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This is Volume Ten of a complete set of
THE CLASSICS GREEK AND LATIN

consisting of fifteen volumes issued strictly as
a Limited Edition. In Volume One will be
found a certificate as to the Limitation of the
Edition and the Registered Number of this Set.



AND ROMAN L1TERATVRE, EM-



BRACING POETRY, ROMANCE,



HISTORY, ORATORY, SCIENCE,



AND PHILOSOPHY, TRANS-



LATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE



AND VERSE BY DISTINGVISHED



MEN OF LETTERS, WITH CRIT-



ICAL APPRECIATIONS BY AN



INTERNATIONAL COVNCIL OF



CLASSICAL SCHOLARS.



MARION MILLS MILLER, Litt.D.



(PRINCETON) EDITOR IN CHIEF




StacR
Annex










THE CLASSICS

GREEK AND LATIN




CONTRIBUTING CLASSIC COUNCIL

J. P. MAHAFFY, D.C.L., Trinity College, Dublin
SIR ALEXANDER GRANT, LL.D., Edinburgh
EDWARD POSTE, M.A., Oxford University
J. H. FREESE, M.A., Cambridge University
BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University

JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Harvard University

HENRY P. WRIGHT, PHiD.;

Professor of Latin, Yale University
HARRY THURSTON PECK, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, Columbia University
SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, Princeton University
CHARLES E. BENNETT, LITT.D.,

Professor of Latin, Cornell University

WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, LITT.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Pennsylvania

JOHN DAMEN MAGUIRE, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Catholic University of America

PAUL SHOREY, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Chicago

MARTIN LUTHER D'OOGE, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Michigan

ANDREW J. BELL, M.A., ^

Professor of Latin, University of Toronto
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MERRILL, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, University of California
MARY LEAL HARKNESS, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, Tulane University



MARION MILLS MILLER, LITT. D. (Princeton)
Editor-in-Chief



VINCENT PARKE AND
COMPANY. NEW YORK



COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY

VINCENT PARKE AND COMPANY,

NEW YORK



THE LATIN
CLASSICS



Horace and the
Satirists







Stack Annex



Cu

N\0

CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION : PAOE

THE ROMAN SATIRISTS . . . . . . I

THE WORKS OF HORACE :

Introductions and all Translations, except that of
the Odes, by James Lonsdale, M.A., of Oxford, and
Samuel Lee, M.A., of Cambridge
GENERAL INTRODUCTION: THE LIFE AND WORKS OF

HORACE . 7

INTRODUCTION TO THE ODES OF HORACE ... 19
THE ODES OF HORACE ....... 26

Translated by Charles Edwin Bennett, Litt.D., Pro-
fessor of Latin in Cornell University
INTRODUCTION TO THE SECULAR HYMN .... 126

THE SECULAR HYMN .... . . 128

INTRODUCTION TO THE EPODES 130

THE EPODES . 132

INTRODUCTION TO THE SATIRES ..... 148

THE SATIRES ........ 155

INTRODUCTION TO THE EPISTLES ..... 231

THE EPISTLES 237

INTRODUCTION TO THE ART OF POETRY .... 292
THE ART OF POETRY ....... 298

THE SATIRES OF PERSIUS AND SULPICIA :

Translated into English Prose by the Rev. Lewis
Evans, M.A., of Oxford, with Introductions by the
Same

INTRODUCTION: PEKSIUS, THE STOIC SATIRIST . . 318
THE SATIRES OF PERSIUS . . . . . . 321

INTRODUCTION: SULPICIA, THE FEMALE SATIRIST . . 355
THE SATIRE OF SULPICIA . 358



CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION :

JUVENAL, GREATEST OF SATIRISTS

By Henry P. Wright, Ph.D., LL.D, Professor of
Latin in Yale University

THE FIRST TEN SATIRES OF JUVENAL:

Translated by S. H. Jeyes, M.A., of Oxford . . 369



ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

THE SCHOOL OF VESTALS Frontispiece

From a painting by H. Le Roux

THE AUGURS 148

From a painting by Jean Leon Gerome

JUVENAL . 368

From a drawing by D. Antonius Verderius




INTRODUCTION

THE ROMAN SATIRISTS

ATHER ENNIUS (see volume one, page 3),
was the first writer of Latin satire. From frag-
ments remaining of his works it would appear
that he wrote six books of satires, ranging in
subject from the praise of the elder Scipio to
expression of a host's disgust at the voracious-
ness of his guest. Quintilian speaks of a dialogue of Ennius
between Life and Death, and Aulus Gellius records that he
wrote the familiar fable of the Lark who remained with her
young in the standing wheat so long as the Farmer only
ordered his servants to reap it, but who flew away with her
family when he determined to reap it himself; these works
undoubtedly formed parts of his satires.

