rules and regulations of the company.
Although the rules and regulations given
under different heads are made specially for the
observance of the servants employed in doing
the work required by such rules and regula-
tions, yet every such person must make himself
thoroughly acquainted with them, and will be
held responsible for a knowledge of, and com-
pliance with, the whole of them.
Every servant is required to assist in carry-
ing out the rules and regulations, and must im-
mediately report to his superior officer any in-
fringement thereof, or any occurrence affecting
the safe and proper working of the traffic which
may come under his notice.
I. Clearing-house Standard, 1877.
Trains and Stations. 239
The address of each person employed in the
working of the railway must be registered at
the station to which he is attached, or at which
he is paid, and must be posted in the station-
master's office, so that, if required in cases of
emergency, the men may be readily found. Any
change of address must be notified to the station-
master, in order that the record may be kept
No servant is allowed, under any circum-
stances, to absent himself from duty, or alter
his appointed hours of attendance, or exchange
duty with any other servant, without the
special permission of his superior officer. In
case of illness, he must immediately report the
circumstance to his superior officer.
Every person receiving uniform is to appear
in it, when on duty, clean and neat, with the
number and badge perfect, and if any article
provided by the company shall be damaged by
improper use, he will be required to make it
good. No servant is allowed to convert to his
own use any article, the property of the com-
pany, and, if guilty of such misconduct, he will
be severely punished. The conduct of all ser-
vants must be prompt, civil and obliging. They
must at all times afford every proper facility
for the business to be performed, be careful to
give correct information, and, when asked, give
their names without hesitation.
240 Railway Service :'
All officers, clerks, and persons holding situa-
tions of trust, will be required to find security
for their faithful services, the amount and con-
ditions of which securit} will be stated upon
No officer or servant of the company is allowed
to travel on the railway, unless provided with a
proper ticket, or free pass ; nor is he allowed to
ride on the engine, or in the brake van, or in
any vehicle in which luggage or parcels are con-
veyed, unless in the execution of his duty,
without written permission from the properly
authorized officer of the company.
No guard, engine-driver, fireman, signalman,
policeman, porter, or other servant of the com-
pany, while on duty, is allowed to enter a sta-
tion refreshment-room, except by permission of
the station-master, or person in charge of the
No money or gratuity in the shape of fee,
reward, or remuneration, is allowed to be taken
from passengers, or other persons, by any ser-
vant of the company, under any pretense what-
ever, even although the regular hours of duty
shall have expired.
No servant of the company is allowed to
trade, either directly or indirectly, for himself
or others. The company reserve the right to
punish any servant, by immediate dismissal,
fine, or suspension from duty, for intoxication,
Trains and Stations. 241
disobedience of orders, negligence, misconduct,
or absence from duty without leave, and to
deduct from the pay of their servants and retain
the sums which may be imposed as fines, and
also their wages during the time of their sus-
pension, or absence from duty from any cause.
No servant is allowed to quit the company's
service without giving the month's notice re-
quired by the terms of his engagement.
When a man leaves the service, he must im-
mediately deliver up his uniform and all other
articles belonging to the company, and no
money due for wages to any man leaving the
service will be paid until his clothing, book of
rules, lamps, flags, tools, detonators, and all
other articles, the property of the company,
which may have been supplied to him, shall
have been delivered up in accordance with the
company's regulations. If not delivered up, or
if any article be missing, or be damaged by im-
proper use, the cost of such articles, or of the
repair of such damage, shall be a debt due from
the man to the company, and may be deducted
from any pay then due, or, if such pay be found
insufficient to meet the claim, will become a
debt recoverable at law.
All testimonials and letters of recommenda-
tion will, if required, be returned by the com-
pany at the time the person whom they concern
leaves the service ; except such as are ad-
dressed to the company 01 their officers.
242 Railway Service :
All servants must exercise proper care in
getting between vehicles for the purpose of
coupling or uncoupling them.
