water-closet to be found in all of our passenger cars is
I. Called wagons in Great Britain.
54 Railway Service :
Extra Train. A train not expressly contem-
plated or provided for in the schedule. It is
run for the purpose of expediting the business
of the road ; to accommodate the traffic that
can not be hauled in the regular trains without
delay. It follows a regular train usually of its
own grade and possesses the same schedule
rights as the train it is following.
Flying Switch. The disconnecting of a por-
tion of a train while in motion and just before
reaching a switch, the forward part of such
disconnected train accelerating its speed to such
a degree as to enable it to reach and pass the
switch in time for the person in charge thereof
to divert the detached cars that are following,
to some other track.
G-rade of Trains. The grade of trains varies
upon different roads, but it may be stated, ap-
proximately, in order as follows : The first grade
embraces the four classes of passenger trains,
viz : -express and through mail, local mail,
suburban, and accommodation. The second
grade embraces the three classes of freight
trains, viz : live-stock, through, and way. The
third grade embraces the wild trains, viz : the
trains operated under special or telegraphic
orders, including construction and wood trains.
Holding a Train. Delaying a train for any
reason. A train may be held for orders; until
some other train arrives; until a. brake can be
Trains and Stations. 55
Irregular Train. See "wild trains."
Keep off the Time of a Train. A direction not
to obstruct the main track or attempt to occupy
it when, according to the schedule, it rightfully
belongs to another train.
Lost its Rights. See " when a train has lost
Lost Time. The time that a train has lost,
taking the schedule as a basis. If a train is
behind time it may be said to have " lost time."
Main Track. The main track or tracks of a
road upon which its trains are run.
Making Time. Signifies that a train is run-
ning in accordance with the time allotted it in
the schedule ; is not losing time.
Meeting Point. A point at which trains
moving in opposite directions meet.
Movement of Trains by Telegraph. Tele-
graphic orders directing the movement of trains.
The manipulation of trains from a central office
through the medium of orders sent by telegraph.
The substitution of special orders for the fixed
time and rights allotted trains in the schedule,
and in the rules and regulations appertaining
thereto. Directing what trains shall have the
right to the road, and where and when they
shall run without reference to the rights allotted
them in the schedule.
On Time. Means that a train is conforming
exactly to the time specified in the schedule ;
in accord with it.
56 Railway Service :
Open Switcfh. When a switch is "open"
the main track from one direction is connected
with a subsidiary or collateral track, while
the main track from the opposite direction is
not connected with anything. " Open a switch "
is to disconnect the principal track and connect
one part of it with some other track.
Overshooting. Running past a point as
"overshooting " a station.
Passing Point. A place where a train is
overtaken and passed by another train going in
the same direction.
Regular Train. A train specifically named
and graded in the schedule, as " Passenger train
Right to the Road. The right of a train to
proceed on its course. The right to occupy the
main track at a particular time and place, to
the exclusion of all other trains of the same or
inferior grade. In the absence of special orders
to the contrary, trains of an inferior grade are
required to keep out of the way of trains of a
superior grade, i. e. when a train of a superior
grade is due according to the schedule, trains
of an inferior grade must not occupy the main
track until the superior train has passed.
Rights of a Train. Certain rights that a
train possesses as defined by the schedule and
the rules and regulations governing the move-
ment of trains. The right a train has to pro-
Trains and Stations. 57
ceed according to the time allotted it in the
schedule, when it can do so without impeding
the course of a train of a superior grade, or
when not otherwise ordered. The rights a
train of a superior grade possesses over trains
of an inferior grade. The rights under certain
circumstances which a train going in one direc-
tion possesses over trains going in the opposite
Running Against a Train. When two trains
are to meet at a certain point they are said
to be running against each other.
Running Time of Trains. See "Time."
Run Regardless. A special or telegraphic
order to run a train regardless of another speci-
fied train or trains. An order giving a train
the right to the road against another train as
" You will run from Fort Edward to Glens
Falls regardless of train No. 9, but keeping out
of the way of all other regular trains."
