acquired without an attentive perusal of the
various rules and regulations ; he will find
something that interests him under all the
various headings and sub - headings ; it is
impossible to accurately classify under different
headings the duties of the various employe's
without endless reiteration. All the rules and
regulations should therefore be studied.
One of the tests of an employees fitness is the
extent and accuracy of the information he
possesses in reference to train and station
service; this is especially the case with train
and station officials. Each train official should
be especially familiar with the duties of the
various servants of the company connected
with the train service, so that in the event of
accident he may, if necessary, be prepared to
I. " All clerks in charge, inspectors, and foremen porters,
are required to learn how to work the electric telegraph, and
to keep themselves in constant practice, so as to be able to
send messages in case of need." Gt. N. Ry., Eng.
222 Railway Service :
perform their functions. The same rule holds
good in its application to employes at stations.
No man is worthy of retention in the service,
much less of promotion, who does not strive
actively to acquire knowledge of his profession.
"All officers, clerks, and persons holding
situations of trust will be required to find
security for their faithful service, the amount
and conditions of which security will be stated
upon appointment." 1
Employes must be sober, temperate men ; 2
they must not accept gratuities, fees or perqui-
sites ; 3 they must devote themselves exclusively
to the service of the company, attending dili-
gently to their duties during the prescribed
hours of the day or night, and they must reside
wherever the interests of the company require. 4
1. English Standard.
2. " Smoking while on duty is forbidden, and the use of intox-
icating liquors as a beverage will be considered just cause of
dismissal from the service of the company." A Western Road.
" The proprietors of refreshment rooms are forbidden to sup-
ply spirits to any engineman, fireman, guard, or other servant
of the company while on duty." Gt. Nor, Ry., Eng.
" No instance of intoxication on duty will ever be over-
3. " No person is allowed to receive any gratuity from the pub-
lic, on pain of dismissal, and the compensation paid will cover
all risks incurred, or liability to accident from any cause on the
4. " Each officer and man shall devote himself to the com-
pany's service, and he must serve when and wherever he is re-
quired, including Sunday if necessary, he being allowed for
any extra work at his usual daily rate of compensation.
" If a guard or other servant should have two residences,
he must make them both known at each station from whence
he works." English Road.
Trains and Stations. 223
All property which they may find or which may
come into their possession must be turned over
to the authorized officer of the company to
await the disposition of the owner. 1
Employe's must obey promptly instructions
received from persons placed in authority over
them, in conformity with the rules and regula-
tions of the company.
Disobedience to orders, negligence, incompe-
tency, or immorality renders a person unfit for
retention in the service. 2
Employe's will not be permitted to absent
themselves from their duty without the consent
of the head of the department. Permission to
be absent must be asked by employe's through
intermediate heads, when such employes are
1. " All property which may be found on the line or prem-
ises of the company, by any man in their employ, shall be
immediately handed to his superior officer, and by him to the
agent at Blank street station, and entered by him in a book
kept for that purpose. But should it be known that the prop-
erty found had fallen from any particular train, it should be
forwarded by the next train, or as soon thereafter as possible,
to the station to which the train was proceeding, and notice
thereof sent to the office at Blank street. Any man known
to keep any property so found will be severely punished/' 1854
" All property found by any servant of the company on any
part of the premi-es must be immediately taken to the clerk in
charge, in order that a proper entry may be made of the article
in case of inquiry." Gt. Nor. Ry., Rng.
2. " Persons who disapprove of the regulations adopted, or
are not disposed to aid in their enforcement, are requested not
to remain in the employment of the company." 1854.
" And they will inquire into and punish instances of immoral
or loose conduct on the part of any of their servants." English
224 Railway Service :
not directly responsible to the chief officer
of the department, or the next official in
All orders and instructions must be carefully
preserved and filed for future reference.
Employe's are required to exercise a wise dis-
cretion and economy in the use of the company's
material intrusted to their care.