No trespassing upon the railway must be
allowed, and no person must be permitted to
walk on the line, unless provided with written
or printed permission to do so, signed by a
properly Authorized officer of the company. In
the event of any person trespassing, and refus-
ing to quit when requested to do so, the name
and address of such person must be obtained,
and the circumstances reported to the nearest
Special trains or engines have frequently to
be run without previous notice of any kind, it
is therefore necessary for the staff along. the
line to be at all times prepared for extra trains
The safety of the public must, under all cir-
cumstances, be the chief care of the servants
of the company.
Wherever the term " Main Line " is used, it
means the running line of any railway, or
branch. Whenever the word " Train " is used,
it must be understood to include " Light En-
gine," i.e., engine without a train.
Wherever the- words "Goods Train" are
used, they must be understood to include
" Goods, Mineral, Cattle, and Ballast Trains."
Trains and Stations. 243
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PERSONS ARE AD-
MITTED TO THE SERVICE SECURITY
PRIVILEGES COMPENSATION ETC. 1
A candidate as an experienced clerk must
possess railway experience, or experience in
other traffic equivalent thereto".
The salary, not exceeding $400 2 per annum,
is fixed on appointment.
A candidate as a junior clerk must have
attained eighteen and must not exceed twenty-
three years of age.
The salary on appointment and
For the 1st year, is - - $5 25 per week.
" 2d " .... 5 50
"3d "... 5 75 "
" 4th " - - - 6 oo "
" 5th " and until promoted, 6 25 "
If employed in London, but during such em-
ployment only, $1.00 a week is allowed in
addition to the salary.
A junior clerk is eligible for promotion only
on a vacancy occurring, and upon the head of
the department in which he has been employed,
and the General Manager, recommending him
as qualified to fill the same.
A candidate as a lad clerk must have at-
1. Gt. Nor. Ry., England.
2. I have taken the liberty here, as I have elsewhere herein,
when I thought proper, of reducing the foreign currency to
the American standard. M. M. K.
244 Railway Service :
tained fifteen and must not exceed eighteen
years of age.
The salary on appointment and
For the 1st year is - - $2 50 per week.
" 2d " - * - - - 2 75
3d ... 3 25
" 4th " and until promoted, 4 oo "
A lad clerk is ineligible for promotion to be
a junior clerk until he is eighteen years of age,
and then only upon a vacancy occurring, and
upon the head of the department in which he
has been employed, and the General Manager,
recommending him as qualified to fill the same.
All clerks, without reference to their standing
in the service, are allowed $1.00 a week in addi-
tion to their pay, when employed wholly on
Written application at the end of each year
of service must be made to the directors
through the medium of the Superintendent of
the line, or chief of the department in which
the clerk is engaged, for the authorized increase
of salary, and failing such application at the
proper time, increased pay will be allowed only
from the date at which it is eventually made.
This rule applies also to the police and porters.
A candidate as a clerk will undergo a strict
examination as to his qualifications, in propor-
tion to his age ; he will be required to show a
good handwriting, suited for accounts and cor-
Trains and Stations. 245
respondence, and that he has a competent
knowledge of mercantile arithmetic ; and he
must be in a good state of health.
The candidate must, on attending at the
Secretary's office to be examined, produce tes-
timonials of character.
In the case of an experienced clerk, and of
a junior clerk who has been before employed,
first, from his last employer ; second, one from
each of two housekeepers of undoubted respect-
In the case of a lad clerk, and of a junior
clerk who has not been before employed, first,
from the head master of the school in which he
has been educated ; second, one from each of
two housekeepers of undoubted respectability.
The nomination, with the particulars of the
examination and the testimonials, will be sub-
mitted to the directors on the candidate ap-
pearing before them, and who will decide
whether he be qualified and a proper person to
The name of a clerk, on appointment, will
be added to a list, from which he will be sum-
moned in turn for duty as a vacancy occurs,
provided he has in the meantime given security ;
but should he, on being summoned, refuse or
neglect to join, his name will be struck out of
the list, and he can not afterwards be re-ad-
mitted to the service.
246 Railway Service :
A clerk must, immediately on appointment,
give security to the amount of two years'
salary, or in not less than $500, through the
medium of one of the undermentioned guar-
antee societies, and he can not subsequently,
under any pretense whatever, be allowed to
change from the society first selected.