Schedule or Time Table. The schedule accu-
rately fixes the grade of each and every regular
train ; it provides where trains shall meet or
pass each other ; it fixes the maximum speed
of trains, and gives each regular train a definite
number, and specifies the time of its arrival at
and departure from stations. 1 The rules and
regulations governing the movement of trains
I. The schedules published in the various railway guides
are in form substantially the same as those used by trainmen.
58 Railway Service :
properly form a part of the schedule, and with
these it is the chart that in the absence of special
or telegraphic orders to the contrary governs
the movements of trains.
Semaphore. " An apparatus or piece of me-
chanism for exhibiting signals to convey infor-
mation from a distance." Webster.
Setting a /Switch. Arranging a switch so as
to connect certain specified tracks. When a
switch is adjusted so as not to disconnect the
main stem, ifc is said to be " set for the main
track." The directions to trainmen and others,
so often to be met with, to see that " switches
are set right," means that they are to see^that
switches are so adjusted as not to disconnect
the main track.
Shunting. The English term for switching.
Side Track. A track varying in length and
running parallel with the main track, and con-
nected with it at each end by a switch. With
unimportant exceptions, the freight cars re-
quired to transport the traffic of railroads are
loaded and unloaded while standing upon these
tracks ; the tracks at the different stations vary
in number and length with the business that re-
quires accommodation. For the purpose of
enabling trains to meet and pass each other
upon the road, side tracks of varying length are
required to be located at convenient points
along the line. The terms familiar to railway
Trains and Stations. 59
men, " will take a side track," " will side
track," means, when robbed of the peculiar
phraseology in which they have been clothed,
that the train referred to must run upon and
occupy a side track.
Sidings. See " Side Track."
Signals. Train signals. The medium by
which under certain circumstances intelligence
is conveyed quickly, and at a distance between
employe's at night and by day, through the me-
dium of the human senses. The signals con-
sist of motions of the arms and body ; of explo-
sives or torpedoes placed upon the track ; of
flags and other devices of different colors for
use during the day ; of lamps of varying color
and significance for use at night, and, finally,
of information conveyed through the medium
of the semaphore. Certain letters, figures, and
combinations are in common use as signals upon
telegraph lines for the purpose of expediting
Slipping the Wheels. 1 When the wheels do
not revolve (the engine or train being in
motion) they are said to slip.
Special Train. A train provided for a special
purpose. It is not named in the schedule, and
is moved under the special orders of the Super-
intendent. A wild train.
Trains of a certain character or grade, like
i. It is termed "Skidding the Wheels" in Great Britain.
60 Railway Service :
suburban Or way-passenger trains, are desig-
nated as special trains upon some lines. Upon
still other roads, what we have already classi-
fied as an extra train, is called a special train.
A special train is an extra train in this, that
it is operated for the purpose of meeting a want
that the regular trains do not adequately pro-
Spur Track. A track connected at one end
with the main track ; it sometimes runs parallel
with the latter, the same as a side track. These
tracks are constructed for the purpose of giving
a company access to gravel pits, stone quarries,
and outlying manufactories and business enter-
Station. A place where the passenger traffic
of a railroad, and much of its freight traffic as
well, is received and discharged ; the depot
and its immediate vicinity. In the movement
of trains a side track located at an isolated
point on the line, possesses, in many important
respects, the same significance as a station ;
a place where trains meet or pass each other.
Switch. A mechanical apparatus constructed
at the junction of two or more tracks, or at
points where one or more lines diverge from the
principal track. It is operated by a lever and
cross bar, and by its aid lines diverging from
the principal track are connected or discon-
nected at pleasure with the latter.
Trains and Stations. 61
" To turn from one railway track to
Switching Sometimes called " Shunting "
The transfer of a car from one track to an-
other. The manipulation of cars in yards and
elsewhere. The arranging and rearranging
of cars in making up trains so as to get them
in the order desired. Tbe arranging of cars
upon the arrival of trains at their destination
or while en route.
Third Track. A third track or siding placed
between the main tracks of a double track road
for the purpose of enabling trains to pass each
other with facility and dispatch. A track
occupied by trains of an inferior grade for the
purpose of allowing trains of a superior grade
Through Train. A train designed to accom-
modate the through traffic or (in the case of
a passenger train) the traffic between the large
cities at which it stops.
