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The classics, Greek & Latin; the most celebrated works of Hellenic and Roman literatvre, embracing poetry, romance, history, oratory, science, and philosophy (Volume 8) online

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This is Volume Eight of a complete set of
THE CLASSICS GREEK AND LATIN

consisting of fifteen volumes issued strictly as
a Limited Edition. In Volume One will be
found a certificate as to the Limitation of the
Edition and the Registered Number of this Set.






ANDR







J3 T .avAJ* A H.i3>

-OOD3M ,01. W 1051 > 01 iH ' f '

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A ROMAN SLAVE MARKET
From a painting by Gustave Boulanger

PLAUTUS, THE FIRST LATIN DRAMATIST, WAS THE SON OF A SLAVE,
AND TERENCE, THE OTHER GREAT LATIN COMIC DRAMATIST, WAS HIM-
SELF A SLAVE. TERENCE WAS A CARTHAGINIAN, BROUGHT TO ROME AS
A PRISONER OF WAR, AND SOLD TO A ROMAN SENATOR, WHO, RECOG-
NIZING HIS GENIUS, GAVE HIM HIS FREEDOM. Page 201.



HE MOST CELEBRATED



WORKS OF HELLENIC



AND ROMAN LITERATVRE, EM-



BRACING POETRY, ROMANCE,



HISTORY, ORATORY, SCIENCE,



AND PHILOSOPHY, TRANS-



LATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE



AND VERSE BY DISTINGVISHED



MEN OF LETTERS, WITH CRIT-



ICAL APPRECIATIONS BY AN



INTERNATIONAL COVNCIL OF



CLASSICAL SCHOLARS.



MARION MILLS MILLER, Litt.D.



(PRINCETON) EDITOR IN CHIEF




5



THE CLASSICS

GREEK AND LATIN



CONTRIBUTING CLASSIC COUNCIL

J. P. MAHAFFY, D.C.L., Trinity College, Dublin
SIR ALEXANDER GRANT, LL.D., Edinburgh
EDWARD POSTE, M.A., Oxford University
J. H. FREESE, M.A., Cambridge University
BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University

JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Harvard University

HENRY P. WRIGHT, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Yale University
HARRY THURSTON PECK, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, Columbia University
SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, Princeton University
CHARLES E. BENNETT, LITT.D.,

Professor of Latin, Cornell University

WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, LITT.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Pennsylvania

JOHN DAMEN MAGUIRE, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Catholic University of America

PAUL SHOREY, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Chicago

MARTIN LUTHER D'OOGE, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Michigan
ANDREW J. BELL, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, University of Toronto
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MERRILL, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, University of California
MARY LEAL HARKNESS, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, Tulane University



MARION MILLS MILLER, LITT. D. (Princeton)
Editor-in-Chief



VINCENT PARKE AND
COMPANY. NEW YORK






COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY

VINCENT PARKE AND COMPANY,

NEW YORK



THE LATIN
CLASSICS



Drama E hies




Stack Annex

fA




INTRODUCTION :

PAGE

THE BEGINNINGS OF LATIN LITERATURE ... i

INTRODUCTION :

THE LATIN DRAMATISTS ...... 6

By Andrew J. Bell, M.A., of Toronto University

INTRODUCTION :

LIFE OF PLAUTUS ....... 21

By the Rev. W. Lucas Collins, M.A.

THE COMEDIES OF PLAUTUS:

Translated by Henry Thomas Riley, M.A.
MILES GLORIOSUS [THE BRAGGART CAPTAIN] . . 25
MEN^ECHMI [THE TWIN-BROTHERS] .... 97
CAPTIVI [THE CAPTIVES] . . . . . .151

INTRODUCTION :

LIFE OF TERENCE ....... 201

By the Rev. W. Lucas Collins, M.A.

THE COMEDIES OF TERENCE:

Translated by Henry Thomas Riley, M.A.
HEAUTONTIMORUMENOS [THE SELF-TORMENTOR] . . 205
ADELPHI [THE BROTHERS] ...... 261

SENECA:

THE PHAEDRA, OR HIPPOLYTUS . . . . .311
Translated by Watson Bradshaw, M.D., R.N.

INTRODUCTION : SENECA'S LIFE AND DEATH AND His

WRITINGS ........ 367

By Sir Roger L'Estrange, Knt.

