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This is Volume Fifteen of a complete set of
THE CLASSICS GREEK AND LATIN

consisting of fifteen volumes issued strictly as
a Limited Edition. In Volume One will be
found a certificate as to the Limitation of the
Edition and the Registered Number of this Set.




CATO MAIOR COGNOMENO CENSORIVS

Rudiibns tan turn sccculi sni urtusratc sfcuuctus, certffdm cbtjucntid pnnwis

Ex Dnctuliothcca Riluy VrJini HI qnnnin





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>fAIOR COGiNC






CATO MAJOR, CALLED THE CENSOR
From an old engraving made from an ancient gem

"IN ELOQUENCE SECOND, ONLY BECAUSE OF THE ANTIQUE FASHION
OF HIS RUDER AGE; OTHERWISE FIRST."

See the Life of Cato, by Nepos. Page 124.



HE MOST CELEBRATED



WORKS OF HELLENIC



AND ROMAN LITERATVRE, EM-



BRACING POETRY, ROMANCE,



HISTORY, ORATORY, SCIENCE,



AND PHILOSOPHY, TRANS-



LATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE



AND VERSE BY DISTINGVISHED



MEN OF LETTERS, WITH CRIT-



ICAL APPRECIATIONS BY AN



INTERNATIONAL COVNCIL OF



CLASSICAL SCHOLARS.



MARION MILLS MILLER, Litt.D.



(PRINCETON) EDITOR IN CHIEF










1



I
I

s

1



THE CLASSICS

GREEK AND LATIN



CONTRIBUTING CLASSIC COUNCIL

J. P. MAHAFFY, D.C.L., Trinity College, Dublin
SIR ALEXANDER GRANT, LL.D., Edinburgh
EDWARD POSTE, M.A., Oxford University
J. H. FREESE, M.A., Cambridge University
BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University

JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Harvard University

HENRY P. WRIGHT, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Yale University
HARRY THURSTON PECK, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, Columbia University
SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, Princeton University
CHARLES E. BENNETT, LITT.D.,

Professor of Latin, Cornell University
WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, LITT.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Pennsylvania
JOHN DAMEN MAGUIRE, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Catholic University of America
PAUL SHOREY, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Chicago
MARTIN LUTHER D'OOGE, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Michigan
ANDREW J. BELL, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, University of Toronto
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MERRILL, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, University of California
MARY LEAL HARKNESS, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, Tulane University



MARION MILLS MILLER, LITT. D. (Princeton)
Editor-in-Chief



VINCENT PARKE AND
COMPANY, NEW YORK





Stack
Annex



COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY

VINCENT PARKE AND COMPANY,

NEW YORK



THE LATIN
CLASSICS



Romance
Biography
Anthology







Stack Annex
fj*



CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION : PAGE

CLASSICAL ROMANCES ...... xiii

By Harry Thurston Peck, L.H.D., Professor of
Latin in Columbia University

INTRODUCTION :

THE LIFE OF PETRONIUS ARBITER .... 7

Translated from the French of M. St. Evremont, by
Mr. Thomas Brown

TRIMALCHIO'S FEAST :

From the SATYRICON OF PETRONIUS ARBITER.
Translated by Mr. Wilson . . . . . 15

INTRODUCTION :

APULEIUS, THE LATIN LUCIAN .... 65

By Sir George Head

THE -STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE:

From the METAMORPHOSES, or THE GOLDEN Ass, of
APULEIUS. Translated by William Adlington . 71

INTRODUCTION :

THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF CORNELIUS NEPOS . . 107

By Rev. John Selby Watson, M.A.

SELECTIONS FROM BIOGRAPHIES BY NEPOS:

Translated by Rev. John Selby Watson, M.A.
LIFE OF HAMILCAR . . . . . . in

LIFE OF HANNIBAL . . . . . 114

LIFE OF MARCUS PORCIUS CATO . . . . 124



x CONTENTS

PAGE

INTRODUCTION :

SUETONIUS, THE PAUL PRY OF HISTORY . . . 129
By Charles Whibley

THE HISTORIES OF THE OESARS, BY SUETONIUS:

Translated by Philemon Holland

JULIUS CESAR . . . . . . . 135

AUGUSTUS CESAR ....... 167

TIBERIUS ........ 190

CALIGULA ........ 231

CLAUDIUS . . . . . . . . 274

NERO ......... 309

THE LATIN ANTHOLOGY:

Selections from the Minor Latin Poets Rendered
into English Verse by Sir Charles Abraham Elton,
with Critical Biographies by the same- . . 361