Time. The time allotted to trains by the
schedule and by which their movements are
governed. In some cases, though rarely, spe-
cial orders are given to trains to run to a
specified point in the event they can reach
such point by or before a certain time named
in the order.
Time Table. See "Schedule."
Train Dispatcher. An assistant of the
62 Railway Service :
Superintendent. The official who directs the
movement of trains by telegraph; an expert.
Trains. The trains operated upon our vari-
ous railroads may be specified as follows, viz :
ballast, coal, dirt, excursion, freight, gravel,
mineral, oil, ore, passenger, pay, stock, stone,
timber, wood, and wrecking. 1 What are called
" freight trains " may be said to embrace prac-
tically all the trains engaged exclusively in
transporting merchandise and other property
for which a railway company receives pay.
Turn a Switch. To "turn a switch" is to
disconnect one track from the main stem, sub-
stituting another track in its place.
Turn Out.SQQ " Side Track."
Way Bill. An itemized account of property
transported ; a statement of the articles, the
amount of the charges, the point from and to,
date, number, etc.
Way Train. A train that stops at the vari-
ous stations and is occupied in doing the petty
or local business of a company. An accommo-
dation train. A way passenger train or way
freight train stops at all regular stations. The
duties of employe's on way freight trains are
multifarious as well as arduous. In addition to
the ordinary duties of trainmen they are com-
pelled to handle much of the freight hauled in
I. In England a wrecking train is called a break down
Trains and Stations. 63
their trains. For instance, a freight car some-
times contains freight in small quantities for
several different points. It is the duty of train-
men to unload this freight. When the freight
to be shipped from a station is not sufficient to
warrant the exclusive use of a car, it is piled
upon the depot platform to be loaded by the
trainmen into some empty or partially loaded
car. The engines of way freight trains do the
switching required at the small stations.
When a Train has Lost its Rights. A
regular train, when twelve hours behind time,
loses its right to the road against all regular
trains. It is no longer recognized or provided
for by the schedule. It ceases to be a regular
train, and it is classed thereafter as an extra or
A train may lose its right as against a
particular train or trains, and still possess
rights that are paramount over those of
other trains. Upon a single track road a
train of the highest grade going in a certain
direction is not allowed to leave a station where
it should meet another train of its own grade,
until thirty minutes after its leaving time.
Thereafter it proceeds on its course, keeping
thirty minutes behind its time, and the oppos-
ing train must keep out of its way.
Trains of an inferior grade cannot pro-
ceed until trains of a superior grade that are
64 Railway Service :
due, or past due, have arrived, unless the latter
are twelve or more hours behind time.
Whistling Post. A post or board erected in
the vicinity of stations and crossings. A signal
to the engineman to sound the whistle of his
Wild Train. An irregular train for which
no provision is made in the schedule. It is
operated under orders from the Superintendent,
and is required to keep out of the way of
regular and extra trains.
Wood Train. A train engaged in hauling
the wood required by a railway company for
its own use.
Y. A track of the general shape of the let-
ter Y. A track connecting two tracks running
at right angles with each other. This track,
or combination of tracks, affords a convenient
means of turning trains or cars.
Trains and Stations. 65
PLAN PURSUED IN ARRANGING AND COMPIL-
ING THE RULES AND REGULATIONS.
The accompanying directions in reference to
train and station service have been compiled
without prejudice from the rules and regula-
tions in force to-day upon some twenty of the
greatest, most thoroughly organized, and best
managed roads upon this continent. The
workings of all the principal roads of Great
Britain have also been studied, and such of
their rules and regulations as were thought
applicable to our system of management have
been embodied herein. In many cases where
their regulations were not directly or wholly
applicable, they have nevertheless been inserted
as foot-notes for the purpose of illustrating
their theory and its peculiarities, and for the
valuable information and instruction they afford.
In compiling these instructions, it has been
necessary in many instances to decide between
conflicting rules. In such cases preference has
been given to those that seemed under all the
circumstances of the case to be the most feasi-
ble, or that possessed the greatest practical
66 Railway Service :
value in the economy of railway manage-
The object of the compiler has been to form
from the regulations now in force upon various
lines a more perfect code of rules. It is doubt-
less true that this object has only been partially
The compilation has not been made with the
view or expectation of its adoption by any
particular company. However, wherever the
rules are applicable or valuable to railway man-
agers, either wholly or in part, they will in
time undoubtedly be accepted ; where they are
not applicable, or best, they ought not to be
adopted, and will not be.
