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presented to the
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SAN DIEGO

by

MRS. HOWARD B. HOUSMAN



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This is Volume Twelve of a complete set of
THE CLASSICS GREEK AND LATIN

consisting of fifteen volumes issued strictly as
a Limited Edition. In Volume One will be
found a certificate as to the Limitation of the
Edition and the Registered Number of this Set.




HE MOST CELEBRA1
WORKS OF HELLE?



AND ROMAN LITERATVRE, EM-

AND PHILOSOPHY. TRANS-

AND VERSE BY DISTINGV1SHED
MEN OF LETTERS, WITH CRIT-






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".JIOT JAUTD3JJ3TVII OVIA 3UIVI3O ^0 aTDUaOJN 3J8AUJAV QUA JUTt







TITUS LIVIUS
From an engraving in a Seventeenth-Century edition of Livy's

History

MODERN SCHOLARSHIP HAS FIRMLY ESTABLISHED LIVY AS ONE OF THE
GREATEST MASTERS OF HISTORICAL ART. "THE CHARMS OF HIS MANNER
AND SPIRIT, THE TRUTH OF HIS STATEMENTS, AND THE JUSTNESS OF HIS
VIEWS, WILL FOREVER PRESERVE HIS WORK AMONG THE MOST DELIGHT-
FUL AND VALUABLE PRODUCTS OF GENIUS AND INTELLECTUAL TOIL."

Page 179.



HE MOST CELEBRATED



WORKS OF HELLENIC



AND ROMAN LITERATVRE, EM-



BRACING POETRY, ROMANCE,



HISTORY, ORATORY, SCIENCE,



AND PHILOSOPHY, TRANS-



LATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE



AND VERSE BY DISTINGVISHED



MEN OF LETTERS, WITH CRIT-



ICAL APPRECIATIONS BY AN



INTERNATIONAL COVNCIL OF



CLASSICAL SCHOLARS.



MARION MILLSM1LLER, Litt.D.
(PRINCETON) EDITOR IN CHIEF












THE CLASSICS

GREEK AND LATIN




CONTRIBUTING CLASSIC COUNCIL

J. P. MAIIAFFY, D.C.L., Trinity College, Dublin
SIR ALEXANDER GRANT, LL.D., Edinburgh
EDWARD POSTE, M.A., Oxford University
J. H. FREESE, M.A., Cambridge University

BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University

JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D.,

Professor of Greek, Harvard University

HENRY P. WRIGHT, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Yale University

HARRY THURSTON PECK, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, Columbia University
SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, Princeton University
CHARLES E. BENNETT, LITT.D.,

Professor of Latin, Cornell University

WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, LITT.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Pennsylvania

JOHN DAMEN MAGUIRE, PH.D.,

Professor of Latin, Catholic University of America

PAUL SHOREY, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Chicago

MARTIN LUTHER D'OOGE, PH.D.,

Professor of Greek, University of Michigan

ANDREW J. BELL, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, University of Toronto
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MERRILL, L.H.D.,

Professor of Latin, University of California .
MARY LEAL HARKNESS, M.A.,

Professor of Latin, Tulane University



MARION MILLS MILLER, LITT. D. (Princeton)
Editor-in-Chief



VINCENT PARKE AND
COMPANY, NEW YORK



fin

81






Pi

m
^j



1



COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY

VINCENT PARKE AND COMPANY,

NEW YORK



THE LATIN
CLASSICS







CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION :

PAGE

THE ROMAN HISTORIANS . . ; ., ,., .. . i

INTRODUCTION :

CESAR AND His COMMENTARIES . . .., . : . 19
By Anthony Trollope

CESAR'S COMMENTARIES SELECTIONS:

Translated by W. A. McDevitte, B.A.