CALLUS ALBINOVANUS CORNELIUS SEVERUS GRA-
TIUS MANILIUS PH^EDRUS CALPURNIUS SICULUS
LUCAN VALERIUS FLACCUS SILIUS ITALICUS
MARTIAL STATIUS ANONYMOUS: The Vigil of
Venus



ILLUSTRATIONS



5. PAGE

CATO MAJOR, CALLED THE CENSOR . . . . Frontispiece
From an old engraving made from an ancient gem

MARK ANTONY DELIVERING CESAR'S FUNERAL ORATION . 162

From a painting by Joseph Desiri Court

HORATIUS AT THE BRIDGE ....... 376

From a painting by Vincenzio Camucinni



INTRODUCTION




CLASSICAL ROMANCES

BY HARRY THURSTON PECK, L. H. D.
Professor of Latin in Columbia University

HE novel and romance of classical antiquity
were both developed out of the anecdote and
the short story. In fact, the history of prose
fiction is very like the history of poetry; for
the long poem, such as the epics of Homer, are
really formed out of brief lyrics and poetical
narratives which gradually become woven together into a con-
sistent and harmonious whole. The anecdote and the short
story are older than recorded literature, from their very na-
ture. At first a person tells another person of some more or
less remarkable occurrence which he has witnessed ; the second
person tells it to a third with additions and embellishments;
and thus it is passed along until it represents something more
than a truth or a fact, and becomes a short story to be classed
as unconscious fiction. Later, persons deliberately invent all
sorts of tales so as to give pleasure to others, and this is the
beginning of conscious fiction.

The oldest stories in prose which have come down to us
in Greek are found in the history written by Herodotus in the
fifth century before Christ. These are gems of the narrator's
art; for Herodotus had an instinct for whatever was pic-
turesque and striking; and he records in his history a large
number of tales which he heard during his extensive travels
in Persia, Egypt and the lands bordering on the Black Sea.
He does not vouch for their authenticity, but merely sets
them down as being current among the people whom he met.
Some of them are very brief, while others are long as many
of the short stories of Hawthorne or of Edgar Allan Poe.



xiv INTRODUCTION

They are told with an artful simplicity which adds to their
effectiveness; and in some of them the element of the super-
natural is very deftly introduced.

Prose fiction, however, standing alone, did not appeal to
the Greeks until a later period. They preferred the epic poem
or the acted drama ; and, though we find the beginnings of the
novel in Plato, and the first continued love-story in Xenophon's
Cyropaedia, it is not until a century or so before Christ that
anything like novels or romances written in prose found in-
terested readers. It is worth noting, too, that most of the
Greeks who began to write prose fiction were natives of Asia
rather than of Greece itself. Hence, it is likely that story-
telling as a profession is to be traced to Persia and the oriental
countries where it has always flourished.

The principal defect in the romances of Greece is to be
found in the fact that they are destitute of one element which
gives beauty and interest to our modern fiction. This element
is the element of romantic love, of which the Greeks knew
little or nothing, Courtship and marriage with them
were prosaic affairs; and the Greek wife was kept in
a sort of oriental seclusion. Therefore, these early
novels dealt more with the mysteries of strange lands,
the dangers of the sea, the exploits of pirates and rob-
bers, and the mysticism of witchcraft and magic, than
with those more personal and appealing phases of human life
which the modern novel-reader finds to be the most attractive
of all things. The short stories which were circulated under
the title of "Milesian Tales," were not therefore truly ro-
mantic. When they dealt with women, the women were slave
girls or adventuresses, and the point of the story had to do
rather with the play of wits than with the attraction of hearts.
One can find examples of these Milesian tales in the strange
romance by APULEIUS, written in Latin and entitled The
Golden Ass. In his preface to the book, Apuleius frankly says
that he is merely stringing together a number of Milesian
stories connected by a slender thread of plot. Among them,
however, is the very striking narrative which might be called
The Adventures of a Commercial Traveler, and there is also
that very beautiful tale, half allegory and half romance, which



CLASSICAL ROMANCES . xv

is known as Cupid and Psyche, 1 and which has inspired poets,
painters and sculptors of modern times by its pathos and love-
liness.

Taking up the classical romances, however, in their chrono-
logical order, we may note that the oldest is probably the
loosely composed story of adventure written by one ANTON-
lus DIOGENES and called The Marvels Beyond Thule. A very
tenuous love plot enables the author to give his imagination
full rein, for he takes his characters to the uttermost parts of
the earth and makes them undergo the most extraordinary ex-
periences, among them being a visit to the moon which is the
forerunner, in classical times, of the well-known story, A
Journey to the Moon, written by Jules Verne.