PACUVIUS, the nephew of Ennius, wrote satires which
seem to have been imitations of his uncle's. They are of
small worth.

These writings of Ennius and Pacuvius, however, were
miscellaneous verse rather than satires proper. Indeed, its
name satura, meaning an "olla podrida," or dish of mixed
ingredients, very properly describes it. It was CAIUS LUCIL-
lus who shaped this amorphous order of composition into
the clearly defined form in which it is afterwards found in
Horace, Persius, and Juvenal.

LUCILIUS was born at Suessa Auruncorum, B.C. 180. He
was a patrician, living on familiar terms with the younger
Scipio (under whom he served in the Numantine War in
Spain), and with his friend L^elius. He was the maternal
uncle of Pompey the Great. He died at Naples, B.C. 103.
Lucilius wrote thirty books of satires in which he fiercely as-
sailed his contemporaries. Some 300 lines of these are pre-
served; while they are in a most fragmentary state, they
nevertheless reveal the author as a genius bold and original



2 INTRODUCTION

to the point of eccentricity. Thus he affected a cosmopoli-
tanism unusual in a Rome of his time. "I write for the
people of Cosentia and Tarentum and Sicily," he says; and
he mixes Greek expressions indifferently with his Latin, al-
ready adulterated by the use of strange unliterary words
either of improper coinage or of vulgar origin. Horace
criticised him for the carelessness and haste with which he
wrote and which always left something to be desired.

The satirical vein of Lucilius is illustrated in the following
fragments :

Book i. 22. ... that, like an angry cur, speaks plainer than a
man.

Book n. 25. ... him that wanders through inhospitable wastes
there accompanies the greater satisfaction of things conceived
in his mind.

Book in. i. ... At which that wise Laelius used to give vent
to railings ; addressing the Epicures of our order " Oh thou
glutton, Publius Gallonius ! a miserable man thou art ! " he says.
" Thou hast neyer in thy life supped well, though all thou hast
thou squanderest on that lobster and gigantic sturgeon ! "

Book v. 2. For if what rs really enough for man could have satis-
fied him, this had been enough. Now since this is not so, how
can we believe that any riches whatever could satisfy desire?

Book vi. i. ... who has neither hackney nor slave, nor a single
attendant. His bag, and all the money that he has, he carries
with him. He sups with his bag, sleeps with it, bathes with it.
The man's whole hope centers in his bag alone. All the rest of
his existence is bound up in this bag!

Book xvin. 2. ... a fool never has enough, even though he
has everything.

Book xix. 12. ... desire may be eradicated from a man, but
never covetousness from a fool.

Book xx. i. These bugbears, Lamiae, which the Fauni and Numas
set up at these he trembles, and sets all down as true. . . .
Just as little children believe that all the statues of brass are
alive and human beings, just so these men believe all these
fables to be true, and think there is a heart inside these brazen
statues.

Book xxvi. i. Men, by their own act, bring upon themselves this
trouble and annoyance ; they marry wives, and bring up children,
by which they cause these.



THE ROMAN SATIRISTS 3

Book xxix. 53- ... while they are extricating others, they get

into the mud themselves.
Book xxx. 12. . . . the milder she is, the more savagely she

bites.

Contemporaneous with Lucilius was SPURIUS MUMMIUS.
He was a brother of Lucius Mummius, and his legate at
Corinth in 146-145 B.C., when Lucius captured that city. Like
Lucilius he was an intimate friend of the young Scipio
Africanus. In political opinions Spurius was opposed to his
brother Lucius, being a noted aristocrat. He composed
ethical and satirical epistles, which were extant in Cicero's
day, and were probably in the style which Horace afterwards
cultivated so successfully.

QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS, known in modern litera-
ture as Horace (B.C. 65-8), was a writer of odes and satires,
for his epodes and epistles many be considered as belonging
to the latter class. His biography and his characteristics as
a poet are presented elsewhere in this volume. It will suffice
here to state that his satires were founded upon Lucilius ; like
him, he combined observations upon persons and customs of
the day with literary criticism, but unlike him, he was modest,
conciliatory, genial, full of kindly advice rather than splenetic
fault-finding: he was anxious, says Simcox, to show the
reader his faults without making him wince, to get him to
join his monitor in a good-humored laugh at his own expense.
If he is severe, it is with persons who deserve it.