THE INVASION OF BRITAIN 29

CUSTOMS OF THE GAULS AND GERMANS .... 38
THE SUBJUGATION OF VERCINGETORIX .... 48

INTRODUCTION :

THE LIFE OF SALLUST, BY T. M. . . . . . 105

THE CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE,, BY SALLUST :

Translated by Arthur Murphy, Esq. . . .114

INTRODUCTION :

THE LIFE OF LIVY ....... 179

By George Baker, A.M.

THE SECOND PUNIC WAR [TO THE BATTLE OF CAN-
N^:]_, BY LIVY:

Translated by George Baker, A.M. . . . 184

INTRODUCTION :

THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF TACITUS .... 341
By Arthur Murphy, Esq.

THE GERMANIA OF TACITUS :

Translated by Arthur Murphy, Esq. . . . 354



ILLUSTRATIONS



TITUS LIVIUS ....... Frontispiece

From an engraving in a seventeenth-century edition
of Livy's History

VERCINGETORIX BEFORE CAESAR ...... 100

From a painting by Lionel Royer, exhibited in the Paris
Salon of 1899

PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO AFRICANUS MAJOR . . . 324
From a bronze bust in the National Museum at Naples



INTRODUCTION




HE early quasi-historical writings of the Ro-
mans have already been discussed in the article
entitled The Beginnings of Latin Literature
which serves as an introduction to volume one.
The first Roman historians proper were Fabius
Pictor and Cincius Alimentus, who lived in the
time of the Second Punic War, and were undoubtedly inspired
to write history by the memorable events of this the most
crucial period in the life of the nation.

QUINTUS FABIUS PICTOR, called by Livy scriptorum anti-
quissimus, "most ancient of writers," was born about B.C.
254. The cognomen of Pictor, " Painter," came into the fam-
ily from his grandfather, Caius Fabius, who was one of the
earliest of Roman artists, having acquired a knowledge of
the fine arts by residence among the Etruscans, who excelled
all the Italian tribes in these matters. Quintus Fabius served
in the Second Punic War, and was present at the battle of
Lake Thrasimenus. After the defeat at Cannae he was sent
by the senate to inquire from the oracle at Delphi what would
be the issue of the war, and to learn by what supplications the
wrath of the gods might be appeased. After the war, he set
about writing a history of Rome in Greek, beginning with
JEneas and ending with the Second Punic War. He derived
his materials from the archives of leading Roman families,
and from the legends concerning Italy which he found in the
writings of the Greeks. In particular, as we are told by Plu-
tarch in his life of Romulus, Fabius followed an obscure
Greek author, Diocles, in his account of the foundation of
Rome, and from this source have flowed all the stories con-
cerning Mars, the Vestal, the Wolf, Romulus and Remus, etc.,
which thereafter in Roman literature usurped the place of the



2 INTRODUCTION

real history of the beginnings of the nation. He evidently
intended to make this work more interesting than authentic.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus has given many examples of Pic-
tor's improbable narratives, his inconsistencies, his negligence
in investigating the truth of what he relates as facts, and his
inaccuracy in chronology.

Polybius, who flourished shortly after those times, and
was at pains to inform himself accurately concerning all the
events of the Second Punic War, apologizes on one occasion
for quoting Fabius as an authority.

Lucius CINCIUS ALIMENTUS, an antiquary and jurist,
who was praetor in Sicily B.C. 209, wrote in Greek certain
Annals which contained an account of the Second Punic War.
The author debased his work by repeating the mean and ma-
licious gossip concerning Hannibal written by a Greek
hanger-on of the great Carthaginian.

C. ACILIUS GLABRIO was another Roman historian who
wrote in Greek, a language of which he was a thorough mas-
ter, as indicated by the fact that he was interpreter for Car-
neades and the other Greek philosophers who came to Rome
to introduce their schools of philosophy. He was quaestor
about the year 200 B.C. He is an untrustworthy historian,
giving an account of an interview between Hannibal and
Scipio at Ephesus which could hardly have taken place, and
exaggerating greatly losses in battle, amount of spoil taken,
etc., for sensational effect. He was also fond of fanciful ex-
planations, such as that the celebration of the Lupercalia was
in commemoration of the manner in which the companions
of Romulus ran about naked after supplication to the god
Faunus to discover their lost cattle.