We find the development of plot in a novel styled Babylo-
nica compose.d by a Syrian Greek, IAMBLICHUS, and by an
Ephesian named XENOPHON, whose novel, Epheslaca, is the
ultimate source of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.

Two novels written by Greeks stand out conspicuously.
One is the ^Ethiopica 2 of HELIODORUS of the fourth century
A.D._, and it is usually considered the best novel of adventure
written by any Greek author. It is quite long and is con-
structed with some art. The writer has woven his episodes
together so closely as to give them consistency and compact-
ness. The book has, indeed a very modern tone. One of its
most interesting features is a physiological question upon
which the whole story turns. A swarthy Ethiopian queen,
when about to become a mother, has before her always a white
marble statue of great beauty upon which she continually
gazes. Such is the pre-natal influence of this fact, that she
gives birth to a white child. Her husband therefore suspects
her of infidelity, and this sets on foot a number of complica-
tions which are continued throughout the novel until it reaches
what would now be called " a happy ending."

Another story of uncertain date and also of uncertain

*A translation of Cupid and Psyche by William Adlington (1566
A.D.) is included in the present volume.

2 Translations of the JEthiopica of HELIODORUS and of Daphnis and
Chloe (ascribed to LONGUS) will be found in volume seven of THE
GREEK CLASSICS.



xvi INTRODUCTION

authorship, is the famous Daphnis and Chloc.' 1 Here we find
anticipated what Ruskin styles " the pathetic fallacy" that is
to say the notion that external, physical nature is in sympathy
with human interests and emotions. Such a belief seems to
run through the novels of Zola in modern times, and of the
late Frank Norris, who was a conscious imitator of Zola.
Daphnis and Chloe has a very curious theme. It relates to
the unconscious growth of the sex instinct in a boy and a girl
who have been reared together from their earliest infancy in
a state of perfect innocence. The book is written with much
charm of style and has been widely imitated for the last two
centuries. It is the immediate source of Gessner's idyll,
Daphnis, written in German, and of the very celebrated story,
Paul and Virginia, composed by the French writer, Bernardin
de Saint Pierre a book which was so much liked by Napoleon
that he carried a copy of it with him in his campaigns and
read it over and over with delight. It was also consciously
copied by Zola in his Fortune des Rougon through those chap-
ters which relate the innocent love of Silvere and Miette. In
English it is the original of Alan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd.

In Latin there were undoubtedly many novels written, but
only two of importance have survived. These, however, are
in every way superior to anything which the Greek romancers
at any time produced. One is The Golden Ass of APULEIUS,
written in the second century of our era and already men-
tioned in the foregoing pages. It is a most entertaining and
curious book of adventure, often indecent yet always inter-
esting. Apuleius was an African by birth, a teacher of rhet-
oric by profession and a mystic in faith. He combines in this
one book the tropical luxuriance of an exotic imagination, the
florid metaphors of a rhetorician and the strange fancies which
belong to mysticism.

The most accomplished artist in the writing of fiction,
among all those who flourished in classical antiquity was GAIUS
PETRONIUS, a Roman though possibly of Gallic extraction,



1 Translations of the JEthiopica of HELIDORUS and of Daphnis and
Chloe (ascribed to LONGUS) will be found in volume seven of THE
GREEK CLASSICS.



CLASSICAL ROMANCES xvii

who was a brilliant figure in the fashionable world during the
reign of Nero. He possessed great ability and could show
himself, when he chose, a man of action. But he preferred to
give himself over to luxury and to set the fashions for Nero's
court. If we reconstruct him from the slight notices that we
possess, we find a man of wit, of keen observation, of wide
reading and with a perfect knowledge of the world, equally at
home in the slums, in the little country towns and at the im-
perial palace. At heart, he was inspired by a superb disdain
for the degenerate men and women who surrounded him. His
novel, of which we have only part of a single book, is in essence
a satire upon his times. He does not denounce, nor does he
jeer; but he draws a vividly realistic picture of the newly rich,
the shameless poor, the pedantic scholars and the sinister code
of morals that he knew so well. He alone of all ancient fic-
tion writers understood the meaning of realism. Just as Zola
with heavy hand and a sort of sledge-hammer ferocity ex-
posed the rottenness of the Second Empire in France, so Pe-
tronius etches for us with a mordant acid the vices of the
Neronian era. Instead of condemning what he shows us, he
lets it stand forth as self -condemned by his wonderful por-
traiture. His characters, each of whom speaks after the man-
ner of his kind, are living, breathing human beings. Around
them coruscates the lambent unshaded light of the author's
knowledge, while his wit gives pungency to his descriptions.
This book of Petronius deserves to be immortal. It has been
read and quoted ever since he wrote it. Its spirit is as modern
as though it had been written yesterday. 1