(Here follows the list of guarantee com-
The railway company pays the premium in
the case of a clerk whose salary does not ex-
ceed $5.25 per week or $6.25 per week without
A candidate as a porter must be five feet
seven inches in height, without his shoes. He
must not be less than twenty-one, and must not
exceed thirty-five years of age. He must be
able to read and write, and be generally intel-
ligent ; free from any bodily complaint, and of
a strong constitution, according to the judg-
ment of the surgeon by whom he will be ex-
amined, who will report whether he is " fit "
or " unfit." The police are selected from this
The candidate must produce testimonials of
character from his last employer, and one from
each of two housekeepers of undoubted respect-
ability, and if he has been in any public service
also a certificate of good conduct during such
employment; these, with the nomination, will
Trains and Stations. 247
be submitted to the directors on the candidate
appearing before them, and who will decide
whether he be a proper person to be appointed.
The pay of a porter is, on entering, and
In London. In Country.
For ist year, ... $4 25 per week. $4 oo per week,
" 2d " - - - 4 50 " " 4 25
" 3d " and until promoted, 4 75 " " 4 50 "
provided a fine be not incurred in the in-
terim, in which case increased pay is allowed
only after twelve months' service from the date
of such fine.
A candidate as a lad porter must not be less
than fourteen, nor exceed seventeen years of
age. He must be able to read and write, and
be generally intelligent, free from any bodily
complaint, and of strong constitution, accord-
ing to the judgment of the surgeon by whom
he will be examined, who will report whether
he is "fit" or "unfit."
The candidate must produce testimonials of
character from the school at which he has
been educated, and one from each of two house-
keepers of undoubted respectability. These,
with the nomination, will be submitted to the
directors on the candidate appearing before
them, and who will decide whether he be a
proper person to be appointed.
The pay of a lad porter is, on entering, and
Railway Service :
For the ist year
$i 75 per week.
- 2 25
- 2 75
and until promoted, 3 50
A lad porter on attaining twenty-one years
of age, and not before, is eligible for promotion
to be a porter, but he can then become a porter
only after being passed by the surgeon and the
directors, as in the case of a new appointment,
want of height (under five feet seven inches)
not being, however, a disqualification.
All appointments are made on the distinct
understanding that the parties hold themselves
in readiness to proceed to duty immediately on
being summoned, their pay being allowed from
the date of employment, that they reside where-
ever required, and that they will join and be-
come members, on being so required, of any
provident or benevolent society established
or to be established in connection with the
company, and abide by all the rules and regula-
tions * * * or otherwise given them for
The rules of the Sick and Funeral Allow-
ance Fund are furnished to every porter on
Station-inspectors, 86. 25 and $7.50 per week,
Trains and Stations. 249
according to the class of station, with house,
or an allowance of $ 1.25 per week in lieu.
Pass. Guards (con.) 1st class, Chief Guard $7 50 per week.
" " ist " Under Guard 6 87 "
2d " Chief Guard 6 75 "
" " 2d " Under Guard 6 25
Goods and cattle Guards, Chief Guard 7 50 "
" " Under Guard 6 87 "
Mineral Guards, - - - - 5 75 "
All guards when required to sleep away from
home, receive twenty-five cents per night ad-
Police Ordinary, - $4 25 per week.
" Signalmen at Junctions and ) u
Pointsmen in London, )
" In the Country, - - - 4 75 "
" Gatemen at level street crossings, 4 75 "
" Gatemen at level r'd station crossings 4 25 "
Gatemen provided with a house by the com-
pany, are to have coals free, and to pay sixty-
two cents a week rent, but if they open the
gates by night in addition to the day work they
are to have the house rent free, as an equiva-
lent for the night work.
Porters in London, - $4 25 per week.
" in the Country, - - 4 oo "
Foremen Porters in London, - - 5 25 "
the Country, - - 5 oo "
Mineral Foremen Porters in the Country, 5 25 "
Shunters in London, - - - 4 75 "
the Country, - 4 50 ''
Luggage Stowers and Loaders, - 4 75 "
250 Raihvay Service :
Police and porters are to receive an advance
of twenty-five cents per week each year for two
years, beginning on the day when they shall
have completed a year's Service, if not pun-
ished in the interval.