Such a person was CASSIUS SEVERUS, at whom Horace
directed his sixth Epode. This man was a celebrated orator
and satirical writer, born about B.C. 50 at Longula, in Latium.
He was a man of low origin and dissolute character, but was
much feared for his caustic attacks upon the Roman nobles.
Augustus, towards the latter part of his reign, banished
Severus to the island of Crete on account of his libellous
verses; but, as he still continued to write libels, he was re-
moved by Tiberius in A.D. 24 to the desert island of Seriphus,
where he died in great poverty in the twenty-fifth year of his
exile, A.D. 33.

An avowed imitator of Lucilius and Horace was FLACCUS
AULUS PERSIUS. He was born A.D. 34 at Volaterrae, in



4 INTRODUCTION

Etruria, of a good equestrian family. He lost his father
when six years old, and at the age of twelve he was sent to
Rome to be educated. He sat under the instruction of the
most eminent teachers, in particular, one Annseus Cornutus,
who imitated him in the Stoic philosophy. Indeed, he re-
mained the devoted friend and disciple of Cornutus through-
out life, and dying before the master, bequeathed to him his
library with a considerable sum of money.

In his youth Persius made a few attempts at lyric verse,
but, becoming convinced that he had no true poetic faculty,
he burned the effusion and thereafter devoted himself to
satiric verse, taking as his masters Lucilius and Horace. On
his early death in the year 62 A.D., the six satires which he
left, after some slight revision by Cornutus, were published
by his friend Caesius Bassus.

Persius deals with the moral corruption of his age from
the standpoint of a Stoic preacher of ethics. His mode of
expression is frequently difficult and involved to the verge of
obscurity, and therefore requires copious annotation. How-
ever, his power of epigram compensates for his lack of clear-
ness and fluency of expression, many of his terse phrases hav-
ing passed into literature.

DECIMUS JUNIUS JUVENALIS, the greatest of the Roman
satirists, the son of a rich freedman, was born at Aquinum
between A.D. 57 and 67. His biography and his characteristics
as a satirist are presented elsewhere in this volume.

The last of the Latin satirists was SULPICIA, a Roman
poetess who flourished towards the close of the first century
A.D. She is celebrated for a number of love poems, addressed
to her husband (see Tibullus, in volume four). To her is also
ascribed a satirical poem, in seventy hexameters, on the edict
of Domitian by which philosophers were banished from Italy.
It was found in the monastery at Bobbio in Italy in 1493 A - D -



THE

WORKS OF HORACE

RENDERED INTO ENGLISH PROSE BY
JAMES LONSDALE, M.A.

LATE FELLOW AND TUTOR OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD, AND
CLASSICAL PROFESSOR IN KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON

AND

SAMUEL LEE, M.A.

LATIN LECTURER AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON, AND LATE
SCHOLAR OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE



WITH EXCEPTION OF THE ODES, WHICH HAVE BEEN
TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE BY

CHARLES EDWIN BENNETT, LITT.D.

PROFESSOR OF LATIN IN CORNELL UNIVERSITY



X 2



GENERAL INTRODUCTION

THE LIFE AND WORKS OF HORACE

QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS was born near the source
of one of the southern tributaries of the impetuous Aufidus,
now called Ofanto, the river of Apulia, often mentioned by
him, and so dear to his early recollections that he exalts it to
be a representative stream, as had been used the harmonious
names of Maeander and Eurotas, and the other rivers of the
poetry of Greece. Venusia, now Venosa, his birth-place, is
1 situate in a beautiful country on the side of the Apen-
nines towards the Adriatic. In this romantic region he wan-
dered as a child near the pointed peaks of the moun-
tain Vultur, or under Acherontia, built like a nest on a steep
hill, or amid the woods and glens of Bantia, or by the lowly
village of Forentum. The Apennines with their sombre for-
ests of pine, and summits rising over each other, described
so well in the Mysteries of Udolpho, had charms for Goethe,
though a foreigner; and a poetic child born amongst them
would find them a meet nurse. In the poetry of the ancients
there are none of those elaborate and idealized descriptions of
scenery found so often in modern writers; yet Horace, like
Virgil, often gives a picture of places by epithets carefully
chosen. When his fame as a poet was established, he would
look back with a natural gratitude to the scenery of his child-
hood, and fancy that the gods protected the spirited boy from
bears and serpents in his roamings among the hills, and
that doves, the birds of Venus, like the robin redbreasts of
later stories, threw on the sleeping child leaves of sacred myr-
tle and holy bay.