Any neglect of the storekeepers to furnish
employes with materials, blanks, books, and
other supplies, in such quantity and of such
quality as may be required to do the business
of the company in an expeditious and econom-
ical manner, must forthwith be reported to the
Superintendent, or the department officer in-
Articles required for use by employe's such
as lamps, keys, flags, axes, saws and other
classes of material, will not be allowed without
i. "Men absenting themselves without leave, and prevailing
on others to supply their places, will subject themselves and
all parties concerned to a heavy fine. Any man absenting
himself without having a proper " leave of absence ticket,"
will be fined $1.25, as though he were absent without leave.
" In case of extra business, of sickness, or unavoidable
cause of absence of any servants (excepting clerks) the clerk
in charge is immediately to provide for the proper perform-
ance of the duty by appointing some temporary substitutes,
but he is responsible for selecting men of good character,
sober, honest, and intelligent, and capable of undertaking the
office. With a view to such temporary appointments, it is
desirable that the character and eligibility of some proper
persons from time to time be previously ascertained." Gt. Nor.
Trains and Stations. 225
the return of the corresponding article previ-
ously in use. 1
Employes intrusted with keys to switches or
cars are required to receipt for them, and must
not let them go out of their possession.
Persons leaving the company's service must
deliver up any property belonging to it in-
trusted to their care. If the property shall
have been improperly used or damaged, a suffi-
cient amount must be withheld from the pay of
the person to make good the loss suffered. 2
Employes will be held responsible for injury
occasioned to persons or property by their neg-
ligence or misconduct, also for all moneys that
may come into their possession, and the company
reserves the right to. reimburse itself for any
expense it may be put to in consequence of any
negligence, misconduct or improper action upon
the part of an employe, by withholding the pay
of the person or persons in fault. 3
1. " Broken lamps must be sent to the lamp room, King's
Cross, for repairs, accompanied by the proper way-bill, a dup-
licate at the same time being sent to the Superintendent of
the line." Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
2. " And if he occupies one of the company's houses, he
shall immediately remove his furniture from it, and put the
house into as good cond tion as when he received possession
of it." 1854.
3. "In the event of any misconduct or suspicion of irregu-
larity of the servants, it is competent to the district agents or
clerks in charge to suspend them, reporting the circumstances
immediately. The pay of all clerks, guards, policemen, por-
ters, and others, will be stopped from the moment of their
being suspended ; and the pay will not be allowed except in
226 Railway Service :
Persons in the employ of the company are
forbidden, while upon duty, from entering into
altercation with other persons, no matter what
provocation may have been given.
Employes in places of trust must report any
misconduct or negligence affecting the interests
or safety of the property which may come to
Employes are not allowed to use the credit of
the company without the written authority of
the Treasurer of the company.
The pay of employes absent from duty will
be stopped, unless otherwise directed by the
head of the department. 1
the event of entire acquittal of the charge for which the man
was suspended. The company. reserve the right to deduct
from pay any fine imposed for neglect of duty, or otherwise,
which (in the event of pecuniary loss to the company not being
entailed thereby) will be appropriated to a benevolent fund."
Gf. N'or. Ry. Eng.
I. "A clerk, in case of continued absence on account of
illness, is not entitled to pay for more than a fortnight during
such absence, except under the special sanction of the board, to
whom application must be made through the Superintendent of
the line, who will decide whether the case be one he can prop-
erly recommend for consideration ; but as a sick fund is
now established to which all persons in the service are eligible,
and which, for a small weekly payment, provides medical
attendance for the contributors, their wives and families, a
weekly allowance in sickness, and funeral allowance in case of
death, clerks are recommended to subscribe to it, and thus
render themselves, in a 1 much greater degree, independent in
case of sickness or other unavoidable calamity befalling them-
selves, or their wives or families.
" Every guard, policeman, and porter, is required to become
a member of the sick fund established by the company, and to
pay his subscriptions regularly out of the wages he receives by
deduction from the pay-bill, or otherwise." Gt. Nor, Ry. t Eng.
