must grain in sacks or barrels be loaded in cars
with bulk grain.
When cars are chartered by shippers care
should be taken to see that they are not over-
They must not, under any circumstances,
load merchandise, coffee, sugars, etc,, into cars
unfit for such property notably in cars form-
erly used in transporting kerosene oil, lime, or
other penetrating odors.
To save unnecessary hauling of cars and oth-
erwise economize in their use, agents must
never send a car with a small lot of freight
when the same can be readily and quickly
loaded after the arrival of the way freight train,
provided there are cars in such trains into
which the property in question may be loaded.
Kerosene, coal oil, naphtha, benzole or sub-
stances of a like combustible nature, must not
be loaded nor unloaded through freight houses,
except in the day time ; nor must lights be
allowed near such packages.
They must see that cars are loaded and
unloaded promptly; that the rules for the col-
lection of demurrage for the detention of cars
are rigidly enforced ; that chartered cars, or cars
loaded with grain or other property, are not
Trains and Stations. 205
dangerously loaded, permitting none to leave
their station in such condition, and finally that
shippers are charged for the delay of cars held
in consequence of being overloaded by them.
Agents are required to exercise especial care
in securing the doors and windows of cars
loaded with live stock. 1
CARE MUST BE EXERCISED IN LOADING FREIGHT.
" The proper loading of goods being a matter
of so much importance, not only as regards the
goods, but also as to the safety of the line,
clerks in charge must give it their particular
attention ; for when it is remembered that, by
the slightest neglect in .loading and securely
i " Living quadrupeds are only forwarded from and to cer-
tain stations. The receiver or sender has to watch the unload-
ing or loading and make the neces-ary arrangements for
" Sick quadrupeds are excluded from forwarding, also such
as may contribute to spread any contagious disease, according
to the regulations of the board of health.
" A railroad company is not obliged to forward wild beasts.
" All shipments of other living quadrupeds have to be
accompanied by some reliable persons, who must take their
stand in the cattle cars. This is not necessary with smaller
animals or fowls, if shipped in well ventilated cages or coops."
Regulations Austrian Roads, 1877.
" On the arrival of horse-boxes or cattle-wagons at any
station, they must be immediately cleaned out, so as to prevent
damage to floors by wet straw, dung, etc., remaining on the
wood ; and every horse-box, wagon, and other vehicle must be
thoroughly examined inside and out, so as to ascertain whether
they are in a fit state to travel without liability of injury to
the horses, cattle, etc. Should the horse-boxes be short of head-
collars, the circumstance is to be reported immediately to the
Superintendent." Gt, Nor. Ry., England.
206 Railivay Service :
fastening the load of any one wagon in the
goods trains, which are continually running on
the line, a fearful accident may occur, it is
impossible to overrate the necessity of the most
pointed and constant attention being given by
clerks in charge, loaders, and others, to satisfy
themselves, before any train is permitted to
start, that the load of every wagon is secured
in a manner sufficient to sustain the oscillation
of the train, and the necessary shunting to
which it will be exposed.
"The clerk in charge, or some other person
properly appointed by him, should carefully
examine the loads of the wagons of the goods
trains stopping at his station.
" After every care and vigilance has been
exercised in loading, it will be impossible always
to prevent the load being disturbed in a long
transit; and it is, therefore, essentially incum-
bent upon the servants of all companies to
examine with particular care all trains arriving
from foreign lines immediately on their entering
upon their respective railways. Should the load
appear to be disturbed, the wagon must not be
allowed to proceed until it has been carefully
readjusted ; and this is more especially neces-
sary in the case of timber, cotton, wool, machin-
ery, or other articles of a lengthy or bulky
I. Reg. Clearing House, Eng.
Trains and Stations. 207
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS DELIVERY OF
After the delivery of goods to a company to
be forwarded, they become the property of the
consignee, and neither the name of the con-
signee nor the destination of the property must
afterwards be changed, except under his instruc-
tions, or by due process of law.