Venusia had been an important Roman colony for upwards
of 300 years, ever since the days of the Samnite wars. Hither
fled some of the Roman troops after the defeat at Cannae.
Nature never intended Horace for a soldier : but he, who was

7



8 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

born in a military town, became for a short time a tribune or
colonel in the Roman army, and often expresses an admira-
tion for Roman courage in war.

Horace nowhere makes mention of his mother, and we do
not know whether she was a freed-woman, or free-born; he
only says in one place that he was the child of lowly parents.
It is likely enough that she died when he was young; else
Horace, whose character is marked by affectionate gratitude,
would probably have mentioned her. There is hardly any-
thing more beautiful in the writings of antiquity than the
way in which he speaks of that good father, whom he says
he would not change for any parent who had held high office
in the state. His father spared no expense and pains in his
education. By him was the boy guarded from every taint of
evil. None of the other Roman poets (except Terence, who
was a slave, but born at Carthage, and of what rank there we
do not know,) sprang from so humble an origin. His father
had been a slave. No wonder, as Horace himself tells us,
and as Suetonius in his Life of Horace observes, that his
father's low estate and calling were made a reproach to the
prosperous friend of Augustus and Maecenas. How bravely
Horace answered this taunt, every reader of the poet knows.

Horace must have profited much by the lessons which he
had in Livius Andronicus, and the other early poets of Rome,
though he did not, when a man, highly esteem those authors
who had cost him many a flogging, even as he has caused
many a flogging to schoolboys since. His teacher, Or-
bilius, was like many a teacher, sour-tempered, free-spoken,
given to whipping, one who earned more fame than
money, and had reason to complain of the interference of
parents. But if Horace, when delivered from the rod of Or-
bilius, the grammarian, had received no more education, he
had never been the Lyric poet of Rome. To a school was to
be added a University, and kindly Athens, the only city in
the world that could do it, was to finish what Rome had be-
gun, and Greek literature was to crown Latin, that he, like
his friend Maecenas, might be learned in both tongues. How
Horace's father obtained the means to send his son to Athens
we may well wonder, when we consider the expense of an



LIFE AND WORKS OF HORACE 9

education at that fashionable University. Horace, at the time
he left Italy for Greece, must have taken leave of the good
father, whom he was never to see again.

At Athens Horace became familiar with Greek literature,
he was a seeker after truth in the groves of Academus, he
tried his hand at Greek verses, Greek Iambics perhaps, or
Greek Elegiacs, or Greek Lyrics, till, as he playfully imag-
ines, one night when he was sleeping, behold, the divine
founder of Rome, who recognised in him a true son of Italy,
no mere imitator or translator of Greek poetry, appeared in
a dream that issued after midnight from the gate of horn,
and forbade his attempting such a superfluous work. Thus,
as the scenery of the Apennines, the liberality of his father,
his early residence at Rome, the teaching of severe Orbilius,
all tended to make Horace what he was destined to be, so did
Athens contribute its share towards this end, both directly
and indirectly ; directly by teaching him Greek literature and
philosophy, indirectly by the circumstances into which he was
thrown owing to the public events which were then taking
place. There is hardly any one in whose case it is more
plainly to be seen how all kinds of different things concur in
training a man to be what he is meant to be. Walckenaer and
Rigault both remark, that while Horace was a student at
Athens the news came of the assassination of Julius Caesar,
that at that time Cicero sent his treatise on the Offices to his
son, who then was also a student at Athens, in which treatise
Cicero expresses his admiration of the act of the conspirators ;
that the students were many of them the sons of senators,
that the statues of Brutus and Cassius were crowned with
flowers together with those of Harmodius and Aristogiton.

Horace would be carried away by this enthusiasm. Youth
is the age for republican impulses. When Brutus, Cato's
son-in-law, came there, he would appear to the young Horace
the true representative of republican principles. Even sup-
posing that Horace was at that time an Epicurean, of which
however we cannot be certain, his zeal for republicanism
would prevent his taking offence at the Stoic opinions of
Brutus. How Horace, so young and of such lowly origin,
became a military tribune in the army of Brutus is as difficult



10 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

to understand as many points in history must always be.
That in the service of Brutus, in the midst of his military
life, he had those natural spirits and love of fun which were
characteristics of his joyous nature, is plain from the seventh
Satire of the first book, which is interesting, as being in all
probability the earliest remaining production of the poet.