Another Roman historian who wrote in Greek remains to
be noted. He was P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO, the son of the elder
Africanus. Prevented by ill health from taking part in public
affairs he devoted himself to literature. Cicero says that, to-
gether with the greatness of his father's mind, he possessed a
larger amount of learning, and wrote with great charm. His
works were oratiuncuke (little orations) in Latin, and a his-
tory in Greek, the subject of which Cicero, our only authority
for his literary works, did not record.



THE ROMAN HISTORIANS

MARCUS PORCIUS CATO (for whose life see the biography
by Nepos in volume eight) did not learn Greek until
in middle life (Ennius was his teacher), and so wrote in rude
and vigorous Latin. His agricultural treatises, De Re Rus-
tica, " Of Country Thing(s)," and De Agri Cultura, " Of Ag-
riculture," have come down to us, though in a mutilated state.
They are note books of directions, rules, and recipes, suited
to the severe manners and needs of that rude and practical
age. For an account of his orations, see the Brutus of Cicero
in volume six. He wrote a book on military discipline, much
of which has been preserved by incorporation in the Rei Mili-
taris Instituta, " The Laws of Military Affairs," by FLAVIUS
RENATUS VEGETIUS, a writer of the fifth century A.D.

Cato's greatest work, however, De Originibus, " Of Ori-
gins," has been lost to us entirely. It was an inquiry into the
history, antiquities, and language of the Roman people. He
wrote it in his old age, being led to the task by his desire to
counteract the influence of the Greek taste introduced by the
Scipios. It consisted of seven books. The first book, we are
informed by Nepos, contained the exploits of the kings of
Rome. Cato was the first to set the date of the founding of
Rome, which he fixed at the first year of the 7th Olympiad
(751 B.C.), with which estimate the reliable Greek historian,
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, agreed. The second and third
books treated of the origins of the several Italian states. The
fourth and fifth books gave the history of the First and Sec-
ond Punic Wars, and the sixth and seventh discussed the other
wars of the Romans down to the overthrow of the Lusita-
nians by Servius Galba. The loss of this work will never
cease to be mourned by historians and antiquarians. Cato was
also the first Roman to write on medicine; his work on the
subject has not come down to us, but this is probably not a
great loss, as the book undoubtedly consisted of recipes, simi-
lar to those in his agricultural treatises. Aulus Gellius men-
tions Cato's Libri Quastionum Epistolicarum, "Books of
Epistolary Questions," forming, it would seem, an ancient
" Complete Letter Writer." and Cicero notes his Apophthegm-
ata, " Apothegms," which must have been a sort of " Poor
Richard's Almanac."



4 INTRODUCTION

The history of Cato was imitated by CASSIUS HEMINA, a
writer of "Annals," who flourished about B.C. 145. In his
fourth book he treated of other Italian towns besides Rome,
and had much to say of the natural history of the country.

Lucius CALPURNIUS Piso was another annalist of Rome,
bringing its history down to his own date. He received the
surname of Frugi, the Upright, because of his integrity and
conscientiousness. He was tribune of the plebs B.C. 149, in
which year he proposed the first law for the punishment of
extortion in the provinces by the praetors. He was consul in
133 B.C. and suppressed a servile insurrection in Sicily. He
was also censor about 117 B.C. He belonged to the aristo-
cratic party, and led the opposition to the democratic measures
of Caius Gracchus. Judging by quotations from his history
and by a comment by Cicero, his ideas were somewhat com-
mon-place, and his style unpolished through affectation of
archaic simplicity.

The speeches and letters of Caius Gracchus were incor-
porated by his friend, C. FANNIUS, in a history of contempo-
raneous events. Fannius was eminent in the public service,
holding such offices as quaestor and praetor.