When property is consigned and shipped to the
care of a second party, the agent must deliver the
same to the party in whose care it is shipped, un^
less the party to whose care it is consigned coun-
termands the order in writing. When property
is consigned and shipped to the "order" of a
certain party, with instructions to "notify" a
second party, agents must notify such second
party of the arrival of property, but will only
deliver on the written order of the party to
whose " order " it is consigned, and on surren-
der of the bill of lading, which latter must be
carefully filed for reference.
Care must be exercised to see that freight is
properly delivered ; except as provided in the
above rule the consignee is the owner of the
property so far as the common carrier is con-
cerned, and is the only person to whom the car-
rier can safely deliver it.
When parties to whom freight is consigned
are unknown or can not be found, the forward-
208 Railway Service :
ing agent must be requested to advise con-
signors, and ascertain their wishes regarding its
FREIGHT FROM AND TO STATIONS AT WHICH
THERE ARE NO AGENTS.
" Freight consigned to stations where there
are no agents ; also to stations where there are
ticket, but not freight agents, must be prepaid.
The forwarding agent will way-bill the freight
to the first station beyond its destination
where there is an agent, but at the rates cur-
rent to actual point of destination, noting, in
ink, on the back of way-bill, underneath the
filing, instructions to the conductor to put off
the freight at its proper destination, and to
deliver the way-bill to the agent of the station
to which it is directed. This agent, at the end
of each month, will make an abstract of such
way-bills and forward the same, together with
the original way-bills, to the freight auditor.
"At stations where there are no agents, or
where there are ticket but not freight agents,
conductors will receive freight, requiring from
shippers memoranda containing full shipping
directions, which they will hand to freight
agent of first station beyond the point where
the freight was received. Upon receipt of
such memoranda, agent will make way-bill
from his station, but at the rates current from
Trains and Stations. 209
actual point of shipment to destination on this
line, noting on the face of the way-bill the
point at which the freight was loaded. Agents
will take such way-bills into their accounts
same as if the freight was shipped from their
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS WAY-BILLING
Freight must never be shipped without a
way-bill, duly' numbered and dated, and en-
tered upon the station books.
The way-bill must be a correct copy, in every
particular, as to consignment, route, destina-
tion, and number of articles, of the receipt held
Agents must never bill freight as a " lot,"
but must enumerate each article.
When shipping perishable property, agents
must note "perishable freight" in red ink on
the outside of the way-bill.
If agents receive an. order to add advanced
charges after property has been delivered to the
owner, and are unable to collect such charges,
they will report immediately to the office giv-
ing the order, but will not alter the way-bill.
When property is loaded into cars of a pass-
ing train at way stations, agents must enter
the initial and car number on the way-bill, and
i. Henry C. Wicker, 1878.
210 Railway Service :
must be careful to make a like notation on the
freight-forwarded book, immediately upon the
departure of train.
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS IN REFERENCE TO
SEALING CARS CONTAINING FREIGHT.
When necessary to open a car in a through
train for the purpose of receiving or discharg-
ing freight, both seals must be cut by the agent,
but the car must afterwards be resealed by him.
When opening a car, the seals on each side
should be examined to see if they are alike ;
any discrepancies that may be discovered must
be noted on the way-bill.
When it is necessary to open a car containing
way-freight, the seals of such car must be
cut by the agent opening it, but it must be re-
sealed by the agent at the last station where
freight is delivered from it preceding that
where the transfer of conductors takes place.
They must remove the seals from both sides
of cars when unloaded ,- at the end of each
month the old seals must be transmitted to the
They must specify, in their daily reports, the
number of each car received without a seal or
having the seal broken, giving place of ship-
ment, destination of contents, and any apparent
derangement thereof ; if the car is not for their
station they must reseal it.
Trains and Stations. 211
Box freight cars containing merchandise,
must be locked and sealed when loaded, and
agents must take a receipt for such cars from
They must examine the doors of loaded cars
left at their stations, and see that they are
sealed, whether the cars are intended for their
station or not.