ON ANGER ........ 378



ILLUSTRATIONS



A ROMAN SLAVE MARKET ..... Frontispiece
From a painting by Gustave Boulanger

THE CONTINENCE OF SCIPIO ...... 202

Ecole de Fontainebleau (XVIeme Siecle)

TEMPLE OF JUPITER AT ROME ...... 376

From a painting by Alexander Wagner and J. Bohlmann




INTRODUCTION

THE BEGINNINGS OF LATIN
LITERATURE

O wonder the Romans conquered the world,"
said Heine in his witty account of his educa-
tion ; " they alone had time for doing it they
did not have to study Latin."

The manner in which the little tribe in the
Alban hills who called themselves Latins
gradually imposed their language upon the world causing it
even to-day to be the basic element of linguistic and literary
education in every country, is one of the most striking facts
in racial psychology. Of all primitive people who afterwards
rose to importance, they were the most unliterary. Their
mental habit was prosaic and practical. They lacked imag-
ination. These characteristics are clearly indicated in their
mythology, which was of the crudest, most puerile, most
materialistic sort. The principal deities of the primitive
Latins were not the joyous and kindly personifications of
nature which were chiefly adored by the early Greek worship-
per, but malevolent powers, such as Fever and Miasma, de-
manding propitiation.

The beginnings of Latin poetry were of the same order.
Latin folk-lore largely consisted of spells against malign in-
fluences in the home and the field, and even of spells that were
themselves actively malevolent chants to enrich the enchant-
er's own crop at the expense of a neighbor, or to bring other
misfortune upon him.

There were, it is true, dirges, but these lacked the pathetic
beauty of the Linus hymns of the Greeks, so permeated by
the imaginative conception of nature's sympathy with human
woe; instead, they were designed to propitiate the departed
spirit, lest it should harm the living; even the one noble



2 INTRODUCTION

feature which they possessed in common with the Greek
laments, the praise of the dead man's character, is open to the
suspicion that it was because the living thought it wise and
discreet, rather than appropriate and generous, that they
spoke well of the dead.

This view, perhaps, may do the early Latins some wrong,
for at the feasts (where, if ever, a Roman was inspired with
the joy of life), young men recited songs in praise of ancient
worthies. These were extemporized, and were probably of
little artistic merit, for none has been preserved in litera-
ture. Cato records the fact that he had heard them, but
gives no specimens. The custom was entirely dead before
the time of Cicero, who keenly regretted its passing not so
much, it may be suggested, because of the literary merit of
these eulogies, as for antiquarian and patriotic considerations.

Another literary form of early Latin was the Fescennina,
extemporaneous doggerel verses recited at weddings, harvests,
and other festal occasions of the country folk of ancient Italy.
The name points to the town of Fescennia in Etruria as the
place of its origin, though Festus, a Latin grammarian of
about the second century A.D., derives the name from fas-
cinum, the phallus, and thus connects the songs with the
worship of fertility prevalent among primitive folk un-
doubtedly the true explanation.

These songs at first were permeated with the sardonic
spirit that finds enjoyment in another's pain, being composed
of coarse and unfeeling personal abuse and ridicule. While
this is a common feature of all primitive literatures, it per-
sisted longer with the Romans than with any other people,
informing, indeed, the two most characteristic species of
Latin writings, the Latin Satire (originating with Ennius
and Lucilius, and brought to perfection by Juvenal), and the
Latin Epigram (formed by Martial from the Greek epigram
by the injection therein of the satiric animus).

And yet from the same kind of folk-songs in Sicily, The-
ocritus developed the charming idyl, or pastoral. (See intro-
duction to Theocritus in volume three of THE GREEK
CLASSICS. )

After the Fescennina were taken up by the more cultivated



BEGINNINGS OF LATIN LITERATURE 3

people of the towns and cities, the malicious spirit softened
into good-humored raillery, the verse-maker calling on the
person attacked to answer him in kind. Late in the classic
period, literary form was given to this order of verse by
writers such as MACROBIUS (fourth century A.D.), who made
it a vehicle of personal satire, and CLAUDIAN (fourth century
A.D.), who adapted it for use in an epithalamium on the
marriage of the emperor Honorius.

History had as crude an origin as song and satire among
the Latins. It began with annals; first a bare record of
prodigies, many of them childishly absurd; these were fol-
lowed by chronicles of political events.

The " Annales Maximi " were the records kept by each
successive Pontifix Maximus, who wrote an account of the
events of each year on a white board, and set it up by the
door of his official residence for public inspection. At the
end of the year the board was " filed away " for preservation
and reference.

While the narrative in these Annals began with the
foundation of Rome, this was a traditional account, as all
the early records were destroyed at the time of the capture of
the city by the Gauls under Brennus. The Annals were dis-
continued in 133 B.C., by QUINTUS Mucius SC/EVOLA, be-
cause of their unwieldiness and obsoleteness, historical writ-
ing in both Greek and Latin being well developed by this time
among the Romans. Scsevola published the records in manu-
script, the whole amounting to eighty books.