Foremen porters, signalmen or pointsmen, .
gatemen at level street crossings, shunters and
loaders are to be advanced under the same
rule, twenty-five cents per week each year for
two years, from which their only increase will
be by promotion to a superior foremanship at
$6.25, which is a fixed rate of wages, or to the
situation of guard or inspector.
In case of promotion, men who have been
advanced under above rule are to carry with
them and continue to enjoy their advance, un-
less the promotion is to a grade paid at a fixed
rate of wages, when it will cease.
Signalmen, at the expiration of every half-
year of good service, without punishment, will
receive a premium of $12.50.
As soon as any fine or punishment for mis-
conduct shall be registered against any servant
of the company, the previous period of the
current year's service for increase of pay or
premium becomes forfeited, and the year can
only be reckoned from the date on which he
Trains and Stations. 251
THE UNIFORMS REQUIRED AND THE REGULA-
TIONS INCIDENT THERETO. 1
All servants of the company to whom uni-
form is allowed are required to wear it while
on duty. The uniform of servants clothed by
the company is as follows, for twelve months :
For station-inspectors and guards, a great
coat, a frock coat, waistcoat, two pairs of trou-
sers, two red neckerchiefs, and hat or cap ; for
policemen, a great coat, a dress coat, two pairs
of trousers, cape and hat ; for porters, a jacket,
waistcoat, two pairs of trousers, two red neck-
erchiefs, and cap.
Foremen porters and shunters have a cape
in addition. Authorized laborers receive two
blue " slops,'' and red neckerchiefs.
Uniforms will be issued as follows : To the
inspectors and guards, a top coat once a year,
and a frock coat once a year. When a sec-
ond of either garment is issued the first may
be retained, but when a third is served out the
first issued is to be given back ; when the
fourth is issued the second to be given back,
and thus two of each garment will remain in
their possession. The trousers and hats or
caps remain in the possession of the men, ex-
cept that, when they leave the service, two
i. Gt. Nor. Ry., England.
252 Railway Service :
pairs of trousers must be given up, with all
other clothing and appointments.
To the police, a great coat and cape every
two years ; on receipt of new ones the old
ones must be given up. The dress coats in use
when the second coats are supplied are allowed
to remain in possession of the policemen until
a third is issued ; they are then required to give
up No. 1, keeping Nos. 2 and 3 ; when No. 4
is issued No. 2 is to be given up, and so on,
two dress coats remaining in the possession of
the men. Hats and trousers remain in possession
of the men, except that when they leave the ser-
vice, they are required to give up two pairs of
trousers, with all the other clothing and ap-
Porters are subject to the police regulations
as to their jackets and waistcoats. When the
second jackets and waistcoats are issued, the
first are retained by the men ; when the third
are issued the first are given back, and so on.
The trousers remain in possession of the men,
except that, when leaving the service, they are
required to give up two pairs of trousers, and
all the other appointments of clothing. The
capes are issued once in two years, the caps and
neckkerchiefs yearly ; on receipt of a second cap
or cape the first is to be given up.
Trains and Stations. 253
GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR WORKING THE
ABSOLUTE BLOCK SYSTEM ON A DOUBLE
TRACK ROAD. 1
The signaling of trains on the block tele-
graph system does not in any way dispense with
the use of home, distant, starting, hand, or fog
signals, whenever and wherever such signals
may be requisite to protect obstructions on the
railway. The object of the system of electric
train signaling is to prevent more than one
train or engine being between any two signal
stations on the same line at the same time.
This is accomplished by not allowing any train
or engine to leave a signal station till the pre-
vious train or engine has been signaled as hav-
ing arrived at or left the signal station next in
The block signal instruments and bells are
exclusively for the signaling of trains, and
must not, under any circumstances, be used for
conversing, nor for any other purpose than
block-working, in strict accordance with the
company's regulations, and they must only be
,used by the signalman, or other person specially
appointed for the duty.