C. SEMPRONIUS TUDITANUS, a consul of the same period,
wrote a history in the manner of Cato, telling of the founda-
tion of Roman cities such as Caieta, and the origin of Roman
institutions, such as the tribuneship. He is the oldest author-
ity for the story of Regulus, the Roman who voluntarily re-
turned to Carthage as a prisoner of war. According to his
account the act was not so heroic as it was made to appear in
the later legend. Regulus, said Sempronius, believed that he
had been poisoned by the Carthaginians, and so was sure to
die; therefore he exhorted the senate not to agree to an ex-
change of prisoners. Nevertheless, even to a doomed man the
renunciation was a noble one, for, as Sempronius reports, he
returned to be done to death by that most fiendish of tortures
to a sick man, not being allowed to sleep. Sempronius was an
original authority for the events in the life of Flaminius, the
conqueror of Philip V of Macedon, as told by Plutarch.

Other annalists of this period were Servilianus and Anti-
pater.



THE ROMAN HISTORIANS 5

QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS SERVILIANUS was the pro-
consul who fought against Viriathus in Spain, a brave Lusita-
nian chief who escaped the treacherous massacre of his people
by the proconsul Galba, and who organized a guerrilla war-
fare against the Romans which defeated army after army
sent out against him. Viriathus hemmed in the troops of
Servilianus in a mountain pass, and in B.C. 140 extorted from
him honorable terms of peace, which Servilianus regarded, al-
though his successor by bribery caused the brave patriot to be
foully assassinated by his intimates. Servilianus was after-
wards consul repeatedly, and also censor. He wrote annals
which are quoted by Macrobius.

Lucius CELIUS ANTIPATER was a Roman historian and
contemporary of Caius Gracchus, who wrote Annals, contain-
ing an account in seven books of the Second Punic War, the
materials for which he secured largely from the Greek fol-
lowers of Hannibal. He was regarded as authoritative by
Plutarch and Livy, who drew upon him liberally, although
Livy objected to Antipater's florid style.

We know very little besides their names of the annalists
between the age of the Gracchi and that of the Civil Wars of
Marius and Sulla.

The most important of these seems to have been CN. GEL-
LIUS, whose expansive history in thirty volumes was largely
quoted by later writers, and probably formed the principal
source of the account by Dionysius of Halicarnassus of the
early history of Rome.

A history of Rome which partook of the nature of auto-
biography was written by PUBLIUS RUTILIUS RUFUS. He was
military tribune under Scipio in the Numantine War, praetor
B.C. in, consul B.C. 105, and legate B.C. 95 under Q. Mucius
Scsevola, proconsul of Asia. While acting in this capacity he
was so firm in repressing extortion that he created powerful
enemies at Rome, who, on his return hither, had him im-
peached of malversation, and banished. He retired to Smyrna,
where he wrote his history, apparently both in Greek and
Latin.

MARCUS AURELIUS SCAURUS (B.C. 163-89) a self-made
man, who rose by ability, and, it must also be said, by corrup-

XII 2



6 INTRODUCTION

tion, to be probably the most influential man in the state (he
was called Princeps Senatus), wrote what, from these circum-
stances, must have been an exceedingly interesting autobiog-
raphy. Cicero, indeed, compared it to the writings of Xeno-
phon.

QUINTUS LUTATIUS ScAURUS, the successor in office of
Scaurus, and who as the colleague of Marius in the consul-
ship shared in the triumph over the Cimbri, wrote an account
of his victories which was highly praised by Quintilian. He
also wrote four books of a Communis Historia (Profane His-
tory), which fact would imply that he had written as well a
Historia Sacra (Sacred History). He was condemned to
death by Marius during the autocracy of that tyrant, and suf-
focated himself in a newly plastered room by the steam caused
by a large fire.

Other historians of this period may be dismissed briefly.

CN. AUFIDIUS, a blind man, was the last Roman historian
who wrote in Greek.