Thus we see that classical fiction shows us all the types
that have been developed in after years the anecdote, the
short story, the romance, the novel of adventure, the histori-
cal novel, the psychological novel and the realistic novel. For
some curious reason fiction has never been taken as seriously
as other forms of literary art. Rousseau was the first to pro-
claim it the equal of the drama. Its influence has been even



1 A portion of this book, the Satyricon, is found in the present vol-
ume. The selection is entitled Trimalchio's Feast, and it is in the
translation of Mr. Wilson, a writer of the seventeenth century.
XV 2



xviii INTRODUCTION

greater than the influence of the stage. Much of what the an-
cients wrote in this genre has perished, and probably most of
it deserved to perish. Yet we must not forget that, in the early
centuries of the Christian era, novel reading was as great a
passion as it is to-day. The church fathers comment upon the
avidity with which romances and works of fiction are eagerly
devoured. Hence it is evident that twenty centuries ago im-
aginative prose played an important part in the intellectual di-
versions of men and women everywhere. It continued to do
so down through the Middle Ages; and to-day it has become
a great engine of public opinion, made more powerful and ef-
fective, yet nevertheless exhibiting no forms that were un-
known at Rome, in Athens and throughout Hellenic Asia.



TRIMALCHIO'S
FEAST

FROM THE

S ATYRICON

OF

PETRONIUS ARBITER

Made lEtujltslj by Mr. Wilson of the
Middle Temple



With an Introductory

LIFE OF PETRONIUS ARBITER

Written by Monsieur St. Evremont:
Made futgltalf by Mr. Tho. Brown,



THE

LIFE

OF

PETRONIUS ARBITER.

Written by Monsieur St. Evremont;
Made 3tujlt0Ij by Mr. Tho. Brown.

TITUS PETRONIUS was a Roman Knight, de-
scended from that Branch of the Family of the
Petronius's, which deriv'd their Original from the
Sabincs, and who gave so many great Men to the Service of
the Roman Republick. We cannot doubt but he was brought
up with the same prudent Care that they then employ'd at
Rome, in the Education of Children of Quality, and that his
Genius was continually exercis'd and cultivated in the attain-
ment of polite Learning, even from his very Youth; for in
those things the Romans were as strict and severe as the
Greeks. Petronius himself was also naturally and more par-
ticularly inclin'd to the Study of good Literature; and it's
apparent that he excell'd in it, by the Ingenuity and Polite-
ness he has discover'd in his Writings.

When he had compleated himself in the first Rudiments in
Learning, he made his appearance at the Imperial Court of
Claudius; but his great Assiduity there was no impediment to
the chief design of perfecting himself in the Liberal Sciences,
and therefore employ'd his leisure Hours in making Declama-
tions, which was the custom of those times, in order to exer-
cise and enable their young Men of the first Quality to speak
in Publick, for which purpose they had Schools to Declaim

7



8 INTRODUCTION

in, and by this successful method, furnish'd themselves with
so many famous Oratours, both in their Senate and Armies;
to the great advantage of their Republick.

The Court of Claudius was then the very Seat or Mansion
of Pleasures; for the Empress Messalina employ'd all her
Cares and Thoughts to make it so, in accommodating it with
all imaginable Delights and Recreations, which she more easily
accomplish'd, by having a great Ascendant over the Person
and Inclinations of the Emperor; for he being a weak Prince,
comply'd with every thing, provided they accommodated him
with a plentiful Table, for he was an extreme lover of good
Eating, and of drinking Wine even to excess; and his Cour-
tiers following the Example of their Prince, Debauchery was
no less familiar with them.

Petronius becoming a Courtier under a Reign where the
manner of living was agreeable to his Temper, he also became
insensibly Voluptuous; tho' at the same time it was observ'd,
that he took no delight in the brutal Pleasures of Love, like
Messalina, nor in those of the Table and Drunkenness with
Claudius; only in a gallant and delicate manner took a relish
of both, rather to gratifie his Curiosity than his Senses. In
this manner he employ'd a part of the Day in Sleeping, and
dedicated the whole Night to Pleasure and Business. His
House was the Rendezvous of the better sort of the People of
Rome: He pass'd away his time agreeably with those that
visited him, and with others was celebrated for Intrigues.
Petronius also procur'd himself a Reputation by an agreeable
Employment, and in a method of acting easily, readily and
freely, and his natural way of discoursing. One might then
represent him in a continual exercise of Wit in Conversation,
in the most charming Pleasures of the Table, publick Sights,
Gaming, and in spending his Estate, not like a Prodigal and
Debauchee, but like a nice and learned Artist in the Science of
Voluptuousness.