Great Roman families, such as the Valerii and Fabii, also
kept records of their history. By these were preserved the
stories of the chief men of the past.

It was from such documents, as well as the oral traditions
of his day, that Ennius, the "Father" of Latin literature,
gathered the historical facts that he set forth in his Annals.

QUINTUS ENNIUS was born B.C. 239, at Rudise, in Cala-
bria, a town settled by Greek colonists. Ennius, however,
was a member of the native Oscan race; he believed, indeed,
that he was descended from Messapus, the patriarch of the
land. He said that he had three hearts (or minds), because
he knew three languages, Oscan, Greek, and Latin. He per-



4 INTRODUCTION

fected himself in Latin at Rome, whither he was brought
B.C. 204, by Cato, after the Second Punic War, in which
Ennius had displayed executive capacity in a notable degree.
Scipio Africanus also honored him with friendship, and
dying, the bust of Ennius, who was still living, was placed
beside his tomb, probably by Scipio's order.

Here at Rome Ennius supported himself by teacning
Greek and adapting Greek plays for the Latin stage. In
189 B.C. he accompanied the consul, M. Fulvius Nobilior,
into his province of ^Etolia, as the historian of his adminis-
tration. As a reward for this service the son of Fulvius se-
cured him Roman citizenship, of which the poet was very
proud.

For material rewards he cared little. Cicero has recorded
that he passed his old age in poverty, but with cheerfulness
and even joviality, being fond of convivial intercourse. He
died of the gout at the age of seventy in B.C. 169.

The Annals, the chief work of Ennius, was an epic
chronicle of Roman legend and history beginning with
/Eneas. A number of fragments remain of the work, which
justify the esteem in which all the Romans held the author.
The poem gained immediate popularity. Crowds thronged
to hear it recited, and there persisted for several generations
a populus Ennianus, or class devoted to the poet, through
whose style they had been inducted into literature. Indeed,
it was to please this class that the polished Virgil introduced
into his yEneid many lines in the strong onomatopoeic style
of his early predecessors. What this style was may be gath-
ered from the following line by Ennius :

Semper obundantes hastas frangitque quatitque.
" Ever the whelming wave of spears breaks he, off shakes he."

Ennius, like most of the natives of Magna Grsecia, was
affected by the philosophy of Pythagoras. Thus he believed
in reincarnation, mentioning in his Annals that the soul of
Homer had migrated into his body. He wrote a work called
Epicharmus, which set forth the Pythagorean doctrines,
which both in metrical form and philosophical purpose was



BEGINNINGS OF LATIN LITERATURE 5

a precursor of the masterpiece of Lucretius, the Nature of
Things. In another similar work, the Euhemerus, he set
forth the mythological views of the same great mystic. That
Ennius was also a practical philosopher is indicated by the
titles of two other works, the Protrepticus, or Art of Life,
and the Hedyphagetica, a treatise on gastronomies. He
wrote Saturae, or "mixed poems" in various meters, and
a number of epigrams; both classes became models in form,
though not in spirit, for those most characteristic kinds of
Latin verse, the satire proper of Persius and Juvenal, and the
biting epigram of Martial.

Ennius also won dramatic laurels (although not the first in
Italy) by his paraphrases of the Greek tragedies, chiefly of
Euripides. They were written in the grandiose style which
always appeals to a people in the first stage of literary apper-
ception, and became greatly popular. Cicero, being an orator
and therefore partial to magniloquence, praised the dramas of
Ennius, quoting a number of passages from them. These
are the chief fragments that remain of Ennius's plays.



VIII 2



THE LATIN DRAMATISTS

BY ANDREW J. BELL, M.A.,
Professor of Latin in the University of Toronto

WHEN we regard the origin of the Latin Drama, we feel
that Horace's description of the play as longonim operum finis,
" the end of long toils," has a propriety quite unintended. In
241 B.C., the first Punic War ended in what was nearly a
stale-mate for Roman and Phoenician, and in the next year
a Greek slave, ANDRONICUS, afterwards called LIVIUS from
the name of the master who gave him freedom, exhibited a
play at the Ludi Romani. There were already apparent in
Italy literary sports out of which a native drama might soon
have developed. Italy is the native soil of improvisation, and
already the Fescennine license was in vogue, out of which
Horace, influenced by the nationalist tendencies of his day,
tries to derive the Latin Drama. Nay, in Campania there was
in existence a sort of formal play called the Fabula Atellana,
closely resembling our Christmas pantomimes in its stand-
ing roles.