They must receipt to the conductor for cars
left at their stations, noting on the receipt the
numbers of those cars, if any, having imperfect
or broken seals. 1
FREIGHT AGENTS MISCELLANEOUS RULES.
The classification of freight provides for the
great bulk of the articles offered for trans-
portation. Articles not enumerated must be
charged in accordance with the class to which
they are clearly analogous.
Very heavy articles, also articles light in
weight but bulky in character, when not other-
wise provided for, will be charged at such rates
as the general freight agent may decide, when
no agreement to the contrary is made.
It is expected that agents will give informa-
tion as to different routes with which the road
connects, when inquiries are made by patrons
of the line, but will not endeavor to influence
I. The practice of sealing cars, as described in the foregoing
rules, is not in general use upon railways.
212 Railway Service :
shippers in favor of any particular route. It is
their duty to maintain a strictly neutral position,
unless otherwise expressly ordered.
Agents must not allow persons wishing in-
formation as to shipments from or consign-
ments to their station, to have access to their
books. Any information referring personally
to an applicant should at all times be promptly
and cheerfully given. 1
All correspondence must be carefully pre-
Letters and statements relative to the com-
pany's affairs must not be shown to shippers or
others, or made known to any one, except so
far as may be necessary for the guidance and
instruction of the company's servants.
They must not advance charges upon prop-
erty, unless such charges are incidental to its
They must take receipts for charges advanced,
and must carefully file and preserve the same
for reference when required.
Cars containing gunpowder, or freight of a
like combustible character, should be conspicu-
ously labeled with the name of the article with
which they are loaded.
I. " Persons not regularly in the service, or not about to
travel by the trains, have not the right of access to the sta-
tions. The booking offices must be kept perfectly private, and
the public and others must not have access behind the screen
or counter, at any station Persons are not to be admitted to
the station or offices, to learn the business, without the sanc-
t ion of the General Manager." Gl. Nor. />., Eng.
Trains and Stations. 213
They must see that the doors and windows
of loaded cars are kept locked ; the end doors
of cars must be fastened on the inside. Grain
doors must be carefully secured, in the place
provided, except when they are required for use
for grain in bulk.
When a car is left irregularly from a train at
any station, prior to its reaching its destination,
the agent at such station must advise the agent
at the station to which the car is billed, as well
as the Superintendent of the division, giving
the number of the car, the number of the train
leaving it, also the reason why it was left.
They must see that conductors certify to the
correct delivery of property described on way-
bills for freight delivered at points where there
are no agents.
When cars containing merchandise or other
property, except lumber, become disabled, the
contents must be transferred, unless the car
can be repaired so as to go forward within
twelve hours ; cars containing lumber may be
detained for repairs a reasonable time. Perish-
able property must go forward without delay. 1
i. " When cars are left at anyway station in consequence of
being out of repair, it shall be the duty of the agent where
such car is left to send word immediately, either by telegraph
or letter, to the Superintendent of car shop, or to the nearest
local car repairer, stating what is necessary to repair it. If the
car can not be repaired promptly, and it is found to contain
perishable property, the agent will have the freight transferred
immediately and sent forward to its destination." 1863.
214 Railway Service :
When a conductor fails to take all the cars
that may be ready to go, he must give his
reasons therefor to the agent. In the event
such reasons are not considered satisfactory by
the agent, he will forthwith report the facts to
the Superintendent, giving the name of the
conductor, the number of the engine and the
number of cars in the train. 1
A detailed report must be made, on the last
day of each month, of all freight remaining
uncalled for ; it must describe the property,
where from, name of consignee, condition of the
freight, its value, and the amount of charges. 2
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS IN REFERENCE TO FUEL.
They must not allow the stock of wood and
coal to run short, and will promptly report any
failure in the supply.