Trains and Stations. 227
When instruction^ are not understood, or
when the course to be pursued admits of doubt,
employes must so act as not to compromise the
safety of the property or endanger the lives of
passengers or others, seeking of the proper
officer, on the first opportunity, the explana-
tions they require.
Employes connected with the train or station
service must have in their possession a copy
of the schedule and the rules and regulations
forming a part of it.
228 Railway Service :
REGULATIONS OF THE AUSTRIAN RAILWAYS
GOVERNING THE PASSENGER SERVICE. 1
Railroad employes must treat the public in a
polite, modest, and business-like manner, and
must be obliging, as far as the service will
allow. They must render all the services
required of them gratuitously ; it is prohibited
them to accept any compensation from the
public; employe's are not allowed to smoke
when they are on duty.
The public must conform to the wishes of
employe's, who are to be recognized by a uni-
Differences between the public and employes
are to be decided by the station-manager, or, on
the road, by the conductor.
Complaints must be made to the officers,
either verbally or in writing, or must be en-
tered in a book which can be found for this
purpose at each station. The managers must
I. Laws regulating the management of railroads in the
Kingdom and provinces represented in the Council of the
Empire and by-laws given the 25th of July, 1877. Translated
by M. Blanque.
The regulations of the German roads are, in many respects,
the same as those of Austria.
Trains and Stations. 229
give an answer, at an early date, to all com-
plaints, to which must be added the names and
residence of complainants. Complaints in ref-
erence to an employe must specify the name,
number, or uniform of the latter.
The public are to have admittance only to
such parts of the depot and railway grounds as
are always kept open, or are open temporarily
for the convenience of the public. Walking
on the tracks or roadway is not allowed, except
to those who possess the right in accordance
with the regulations of the railway police.
Forwarding of passengers, quadrupeds, etc.,
can be refused if uncontrollable, or circum-
stances should arise, or superior power interfere,
or if the regular means for forwarding should
Payments must be made in current gold and
silver coin, excepting fractional currency, in
accordance with the rates published by the
The forwarding of passengers is regulated by
the time-tables hanging on the wall at all sta-
tions. The time-table also states what classes
of cars the respective trains haul. The run-
ning of special trains is left to the considera-
tion of the management. The station clock
regulates the time for starting trains.
The prices of tickets are given in a tariff
posted up in a conspicuous place at each sta-
230 Railway Service :
Tickets secure seats in the respective classes
as far as there are such seats. If a passenger
can not obtain such a seat as the ticket issued
to him entitles him to occupy, and if there is
no vacant room in a higher class, he is at lib-
erty to exchange his ticket for one in a car of a
lower class, the difference in price being re-
funded to him, or he has the right to ask for
the return of his money, thus renouncing the
obligation of being forwarded. Those passen-
gers who are in possession of through tickets
must be disposed of first.
Each ticket sold must show the names of the
stations between which it is good, also the price
of the class which the passenger intends to
travel in ; J finally, the time or the train .for
which the ticket is good.
The time or train for which a ticket has been
issued must be stamped upon it, so that the
purchaser can see at a glance whether it an-
swers the purpose or not. The passenger has
the right to stop at an intermediate station and
take another train of corresponding grade on
i. " Private servants (male and female) accompanying gentle-
men's carriages by ordinary trains, are allowed to travel in or
upon such carriages with second-class tickets ; if by the third-
class train, with third-class tickets ; but this privilege does not
extend to any other than servants. Servants when accompa-
nying their masters traveling by express trains, are charged
second-class express fares ; but this can only be the case if such
servants are properly identified by their masters or mistresses
who may be traveling with them." Great Northern Railway
Trains and Stations. 231
the same or following day ; but in such case,
after alighting from the train, he must present
the ticket to the station-manager to have its
validity extended. The time granted on trip,
or return tickets, can not be extended. 1
Prices are reduced and tickets issued for chil-
dren under ten years, and should there be any
doubt about their age, the decision of the re-
vising officer is final. No fare will be paid for
small children carried in arms, or who occupy
no extra room.