Q. CLAUDIUS QUADRIGARIUS (B.C. 120-78) wrote a his-
tory of Rome which began with the capture of that city by the
Gauls really the point of separation between Latin legend
and true history. He is often confounded with CLODIUS Li-
CINUS, who, about the beginning of the first century A.D.,
wrote a history of Rome covering the same period. The cau-
tion displayed by Livy in using Claudius as authority indicates
that he was prone to exaggeration.

Livy adopted the same attitude toward another historian
from whom he was compelled to draw very largely, especially
in regard to legendary history of Rome. This was QUINTUS
VALERIUS ANTIAS, a most voluminous writer he wrote at
least seventy-five books, of which a few fragments remain.

Of the writers during the Civil Wars of Sulla and Marius
none could be more eminent than Lucius SULLA,, the dictator,
himself. He wrote Memorabilia, a history of his own life
and times, in twenty-two volumes, the last of which was fin-
ished a few days before his death in 78 B.C. He also wrote
Fdbulce Atellanc? (farces), and Greek epigrams.

In the year when Sulla died L. CORNELIUS SISENNA was
praetor of Sicily, where he rendered service to Verres, the



THE ROMAN HISTORIANS 7

propraetor of the island whose extortions have become noto-
rious through the orations of Cicero. During the war against
the pirates (B.C. 67) he acted as the legate of Pompey. He
took command of the army in Crete, dying in that island at
the age of 52. He wrote a work in about twenty books called
Histories (Histories), which dealt with contemporaneous
events, and which Cicero pronounced superior to all its prede-
cessors. Of this a few fragments remain. He had a taste for
the salacious, and, as Ovid tells us, enlivened his history with
improper stories. He also translated the Milesian Tales of
Aristides, which are stories of the same order.

Another writer upon the Civil Wars was M. JUNIUS
BRUTUS, the father of that Brutus who was one of the assas-
sins of Julius Caesar. He embraced the party of Marius, and
was overcome by Pompey. After the death of Sulla, and the
renewal of hostilities, he was besieged in Mutina by Pompey,
who compelled him to surrender after a long resistance, and
caused him to be put to death.

C. LICINIUS MACER, the orator who was impeached of ex-
tortion by Cicero, and, rinding the verdict against him, com-
mitted suicide, was an historian of substantial, although not
brilliant, qualities. Livy quoted him with respect because of
his use of ancient public documents in preparing his work. He
supplanted childish tradition, in a number of instances, by ra-
tional explanation. Thus he explains that Romulus instituted
the festival of the Brumalia, at which he kept open house for
the homeless, not, as the legend ran, because he had been
taunted with having no house of his own in childhood, but
simply as a necessary charity for the unemployed in winter.
However, according to Livy, Macer was an untrustworthy
'authority where family pride was involved, making false
statements in regard to his famous ancestor, the author of the
Licinian Rogations, the laws in protection of the plebeians.
But Livy could hardly be fair toward a man of democratic
tendencies.

Q. /LIUS TUBERO was an historian who also referred to
official documents. He began his historical labors in Asia in
60 B.C., when he was on the staff of the younger Cicero. His
citations differed, however, from Macer's. Probably both'



8 INTRODUCTION

historians were influenced in their reading by their political
opinions.

Lucius LUCCEIUS, another friend of Cicero, and a suc-
cessful candidate for the consulship with Julius Caesar in B.C.
60, wrote a contemporaneous history of Rome, commencing
with the Social or Marsic War.

A marked advance in historical accuracy was made by T.
POMPONIUS ATTICUS in his history (Liber Annalis}. This
work, dedicated to Cicero, his friend, consisted of chronologi-
cal tables in which synchronous events down to B.C. 54 were
set down with the greatest care. Every Roman magistrate
was given, with the important events, especially wars and
treaties, of his year of office. He also compiled from records
histories of the great Roman families, at their request. Atti-
cus's most important contribution to Latin literature was,
however, his edition of the letters which he had received from
Cicero. He also performed great service by having his nu-
merous slaves copy the writings of his contemporaries. His
own biography was written by CORNELIUS NEPOS, an account
of whom and whose work is prefaced to several of his fa-
mous biographies which appear in volume eight.

