June._ - D - - is passing through a bad period; he laughs at
everything that is said to him, is very obstinate, annoys his
comrades, tears up copy-books, breaks pens, etc. Is careless
regarding his clothing; makes a disturbance at night in the
dormitory.

_December._ - Same state. Tries to smoke; is unwilling to do any
work; laughs at everybody; dresses with great carelessness; it
is necessary to compel him to wash his hands and face. No sign
of _puberty_.

_December, 1894._ - Notable improvement; D - - reads quite readily,
writes quite well, recognises all ordinary objects, their
use, and their colour; has a conception of time. Is docile,
neat, industrious in school work, is attentive to explanations
and understands them. In the work-shop he continues to show
progress.

_January-June, 1895._ - The improvement continues; D - - has begun
to learn the multiplication table; he is well-mannered and
scrupulous in his behaviour; excellent in gymnastics. In the
tailor's work-shop he makes marked progress; he has already
learned to put together an entire garment by himself, and he
knows how to use the machine. From time to time he has periods
of indolence; and this happens more often in the work-shop than
in the class.

_Puberty._ - A slight down has begun to appear upon his upper lip.

_July 8._ - According to the night nurse, D - - had an attack of
epilepsy during the night; he never had one before, and he has
not had one since.

_July 10._ - Troubled sleep, nightmare, unintelligible and
threatening words.

_January, 1896._ - Very notable improvement in class. The boy
profited above all from the _lessons about natural objects_,
in which he takes much interest. From time to time he shows a
tendency to dissipation and gambling. Is docile, cleanly, and
neat in personal appearance to the point of vanity. The master
of the work-shop is very much pleased with him; he works well
with the machine. Is doing well in gymnastics and in singing.

_Puberty._ - His beard has begun to grow even on his cheeks.

_June._ - Hand-writing, far from improving, seems to be growing
worse. On the contrary, it is noticed that he has made
progress in arithmetic. Can perform all four primary operations
and has begun to solve easy problems. His general knowledge has
improved. Has become a good tailor's workman.

_January-June, 1897._ - The boy prefers the work-shop to the school
and for some time the mistake has been made of leaving him
wholly in the work-shop.

_December._ - Same state from point of view of his studies;
character docile, conduct good, personal care and neatness
satisfactory. Works well and rapidly in the work-shop; can make
complete suits of clothing; uses the machine dexterously; is
beginning to cut out garments.

_Puberty_ complete, no onanism. The right eyelids are less widely
open than the left by nearly a quarter. The patient says that he
does not see so well with the right eye as with the left, and
cannot distinguish with it even large letters unless they are very
near.

TABLE OF WEIGHT AND STATURE

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
|1890| 1894 | 1895 | 1896 | 1897 | 1898
- - - - - -+ - - + - - - - - - -+ - - - - - -+ - - - - - -+ - - - - -+ - - -
Meas- |Jan-|Jan- | July |Jan-| July |Jan- |July|Jan-|July|Jan-
urements |uary|uary | |uary| |uary | |uary| |uary
- - - - - -+ - - + - - - + - - - + - - + - - - + - - - + - - + - - + - - + - - -
Weight in | | | | | | | | | |
kilograms.| 25 |34.700|35.200| 35 |37.800|39.800| 44 | 46 | 51 |53.700
Stature in | | | | | | | | | |
metres. |1.22| 1.39 | 1.42 |1.42| 1.50 | 1.53 |1.58|1.61|1.66| 1.69
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

MEASUREMENTS OF THE HEAD IN CENTIMETRES
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
|1891|1893|1894| 1895 | 1896 | 1897 |1898
| - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - -
|Jan-|Jan-|Jan-|Jan-| |Jan-| |Jan-| |Jan-
|uary|uary|uary|uary|July|uary|July|uary|July|uary
- - - - - - - - - - -+ - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - - + - -
Maximum horizontal | | | | | | | | | |
circumference. |50.2|50.2|50.2| 52 | 52 | 52 | 52 | 52 | 52 | 54
Anterior semi- | | | | | | | | | |
circumference. | 33 | 33 | 33 | 33 | 33 | 33 | 33 | 33 | 33 | 34
Distance from the | | | | | | | | | |
occipito-allantoid | | | | | | | | | |
articulation to | | | | | | | | | |
the root of nose. | 36 | 36 | 36 | 36 | 36 | 36 | 36 | 36 | 36 | 37
Maximum antero- | | | | | | | | | |
posterior diameter.|17.5|17.8|17.8| 18 | 18 | 18 | 18 | 19 | 19 | 19
Maximum biauricular | | | | | | | | | |
diameter. | 11 | 12 | 12 |12.5|12.5|12.5|12.2|12.5|12.5| 13
Maximum biparietal | | | | | | | | | |
diameter. |13.5| 14 | 14 |14.5|14.5|14.5|14.5|14.5|14.5|14.5
Maximum bitemporal | | | | | | | | | |
diameter. | - | - | - | - | 11 | 11 | 11 |11.5|11.5| 12
Medial height of | | | | | | | | | |
forehead. | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 6 | 6
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

In the antecedents of this patient, the only suggestions of
degeneration are the _alcoholism_ of the father and the fact that
conception took place in a state of intoxication. The mother's migraine
might also be considered as a nervous malady amounting to a family
taint, but cannot be held responsible for so grave an abnormality as
idiocy.