The exchanging of tickets of a lower for a
higher class will not be allowed within ten
minutes of the starting time of trains, and will
not be allowed in any event unless there are
unoccupied seats in the class desired. When
tickets are exchanged the difference in price
must be paid. At intermediate stations such
exchange will not be allowed except when an
additional ticket is purchased to the place of
destination, the value of which added to the
i. " A return ticket is granted solely for the purpose of ena-
bling the person for whom the same is issued to travel therewith
to and from the stations marked thereon, and is not transfera-
ble. Any person who sells, or attempts to sell, or parts, or
attempts to part, with the possession of the return half of any
return ticket in order to enable any other person to travel
therewith, is hereby subjected to a penalty not exceeding forty
shillings, and any person purchasing such half of a return ticket,
or traveling or attempting to travel therewith, shall be liable
to pay the fare which he would have been liable to pay for the
single journey, and shall, in addition thereto, be subjected to
a penalty not exceeding forty shillings." Eng. Standard.
232 Railway Service :
value of the ticket first purchased equals the
price of the higher classed seat desired.
Particular seats can not be sold or reserved
in advance. Employes have the right, and on
demand of passengers are obliged to point out
seats to the latter. Ladies traveling alone must
be seated in separate ladies' coupe when they
A separate ladies' coup6 must be provided in
all trains for passengers of the second and third
class. This distinction will be modified as ne-
cessity requires when cars are constructed after
the American system.
At all stations the waiting-rooms must be
opened at least one hour before the train leaves.
On entering the waiting-room the passenger,
if desired, must exhibit his ticket, also, on en-
tering the car.
During the journey passengers must retain
their tickets until the same are collected.
Any passenger who shall not be in possession
of a valid ticket must pay a fine double the
amount of the fare for the distance traveled, and
any passenger who, when going on board of a
train, tells the conductor thereof that he (the
passenger) was too late to buy a ticket, and is
allowed to stay on board of such train, must
pay, in addition to the fare, 50 kreutzer. 1
i. " The guard must not allow any passenger or parcel to
be conveyed by the train unless properly booked ; and if he
has reason to suppose that any passenger is without a ticket,
Trains and Stations. 233
If the passenger refuses to pay such fine he
can be put off the train.
The sign to enter the cars is given by two
strokes of the bell.
No one is allowed to get on board the train
after the sign to start has been given by the
whistle of the locomotive, and any effort to do
so is punishable.
A passenger who misses the train in the man-
ner described has no claim for the refunding of
his fare or for indemnification of any kind. But
he has the right to use the ticket in his posses-
sion on the next day upon a train of the same
class, but the ticket must be extended by the
station-keeper. This extension can not be ap-
plied on return or round-trip tickets.
On arrival at a station, the name of same and
length of sojourn, and any changing of cars
must be called. After the train has stopped,
the doors of the cars which have this station as
the point of destination will be opened. The
doors of other cars will only be opened if desired.
Any one leaving his seat without first secur-
ing its retention must take another one in the
event it is occupied during his absence.
If a train is stopped outside of a station on
or is not in the proper carriage, he must request the passenger
to show his ticket, reporting to the station-master or person
in charge, any irregularity he may detect. When a passenger
is desirous of changing from an inferior to a superior class of
carriage, the guard must have this arranged by the station-
master or person in chaige." Eng. Standard.
234 Railway Service :
account of some obstacle, no one will be allowed
to leave the cars without the conductor's con-
sent. Passengers must not stand upon the
track, and must resume their seats upon the
first signal of the whistle. The signal to start
is three blasts of the whistle ; any one not on
board when the signal to start is given will be
While the train is moving, no one is allowed
to look out of the cars, lean against the doors,
or step on the seats.