The military career of Horace and his republican enthu-
siasm were soon terminated by the decisive defeat of Philippi,
after which, as Tacitus says, the republic, as republic, fought
no battles. To Horace the day was not fatal, as to many
others: like the lyric poet of Lesbos, the future lyric poet of
Italy threw away his shield, which was not well, as he him-
self confesses. But this short portion of the life of Horace,
forming such a contrast to his earlier and latter days, con-
tributed its part towards making him the writer he became.
Three times has he mentioned Cato, the father-in-law of Bru-
tus, speaking in one place of his unconquered spirit, in another
of his virtue, in a third of his glorious death. The exploits
of republican Rome are dear to the poet. The worthies of
the ancient commonwealth, Regulus, ^Emilius Paullus, Ca-
millus and Fabricius, are not unsung by him. He has a feel-
ing for the ancient simplicity, and a belief in the morality,
of the days of old. No one sets forth more strongly than he
does the madness and impiety of civil war. Had he not seen
the evil with his own eyes, himself a part of it? A courtier
he became afterwards, but still a patriotic poet.

After the battle of Philippi he returned to Italy, with
farm lost, humbled in hopes, like a bird whose wings are
clipped. These were his dark days. He says that bold pov-
erty drove him to write verses. From the days of his pov-
erty and obscurity he no doubt learnt something, as all wise
men do. Some of the sterner and more manly passages of
his poetry, and those which recommend a spirit undisturbed
by all the changes of fortune, owe something to his having
known the hardships of adversity. However, the iron never
entered deeply into his joyous soul. If it had, it might have
crushed the poetic spirit and light heart within him. The
evil days were few. Whether he knew Virgil in earlier days,
or had met him at Athens, or whether Virgil, his elder by



LIFE AND WORKS OF HORACE 11

five years, had seen some of his youthful poems, he found in
him and Varius friends in the hour of need. This was the
turning-f,oint of his life. Horace tells us shortly how he
appeared before the great man on that eventful day so full
of fate to Horace, to Maecenas himself, to literature. He
was diffident and shy, and his speech was broken and stam-
mering. He told the simple truth of himself, his father, his
means. Few were the words of the patron in reply. Maece-
nas did not give his friendship lightly : but, nine months after,
Horace became his friend.

Horace owed not only the happiness of his life, but his
fame as a poet and writer, to this interview with Maecenas.
The one or two bitter Epodes which he probably wrote in the
days of his adversity are not to be compared with the happy
outpourings of his soul in the days of his prosperity. Juve-
nal was right, when he says that Horace was comfortable on
the day that he burst out in the praises of the God Bacchus.
A joyous, not a bitter spirit, was needed for the writer of the
Satires and Epistles of Horace. His Sabine farm 1 and his
quiet valley inspired those of the Odes which breathe content-
ment and joy. The times of his adversity lasted about three
years; the bright sun of prosperity shone upon him for full
thirty years, and few and light were the clouds that passed
over it, till the hour of his last illness, when death came
swiftly upon him. Few men ever had a more pleasant life
than the poet ; he had a good father, a liberal education, gen-
ius, a Muse ready to his call, popularity, independence, con-
tentment, honour, troops of friends. Against this are to be
set troubles and difficulties soon over, a certain amount of
rivalry and jealousy, and health that was not robust. Though
he had not all the conditions of a happy life, which Martial
enumerates, yet he had a goodly share of them.

Horace tells us that he wrote for his friends, not for the
public. But we are all his friends now. The works of Varius

1 This famous farm has recently been located by an archaeologist at
Tivoli, a suburb of Rome. It consisted of only two acres, but its
proud owner gave it a fame that covers more space in literature
than any other agricultural domain. M. M. M.



12 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

are lost, and there was no opportunity for Virgil in his poems
to mention his brother poet. Horace's name does not appear
in the verses of Propertius or Tibullus, though to Tibullus
Horace has written an Ode and an Epistle. Ovid is the only
one of the contemporary poets who mentions him, saying
that tuneful Horace charmed his ears by his finished odes
sung to the Italian lyre. It is odd that Martial, enumerating
the birth-places of famous Latin poets, has omitted Horace,
for the Flaccus there spoken of is Valerius Flaccus, a very
inferior Flaccus. However, in other places Martial joins
Horace's name with Virgil ; and it is plain from Persius, who
lived only about sixty years after Horace, and from Juvenal
and Quintilian, that Horace had soon become a standard
author.

In the middle ages his fame fell far short of that of Vir-
gil, probably it did not equal even that of Lucan; but since
the revival of the classical literature Horace has been without
comparison the most popular of Latin authors; indeed there
is no Greek so popular, hardly any modern one. Dr. Doug-



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