But Livius was the first to write a Latin play with a
regular and preconceived plot, taking as his model the drama
developed in Athens by Euripides and Menander. When a
mere boy he had been brought captive from Tarentum to
Rome, and after emancipation had earned a living by teaching
Greek to the noble youth at Rome. For this he had used
the Odyssey as a text-book and had been led to attempt a
Latin translation of it to aid his pupils. In this he had used
the native Saturnian metre, probably despairing of writing
hexameters in Latin, a language which, especially in its older
form, through its tendency to syncope and consequent loss of
short syllables, is little fitted for the dactyllic measure of
Homer. But the iambic trimeter, the ordinary dramatic
metre of the Greeks, showed a freedom in its substitution of

6



THE LATIN DRAMATISTS 7

spondees for iambi which, when extended to all feet but the
last, made its use easy for a Latin writer.

Livius's activity in letters seems to have won for him the
favor of the Roman senate; for in 207 B.C., when the
monstrous birth at Frunsino had to be expiated, he was com-
missioned to write a hymn in honor of Juno the queen, who
presided over patrician births, to be sung by thrice nine vir-
gins in procession through the streets of Rome. When,
shortly after, the news came of the victory over Hasdrubal,
bringing light to the patient burghers, the right was granted
him of forming a collegium or guild of writers, to have its
assembly room in the shrine of Minerva on the Aventine ; and
Minerva is henceforth the patron of letters of the Romans.

Like Thespis, Andronicus was the chief actor in his plays,
and as such, too, he found favor with the public; for when
his voice, cracked by old age, was no longer equal to singing
the choral parts, a boy was assigned to sing them, while he
made the appropriate gestures, and hence, Livy tells us, arose
the division of the Roman stage between the diverbium or
spoken dialogue, and the caritica or chorus. The few frag-
ments of Livius that have come down to us hardly seem to
justify this favor. He exhibited both tragedies and comedies,
probably mere translations from Greek originals.

CNAEUS NAEVIUS was, like Livius, a writer of epic verse as
well as of tragedies and comedies, but in both their lives and
writings they present a decided contrast. Livius was a Greek
slave ; a pedagogue who turned the Odyssey into halting verse
hardly worth a second reading, thinks Cicero; an actor who
by his subservience to Roman officials won the praise and
favor of the state. Naevius was born in Campania, of
Roman stock, and told the story of the war, in which he had
served in person, in Saturnians so vigorous that Horace
owned that even in his day they dwelt in the readers' minds
as if of yesterday. He ended his career either in prison or in
exile (both stories are told) for daring to assail the Metelli,
in whose continued consulships he foresaw the fate of their
country.

The comedies of Naevius seem to have outnumbered his
tragedies, and they were no servile copies of Greek plays ; for



8 INTRODUCTION

already he had set the example of contaminatio the union
in one of two Greek plots, which was the favorite device of
Plautus and Terence to give variety to their plays. Schanz
thinks that in his Tarentine Girl he set the example of a
fabula togata a play presenting Italian characters, cultivated
later with distinguished success by Afranius. Of the dozen
verses preserved from this play, some show such vivid
elegance as to have induced Theodor Mommsen to attempt
a translation. In the scantier remains of his tragedies,
mostly from his Lycurgus, we find verses w^hose melody pre-
sents a striking contrast with the limping senarii of Livius;
and one of them,

Laetus sum laudari me abs te, pater, a laudato viro,
" I am glad to be praised by thee, father, a man of renown,"

long remained a winged word on the lips of Romans.

Here, too, Naevius showed his constructive power in a
striking way. Not content with translations from the Greek,
he sought in Roman achievements the material appropriate to
Roman tragedy, and created the fabula praetexia, so highly
commended by Horace. We have in this kind the titles of
two of his pieces, one, the Clastidium, celebrating the victory
of Marcellus over the Gauls, the other, the Lupus or Romu-
lus, the tale of the founding of Rome, a play which furnished
Cicero with a telling reproof to youth interfering in state
affairs. The vigor and skill shown in his Bellum Punicum
remind Cicero of a work of Myron, the sinewy strength of
whose Discobulus we all know. To it we owe the first sketch
in Latin of the tale of Aeneas and Dido, which was later
to furnish to the world the crowning glory of ornate poetry.
Horace speaks of his Saturnians as grave virus, " deadly poi-
son," but when we hear his epitaph,

Immortales mortales si foret fas flere
Flerent divae Carmenae Naevium poetam,

"Were it allowed immortals to bewail mortals, the heavenly Muses
would bewail the poet Naevius,"

we feel in them genuine and lofty poetry that appeals with



THE LATIN DRAMATISTS 9

touching majesty to our minds, and with the more force
since their metre and ornament seem closely akin to that of
our modern verse.