Consequently, it remains beyond doubt that the most interesting
antecedent fact to be considered in this case is the _conception_
_during alcoholic intoxication_.

The individual we are studying is a sick person; this is shown by
_ptosis_ (drooping eye-lid), the recurrent periods of agitation, the
epileptic convulsion in the night detected by the night nurse.

It is interesting to observe in the photographs of the child, the
alteration of expression between the periods of calm and those
of agitation; in the latter the face is asymmetrical and shows
contractions in the left facial region, while the right side is
paretic; the paresis is also manifested by _ptosis_ (drooping lids).
During the periods of calm, on the contrary, the left side also is
atonic.

In the course of the history the differences in the child's conduct in
the two states are well described.

During the periods of calm, the child is attentive, docile, careful of
his dress, timid, and makes progress in his studies; during the periods
of agitation he is unstable, rebellious, careless, unkind to his
comrades, and makes no progress whatever. At the beginning, there were
no periods of calm at all; furthermore, the child had every appearance
of being an idiot; medico-pedagogic treatment rendered longer and more
frequent, and finally permanent, these periods of calm, during which
the child's intellectual redemption became possible. The treatment did
not consist solely in the _education of an idiot_, but also in the
_cure of a sick child_. "At the time of admission," according to the
_observations_ in the record, "the diagnosis was _retarded mentality_,
and that only in relation to primary instruction, because in regard to
matters of common knowledge and manual work, the patient comes very
near to a normal lad of average intelligence."

Such a surprising _transformation_ of an individual is certainly
deserving of admiration; but this diligently compiled study is not yet
quite completed. As a matter of fact, when the education of D - - was
begun, observations regarding types of stature were not yet made; but
his photographs show that he was an exaggerated macroscelous type.
The trade adopted by D - - which will oblige him to sit with his chest
bowed over the machine, or in a kneeling position while he sews, will
in all probability drive him straight along the road to tuberculosis, a
malady to which his organism has singularly predisposed him. It would
be interesting to follow further the history of this patient, who has
been transformed from an idiot into a skilful and industrious workman.

The society, which under the guidance of science, achieved his
difficult redemption, has perhaps at the same time condemned him to
death.

The modern standards of pedagogical anthropology would have furnished a
more far-sighted guidance in the choice of a vocation.

Meanwhile, however, this history reported by Thulié is a luminous
demonstration of the folly of rewards and punishments; the only forms
of intervention during the periods of agitation, which lasted for
entire months, during which the boy was continually unruly, impulsive,
malicious, reckless, and incapable of work, were tonics, hydrotherapy
and kindly treatment.

"Punishments" would have cruelly wrecked the life of a human being who
was naturally gentle, affectionate, and capable of diligent work and
permanent improvement.

Something similar ought to be attempted in the reformatories. The
boys who are regarded as incorrigible are frequently _sick_ boys,
with an hereditary degenerative taint, and need to live in a tranquil
environment and to receive medical treatment.

The biographic charts of the reformatories give no evidence that
this educative movement has as yet been understood. They show that
_punishments_ are still regarded as possessing a corrective efficacy,
because the conception that the so-called delinquent children may be
a pathological product and a result of disastrous family and social
conditions, has not yet penetrated with sufficient clearness.

But progress along this path is surely bound to come as a result of the
experience which this principle of reform has made possible.

The biographic charts have unquestionably laid the foundations of a new
edifice in pedagogy.

_Scientific Pedagogical Advantages of Biographic Histories:_

1. The biographic chart takes the place of the report cards and records
of the relative marks of merit and demerit; for while these records
and reports constituted a statement of _effects_, altogether empirical,
the biographic chart _investigates the causes_ and in this way
furnishes pedagogy with a scientific basis. There is no need of further
demonstration. The principal consequences of the above indicated
progress are two in number.

2. The biographic chart, replacing the earlier classifications, raises
the teacher's standard of culture by directing him along a scientific
path, associates the teacher's work with that of the physician, and
makes the teacher a far-sighted director of the development and
perfectioning of the new generations.

3. The biographic chart includes a new educative movement which
abolishes rewards and punishments.

On this third point much might be said, since it touches upon one
of the fundamental doctrines of pedagogical progress. But since
this is not a treatise upon scientific pedagogy, it is necessary to
limit the exposition to a few fundamental points.

In fact, it will be sufficient to speak of cases in which education
is most difficult and where the rewards and punishments are
unavailing - for these will include all simpler cases. A luminous
example is furnished by the education of _new-born infants_. Of
all human beings they used to be the most troublesome because of
the impossibility of educating them by the old-fashioned methods.
They cried at all hours of the day and night, making a slave of the
mother or whoever took her place.

To-day, babies are quiet; it is marvelous to go through the infant
ward in the Obstetrical Clinic of Rome; absolute silence reigns
there, and yet if we lift up the white curtains of the cribs, we
see the little ones lying with their eyes wide open. A deeper
knowledge than was formerly had of the _hygiene of_ _the child_ has
enabled us to interpret his needs, and when these are satisfied,
the child is tranquil. Bodily cleanliness, liberty of movement,
prolonged repose in the crib, and _rational feeding_ have obtained
this remarkable result of silencing the baby, of rendering it
more robust and of liberating the mother from the slavery of her
mission. The classic cry of the child in swaddling bands was a
protest against the suffering which ignorance imposed upon him.
To-day the little one, lying tranquilly in his crib, begins to



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