If objection is made by one passenger only,
the windows on the windward side can be closed.
Only employes have the right to open the
doors for entering and leaving the cars ; no
stepping off the cars is permitted until the train
has come to a full stop.
Every passenger must keep at a distance from
the rails and machines and must leave the depot
in the direction prescribed.
Any damage done to the cars, by passengers,
must be paid for according to the indemnifica-
tion tariff, and employes are empowered to
make collections at the time in accordance with
such tariff. 1
i. "Any person who willfully cuts or tears any lining
or window strap, or curtain, removes or defaces any num-
ber pla'es, or breaks or scratches any window of a carriage
used on the railway, or who otherwise, except by unavoidable
accident, damages, defaces, or injures any such carriage, or any
station, or other property of the company, is hereby subjected
Trains and Stations. 235
Claims can not be made on account of delayed
The abandonment or interruption of a train
during a voyage, only justifies a claim for the
amount of the fare for the distance not traveled
by the passenger.
If connection with another train should have
been missed and superior power has not been
the cause, the passenger, if he takes the next
return train to his starting point, is entitled to
have the amount of both fares refunded to him
on proof of his claim. Such passenger, how-
ever, to secure his claim, is obliged, on arrival
of the belated train, to report to the station-
keeper and present his ticket. The latter must
confirm the delay and the station-keeper of the
starting point has also to certify to the time of
the passenger's return. In case interruption
to a voyage is occasioned by the elements, or
obstacles have damaged the railway, arrange-
ments must be made to forward passengers in
the best manner possible. Irregularities must
be made known to the public by visible placards
posted at the different stations.
Dogs and other quadrupeds are not allowed
in the cars ; lap-dogs are excepted from this rule
in those cases where no objections are made
to a penalty not exceeding five pounds, in addition to the
amount of any damage for which he may be liable." G. W.
236 Railway Service :
Smoking is allowed in all classes of cars, but
in the event there is no smoking coupe of the
first class in the train, smoking will not be
allowed in coupes of the first class when pas-
sengers object. Every passenger train must
contain second-class, and, if possible, third-
class coupes in which smoking is prohibited.
Tobacco pipes must be sufficiently covered.
Baggage containing combustible articles,
liquids or other articles which might do injury,
especially charged guns, gunpowder, easily
inflammable preparations and things of such
nature, are not allowed in the passenger cars.
Employes are empowered to examine such
articles closely. Any one disregarding this
rule is responsible for any injury caused, and is
also subject to a fine according to the regula-
tions of the railway police. Huntsmen must
have a special permit.
Transgressions of the rules prescribed, acting
in opposition to employes' wishes, indecent
behavior or drunkenness, will lead to the
exclusion of the person or persons in fault from
the cars, and in such cases fare will not be
Drunken persons will not be allowed admit-
tance to the waiting rooms or cars, and must
be ejected when they gain access thereto. 1 If
i. "Any person 'found in a carriage, or elsewhere upon the
company's premises, in a state of intoxication, or using obscene
Trains and Stations. 237
ejected during the voyage, as provided by this
rule, or after having surrendered baggage to
the company for forwarding, the person or per-
sons ejected are only entitled to have their
baggage delivered at the station to which it was
or abusive language, or writing obscene or offensive words on
any part of the company's stations or carriages, or committing
any nuisance, or otherwise willfully interfering with the comfort
of other passengers is hereby subjected to a penalty not exceed-
ing forty shillings, and shall immediately, or, if a passenger, at
the first opportunity, be removed from the company's prem-
ises." G. W. fir-,
238 Railway /Service :
A CHAPTER DEVOTED TO THE RULES AND REGU-
LATIONS OF THE GREAT ENGLISH ROADS. 1
Every person employed by the company must
devote himself exclusively to their service, re-
siding at whatever place may be appointed,
attending at such hours as may be required,
paying prompt obedience to all persons placed
in authority over him, and conforming to all the