The signal boxes at which the block tele-
graph working is in operation, are furnished
with instruments to signal for each line of rails,
i. English Clearing House Standard.
254 Railway Service :
and the system under which these instruments
are to be worked, and the mode of indicating
the description of approaching trains, will be
laid down in the code of regulations supplied
to signalmen or exhibited in the signal boxes
for the guidance of the persons in charge.
On those portions of the line worked on the
absolute block system, a second train or engine
must not be allowed to enter a section until the
preceding train or engine has been signaled as
having passed out of the section, except under
the circumstances specified in rules " A " and
" B," further on, to meet cases of train or tele-
graph failure. The danger signal must be ex-
hibited at both the home and distant signals 1 to
protect trains or engines standing at stations or
intermediate signal boxes, and when any train
or engine has gone forward into the onward
section, the starting and advanced starting
signals (where such are provided), which con-
trol the entrance of trains and engines into
such sections, must also be put to, and kept
at, " danger," until telegraphic information has
been received from the signal box in advance that
the preceding train or engine has passed out o
the section. So long as the starting signals stand
i. The "home" signal or semaphore is located in the im-
mediate vicinity of the station ; the " distant " signal is, however,
located further away. It is usually worked (by means of a
chain running along the ground) by the person who operates
the " home " signal. M. M. K.
Trains and Stations. 255
at " danger," the home and distant signals must
also be kept at " danger," except on the near ap-
proach of a train which has to stop at the sta-
tion, when, after the speed of the train has been
reduced so as to admit of its stoppage at the
platform, the home signal may be taken off to
admit the train, but the starting signal must be
kept at " danger " until the line is clear to the
next signal station ahead.
Unless special instructions are given to the
contrary the line must be considered clear, and
the signal "line clear" be given immediately
the last vehicle (with tail-lamp attached) has
passed the home signal post, except during
foggy weather or snow-storms, when the signal
44 line clear " must not be sent to the station in
the rear until the train or engine that has
stopped at the station has passed the home
signal, and is proceeding on its journey, or has
been shunted into a siding clear of the main
Should it become necessary to block a section,
in consequence of a breakdown obstructing the
line, or other circumstances taking place render-
ing it imperative that any approaching train
should be stopped, the signalman at the station
where the obstruction takes place must use the
means authorized by his regulations for prevent-
ing any train leaving the post in the rear.
Should there be reason to suppose that both
256 Railway Service :
lines are fouled, the signalman must, without
any delay, block the lines in both directions.
No obstruction must be allowed outside the
home signal until the signalman on duty has
carried out the prescribed regulations to pre-
vent any train leaving the signal station in the
If a signalman observe anything unusual in a
train during its passage, such as signals of alarm
by a passenger, tail-lamp missing or out, goods
falling off, a vehicle on fire, a hot axle-box, or
other mishap, he must give the station in ad-
vance the signal to " stop and examine train,"
and the signalman at the station in advance
must acknowledge such signal, and instantly
put on the danger signals to stop the approach-
ing train. Where practicable, the signalman
must also telegraph the station in advance the
cause of sending the " stop and examine train"
Should the signalman receiving the signal
have reason to suppose that there is any danger
to a train traveling in the opposite direction, he
must also stop that train, and inform the en-
gine-driver of the circumstances, instructing him
to proceed cautiously. Should a train pass a
signal station without a tail-lamp on the last
vehicle, the signalman must not telegraph " line
clear " to the station in the rear, but must call
the attention of such station in the authorized
Trains and Stations. 257
manner, and on gaining attention, must give the
" train passed without tail-lamp " signal. This
signal having been acknowledged, the signalman
at the rear station will, thereupon, stop any train
following, and verbally instruct the engine-driver
to proceed cautiously toward the station in ad-
vance, informing him why it is necessary that he
should do so. As soon as the train, the engine-
driver of which has been cautioned, has passed
the signal station from whence the "train
passed without tail-lamp" signal was received,
the signalman there will recommence signaling
in the ordinary manner.
Should any vehicle or portion of a train be