When Petronius had thus pass'd away his Youth, in a
Life of so much softness and Tranquility, he took a Resolu-
tion, to convince those that doubted of the extent of his Mind
and Qualifications, that he was capable of the first and chief-
est Employments in the Government ; for putting an Interval



LIFE OF PETRONIUS ARBITER 9

to his Pleasures, he accepted the Office of Pro-Consul of Bithy-
nia; went into that Province, where he discharg'd all the
Duties of his Place with great Applause; but having put a
period to that exercise of his Parts, and returning to Rome,
Nero, who succeeded Claudius in the Empire, in recompense
of the Services, made him Consul. This new Dignity gave
him a great and ready Access to the Emperor, who at first
honour'd him with his Esteem, and afterwards with his
Friendship, in acknowledgment of the sumptuous Entertain-
ments he sometimes gave that Prince, to refresh him when
fatigued with Business.

The time of Petronius's Consulate being come to a Con-
clusion, after having laboured in quest of Glory, without
quitting the Court, he reassum'd his first manner of living,
and whether it proceeded from his own Inclination, or a de-
sire to please Nero, he soon became one of the Emperor's
Confidents, who could find nothing agreeable to his Humour,
but what was approv'd by Petronius; and being thus possess'd
of the Authority of deciding what might be acceptable, gave
him the Surname of Arbiter, as being Master and Controller
in those Affairs.

Nero, in the first part of his Reign, acted like a very wise
Prince, and apply'd himself with care to the Government of
the State: However Petronius remembered, that he was
naturally inclin'd to Lust and Sensuality, and therefore like
an able Politician, being in possession of his Prince's Mind,
he season'd it with honest Delights, and procur'd him all the
Charms imaginable, in order to remove the thoughts of seek-
ing after others, which peradventure would have been more
disorderly, and to be dreaded by the Republick.

Things continu'd in this posture while the Emperor kept
within the bounds of Moderation, and Petronius acted chear-
fully under him, as Intendant of his Pleasures, ordering him
Shows, Games, Comedies, Musick, Feasts, pleasant Seats in
the Country, with delicious Gardens, charming Lakes, and all
that might contribute towards the making of a Prince's Life
happy and delightful.

But the Emperor some time after complying with his
Nature, chang'd his Conduct, not only in respect of Govern-



10 INTRODUCTION

ing the Empire, but also in relation to his own Person. He
gave ear to the Counsels of others, rather than those of Pe-
tronius, insensibly plung'd into Debauchery, abandon'd him-
self to his Passions, and became as morose and wicked a
Prince, as before he had been pleasant and equitable.

Nero was a learned Prince, of which he had given suffi-
cient Proofs from his Youth ; for at Fifteen Years of Age he
pleaded in the Senate, in his own Tongue, on behalf of the
Boulonnois, and in Greek for the Rhodians; but his Knowl-
edge was confus'd and much embarrass'd.

He also lov'd Men of Wit, and had Courtiers near him,
who following the Corruption of the Court, treated Seneca
like a Pedant, and could not suffer that he should Preach to
them the Exercise of Vertue and Modesty, because they had
imbib'd an Opinion, that he himself did not live like a Philos-
opher in that particular.

Thus continuing frequently to ridicule him, it at length
insinuated into the Emperor's Mind, and expos'd him to his
Contempt, which being joyn'd with his own Knowledge of
the unjust ways by which he had acquir'd the immense Riches
he was possess'd of, his Contempt grew into Hatred, and his
Hate at last caus'd the Ruin of Seneca.

And now indeed Petronius saw with sorrow, that the Em-
peror began to hide himself from him, and sometimes to shun
him, and that, following his own corrupt Inclinations, he was
grown utterly debauch'd, and forgot what he ow'd to his
Imperial Dignity, that he would frequently run wild up and
down the Streets, and into wicked Places, outraging all he
met, and would also offer Violencies to Roman Ladies of the
best Quality.

The Favour to which Petronius was rais'd had also drawn
upon him the Jealousie of those who pretended, as well as he,
to the Grace and Favour of the Prince, and, among others,
that of Tigillinus, Captain of the Guards, who was a danger-
ous Rival. This Man, of obscure Birth and Corrupt Manners,
had in a short time acquir'd a great power over the Emperor's
Genius, and as he perfectly knew his blind side, began seri-



Online LibraryMarion Mills MillerThe classics, Greek & Latin; the most celebrated works of Hellenic and Roman literatvre, embracing poetry, romance, history, oratory, science, and philosophy (Volume 15) → online text (page 1 of 50)