The wood intended for use by engines must
be arranged upon the platform in such quanti-
ties (ranks) as may be required for use by
They must keep the receptacles for coal
i. " Whenever he has loaded cars to send which any freight
train declines to take, if in his opinion such train be not fully
loaded, he will report the case to the Master of Transportation,
giving the name of the conductor, engineman, and the number
of cars in the train." 1853.
2. " A monthly return of all unclaimed property in the goods
or parcels department is to be sent to the Superintendent or
Goods Manager at King's Cross." Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
Trains and Stations. '215
filled, ready to be dumped into the tenders of
engines without delay.
They must require a ticket for the amount
of wood or coal delivered to each engine ; they
must examine each ticket to see that it bears
the number of the engine, and corresponds
with the amount furnished. The tickets col-
lected must be sent to the home office at the
close of each month.
They must keep a record book of wood and
coal consumed by engines ; this book must be
transmitted to the home office with the fu> 1
tickets, at the close of the month ; when ex-
amined and compared with the tickets it will
be returned to the agent.
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS IN REFERENCE TO
They will have charge of switchmen at
stations, and will be held responsible for the
position of switches ; they must keep it in mind
that a train may arrive at any moment, and
must be prepared accordingly. 1
They must see that switchmen properly
signal all approaching trains.
The greatest care must be exercised in the
i. " They (flagmen and switchmen) must be provided with
a crowbar, shovel, sledge, spiking mauls, spikes, red and
white lanterns, and with a flag-staff eight feet long, and have
a white flag three feet square at one end and a red flag of the
same size at the other end." 1854.
216 Railway Service*:
cleaning, trimming, and lighting of signal
lamps, and agents will be held responsible for
this work being efficiently performed.
When day and night switchmen are em-
ployed, they must not be allowed to leave their
posts until relieved by each other, and the one
going off duty must inform the one coming on
of trains that are due but that have not ar-
Lamps of switches must be kept trimmed and
in order, and must never be allowed to go out
at night. 2
Agents must see that switches are kept free
from snow and other obstructions.
Switches must be set for the main track,
and must be kept locked, except while being
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS IN REFEEENCE TO
TRAINS AND CARS.
All vehicles switched off at stations, as emp-
ties, must be carefully searched. The windows
1. " When any one beat or post is covered for twenty-four
hours by a day and night man, who relieve each other, the day
will usually comprise thirteen hours, and the night eleven
hours." Gt. Wes. Ry., Eng.
2. " He must satisfy himself that the signalmen at or at-
tached to his station perform their duties in a proper manner
by night as well as by day, and in order to maintain a proper
supervision over the men in this respect, it will be necessary
for him frequently to visit the signal boxes." Eng. Standard.
Trains and Stations. 217
of all empty passenger cars must be closed
when they are standing on sidings at the
They are responsible for cars remaining at
their stations ; they must see that the brakes
upon such cars are applied, and the wheels se-
curely blocked so that they can not be moved
by unauthorized persons, or blown by the wind,
so as in any way to interfere with the safety of
Agents must see that tracks are kept clear
and unobstructed, and they will not allow any
train or engine to approach their station unless
they can do so without danger. They must
1. " The windows of all empty compartments must be closed,
not only while the carriages are standing at the stations, but
also when the trains are running, immediately upon the com-
partment becoming vacant. The ventilators must be kept
open." Eng. Standard.
2. " The station-master must see that all fixed scotch-blocks
at his station are kept across the rail ; that all safety-points are
closed against the main line, when it is not necessary that they
should be open for the purpose of shunting, and that all vehi-
cles are placed within such scotch-blocks or safety-points.
Facing-points not worked from a locking-frame must, in all
cases, be securely fastened or held for the passage of trains.