The founders of the Roman drama cultivated both
tragedy and comedy, but from this point we may deal with
these separately. The great body of Latin comedy that has
come down to us is attributed to Titus Maccus or Maccius,
an Umbrian from Sarsina, better known by the name PLAU-
TUS, the Umbrian word for " flat-footed." He was a contem-
porary of Naevius, and in his Miles Gloriosus he ven-
tures to express sympathy with him in his imprisonment.
Gellius tells us that, when Plautus came to Rome, he found
employment at first as a stage carpenter, and, after losing in
mercantile adventures the money thus won, he found him-
self so involved in debt that he had to give himself up as a
slave to his creditors. He was set to grinding in a mill, but,
in the intervals of his task of propelling the millstone and
pushing a sort of windlass, he ventured on the composition of
comedies, three of which, the Saturio, the Addictus, and
one, the name of which Gellius did not know, found such
acceptance with the public, that he was freed from his task
and became chief writer for the Roman comic stage. So far
did he excel all competitors in the popular estimation that in
course of time all older fabulae palliatae (comedies present-
ing Greek characters and scenes) were attributed to Plautus,
as all older Greek poems \vere once attributed to Homer,
and in Cicero's day 130 were current as Plautine. These
Varro divided into three classes: (i) those assigned to
Plautus by all authorities, twenty-one in number; (2) those
ascribed to others in some lists, but worthy of Plautus in plot
and diction; (3) doubtful plays. It is interesting to note
that the Saturio and Addictus were not in the first, but
in the second class. As the Palatine MSS. of Plautus give us
twenty plays in alphabetical order, and the Ambrosian Pa-
limpsest, probably the oldest Latin MS. we have, gives
the same twenty, with remains of the twenty-first, it seems
reasonable to think that it is the twenty-one plays selected by
Varro as genuine, that have been preserved to us.

Most of these plays show great comic power and the



10 INTRODUCTION

rapid and vigorous development of plot which ancient critics
tell us was characteristic of Plautus. Of these twenty plays,
only two, or perhaps three, were borrowed from Menander,
and in a fourth, the Miles Gloriosus, he used a comedy of
Menander for contamination with one of Diphilus. Three
he borrowed from Diphilus and two from Philemon, not,
thought Studemund, because they surpassed Menander's
work, but because their slighter plots and less elaborated
dialogue left Plautus more room for the display of his own
sparkling wit and vigorous constructive skill. One, the
Amphitryo, called in the prologue a tragi-comedy, alone
among Latin comedies gives us a mythological plot, and was
copied by Moliere in a play that does not surpass the original.
Another, the Aulularia, of which the conclusion is lost,
furnished Moliere with the role of Harpagon. A third, the
Menaechmi, one of the freshest and most vigorous, has no
need to fear comparison with Shakspere's copy in the
Comedy of Errors. The Captivi, perhaps the slowest and
tamest of his plays, was praised by Lessing as the finest
comedy ever put on the stage, as that which best fulfilled the
purpose of comedy, and was, moreover, rich in comic orna-
ment. Mackail is charmed by the atmosphere of the
Rudens, which reminds him of Shakspere's Winter's Tale.
In the Pseudolus, in which the Scapin of the piece repeatedly
catches his victim in traps, against which he expressly warns
him, Studemund took especial delight, rinding in it the finest
example in literature of skilful adaptation of metre to theme.
And in the Mostellaria, the Menaechmi, and the Tri-
nummus, we have fine examples of the fabula motoria, " bus-
tling play," in which Plautus excels.

Plautus deserves a high place among the world's greatest
comic poets for the quickness and variety of repartee in his
dialogue. Indeed, the very abundance of his wit often
proves a snare to him, leading him to introduce comic con-
ceits that harmonize ill with the plan of his play. While the
flavor of his wit is rather strong at times, one can see plainly
that he is writing for the old Roman farmers, whose rough
strength and genuine moral worth deserved the success they
won. He seems a perfect master of the colloquial Latin of



THE LATIN DRAMATISTS 11

his time, the language used in the street by the citizen of
average culture. The great scholars of the following cen-
tury, Aelius Stilo, and his disciple, Varro, were agreed in
the opinion that, if the Muses spoke Latin, it would be the
Latin of Plautus. In agreement with this is Cicero's praise:
he speaks of Plautus as elegant and polished and abounding
in genius and wit. Horace blames him as loose and careless
in his dramatic art, and Quintilian passes him over lightly,
reserving his praise for the style of Terence. But the praise



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