M. TERENTIUS VARRO (REATINUS) (B.C. 116-28), whom
Quintilian calls " the most learned of the Romans," was also
the most voluminous of Latin writers. He is said to have
written six hundred books. Of these only two have survived:
De Re Rustlca, " On Country Affairs," the most important
of all agricultural treatises in Latin, and written at the age of
eighty, and De Lingua Latina, a grammatical treatise on the
Latin language, which is most valuable not only on account of
its record of linguistic forms which otherwise would have
been lost, but also because it contains much curious and valu-
able information concerning ancient civil and religious usages.
Unfortunately of Varro's greatest work, that on "Antiqui-
ties," only a few fragments have been preserved. However,
we know much of its contents, since St. Augustine drew largely
from it in his City of God.

Varro also wrote a collection of biographies called Im-
agines (Images) or Hebdomades (Sevens) containing seven
hundred lives of famous Greeks and Romans arranged in



THE ROMAN HISTORIANS 9

groups of seven, and illustrated with portraits. He wrote
treatises on philosophy, law, and all the liberal and fine arts.
He also wrote satires in prose and verse which were in the
manner of the Syro-Greek Cynic Menippus. However, for
all his labors, he never attained distinction as an artist in any
of these fields of literature.

CAIUS JULIUS C^SAR was the first and remained among
the foremost of all the Roman historians. A study of his
genius by Anthony Trollope will be found in the introduction
to his Commentaries in the present volume, and it will suffice
here only to enforce the point that he was a thoroughly origi-
nal writer, following no models, either Greek or Roman, and
thus himself becoming a model of a new school of historians,
which includes the greatest of the ages.

Caesar's commentaries on the Gallic War were completed
by AULUS HIRTIUS, one of his right-hand men in both war
and politics. He added an eighth book to the work, and in-
tended to carry down Caesar's account of the Civil War to
Caesar's death.

This intention he never carried out, as he fell in the battle
of Mutina, April 27, B.C. 43, when he was consul. Of the
three works, the Bellum Alexandrinum, Bellum Africanum,
and Bellum Hispaniense (respectively the Alexandrine, Afri-
can, and Spanish Wars), which have come down to us with
Caesar's Commentaries, the first may have been written by
him. Of the other two it has been conjectured that they were
composed at his request, in preparation for his intended work
on military commanders, and that having been found at his
death among his papers, they were added, with his own writ-
ings, to the works of Caesar himself. He is known to have
written, at Caesar's instigation, an answer to Cicero's pane-
gyric on Cato. The style of Hirtius is very like Caesar's own,
being marked by direct logical arrangement, rhetorical re-
serve, and impartial spirit.

In view of the death of Hirtius that deprived us of a his-
tory of the last Civil War of the republic, it is all the more
unfortunate that there has not been preserved to us a work
written on the same subject by CAIUS ASINIUS POLLIO (B.C.
75-A.o. 4), the versatile literary genius (for he was a poet



10 INTRODUCTION

and orator as well as an historian) who fought on Caesar's
side at Pharsalia and in Africa and Spain. After the murder
of Caesar he at first inclined to the republicans, but in B.C. 43
he joined Antony, and on the breaking up of the Triumvirate
obtained Gallia Transpadana for his province. In the redistri-
bution of lands there he saved the poet Virgil's paternal estate
for him. After negotiating the Peace of Brundisium between
Antony and Octavius, B.C. 41, he became consul in 40 B.C., con-
quering the Pathini in Dalmatia in 39 B.C. He then retired
from political life, and devoted himself to the advancement of
learning. He served the cause of literature not only by his
own writings, but by setting up the first public library at
Rome, and by introducing the custom of reading new works
aloud to a circle of experts before publication. His own works
have not survived, but from the writings of others we know



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