" The station master, or person in charge, must take care
that, while shunting wagons or other vehicles at stations or
other places situate on inclines, in addition to screwing the
van brakes tightly down, a sufficient number of wagon brakes
are pinned down, and sprags or hand scotches used when neces-
sary, to prevent the possibility of the train or any of the vehicles
running down the incline. At such stations and other places
a supply of sprags and hand scotches must be kept for the pur-
pose. When wagons require to be shunted into incline sidings
the trucks to be moved at one shunt must be limited to such a
number as the engine can push up without going at a violent
or excessive speed." Eng Standard.
218 Railway Service :
promptly report defective frogs or switches to
the roadmaster. 1
They are required to report accidents occur-
ring to trains at or near their stations ; all dam-
aged cars or goods brought to or left at their
stations, destined elsewhere, also, the amount of
the damage, and how caused.
" When a horse is used on the railway, a man
must, in all cases, have hold of its head, whether
the horse is drawing vehicles or otherwise." 2
GENERAL DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS.
In the absence of a yard master the duties of
that official are performed by the agent.
They have charge of the accounts, books,
papers, buildings, sidings, grounds and property
of the company, and of the property intrusted
to it in the transaction of business at their re-
spective stations, and will be held responsible
for the safe keeping and proper care of the
same, also for the efficiency of employe's subor-
dinate to them. 3
1. " They will know personally, at least ten minutes before
any regular train is due, and before leaving their stations at
night, that the switches upon the main track are properly se-
cured and locked, and that the cars upon their side-tracks,
nearest the switches, have their brakes set, or their wheels well
2. English road.
3. "Every station master or person in charge of a station is
answerable for the security and protection of the office and
buildings, and of the company's property there. He is also
responsible for the faithful and efficient discharge of the duties
Trains and Stations. 219
They must keep the buildings and grounds
connected with their stations clean and in proper
condition for the accommodation of passengers
and the reception of freight, and must preserve
order and system in and about their stations. 1
They must keep their accounts and make
their returns in such manner and form, and at
such times as the accounting officer may direct.
They must keep the general rules and regu-
lations of the company intended for the infor-
mation of the public, governing the transpor-
tation of passengers and freight, posted in a
conspicuous place in their depots. 2
Agents are not allowed to. be absent without
leave from the Superintendent, except from
illness, in which case they must immediately
inform him of the fact. When absent, they
devolving upon all the company's servants, either permanently
or temporarily employed at the station, or within its limits, and
such servants are subject to his authority and directions in the
working of the line. He is also responsible for the general
working of the station being carried out in strict accordance
with the company's regulations, and must, as far as practicable,
give personal attention to the shunting of trains, and all other
operations which in any way affect the safety of the line. He
must always appear in uniform when on duty, if uniform be
supplied to him." Eng. Standard.
1. " When an engine or train of cars is left at the station
over night, he will take general supervision and care of the
2. "The notices connected with the company must not be
stuck on the walls of the stations or offices, but are to be put
on boards provided for that purpose ; and all notices, last
month's bills, etc., must be carefully removed when they cease
to be needed." Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
220 Railway Service :
must leave their stations in charge of trust-
worthy and competent persons.
They must be careful that the company's
stores are prudently and economically used,
and that there is no waste of oil, fuel, or
stationery, etc. 1
They must use all proper means to secure
traffic for the road, avoid giving offense, and
act with a view of accommodating the public.
They must see that all orders of which they
are cognizant are promptly executed.
They must promptly report to the Superin-
tendent all deviations from the rules and regu-
lations of the company, or anything that comes
under their observation that is prejudicial to its
interests, or that may interfere with the safe and
economical working of the property. 3
1. ' The purchase of miscellaneous articles, or making ot
small bills, is strictly prohibited, except in cases of absolute
necessity. Their necessary wants will be supplied by applica-
tion to the Secretary of the Operating Department or Superin-
2. " They must report, without delay, neglect of duty on
the part of any one at, or passing, their stations which may
come under their observation." 1854.
Trains and Stations. 221
An employ^ can not become entirely familiar
with the rules and regulations governing his
duties except by acquiring knowledge of the
duties of others. 1 This knowledge can not be