While it has been the aim of the writer to
make the regulations embodied herein practi-
cable upon any of our lines, it is nevertheless
true that many rules that are imperative upon
one line possess no relevancy elsewhere, or,
more properly speaking, they are, under ordi-
nary circumstances, unnecessary. The double
track road, for instance, does not require rules
so elaborate as those governing the use of a
single track, still it is necessary to provide rules
sufficiently comprehensive so that in the event
any accident restricts a company to the use of
one track the safety of trains will not be endan-
gered nor the business of the road impeded.
The company that can, without inconvenienc-
Trains and Stations. 67
ing the public, allow twenty minutes between
its trains, will possess rules that, while they are
wise in their application by that particular com-
pany, would be cumbersome and impracticable
upon a line where the business required that
trains should arrive and depart every five min-
utes, as is the case upon certain English roads
during particular portions of the day.
The main purpose of the compiler in prepar-
ing these instructions has been to place within
the reach of railway men, of every grade and
occupation, facilities for acquiring accurate
knowledge of the extent and scope of the
duties and responsibilities of train and station
men under the system of manipulating trains
generally prevalent in the United States.
An examination of the rules and regulations
of the best managed companies makes it appa-
rent that many seemingly trivial but really
important things that employes should possess
accurate knowledge of are no where mentioned ;
it being accepted as a matter of course that the
employes possess the desired knowledge. And
it is doubtless true that those familiar by long
experience with the practical working of trains
do possess this knowledge, but the novice or
student finds the omissions of a character not
to be overcome except by long experience or
diligent and protracted inquiry, which but few
of them are able to prosecute successfully. The
68 Railway Service :
writer has therefore introduced new rules and
explanations wherever he believed they would
tend to a clearer understanding of the subject.
And in reference to the construction of the old
rules adopted by him, he has not hesitated to
alter or amend their purport or phraseology
wherever he believed greater efficiency or clear-
ness could be secured by such alteration or
amendment ; the object being so far as possible
to frame a code of rules sufficiently comprehen-
sive to cover great enterprises as well as com-
paratively unimportant or partially completed
I. The more minute rules and regulations of the block sys-
tem having no general significance in the United States, and
not being likely to have for many years to come, have not
been embodied herein.
Trains and Stations. 69
SIGNALS REQUIRED BY RAILWAY COMPANIES.
Flags of the proper color must be used as
signals by day, and lamps of the proper color
must be used at night or in foggy weather.
" Signal lamps must be lighted as soon as it
commences to be dusk, and, during the interval
between daylight and dark, both day and night
signals must be used." 1
Hand-lamps and hand-flags, when used as
signals, must always be held in the hand, and
not placed upon, or stuck into, the ground.
Red signifies danger, and is a signal to stop.
It must never be used as a caution signal.
Green signifies caution, and is a signal to go
In the absence of a green light, a white light
waved slowly, from side to side, must be used ;
it denotes danger, Stop.
1. English Clearing House Standard.
2. Out of fifteen American roads examined, eight of them do
not use green as a signal. Upon one road it indicates, when
carried upon engines, that another engine is following, and
that such engine possesses all the rights of the engine carrying
the signal. Upon another line it indicates that an engine
or train is following, but that it possesses no rights, and
will keep out of the way. Upon another road it indicates,
when carried upon an engine, that such engine or train is wild
70 Railway Service :
White signifies safety, and is a signal to go
Green and white is a signal to be used to stop
trains at signal stations. 2
Blue is a signal to be used by car inspectors.
A lantern swung across the track, a flag, hat
or other object of any kind, waved violently
on the track, signifies danger, and is a signal to
An exploding cap or torpedo clamped to the
top of the rail, is an extra danger signal, to be
used in addition to the regular signals at night,
in foggy weather, and in cases of accident or
emergency, when other signals cannot be dis-
tinctly seen or relied upon. 3
or irregular. Upon another line it indicates that the telegraph
line is out of order. Upon another line it indicates, when
carried upon the rear car, that the train is a regular train.
Upon another line it is used at telegraph stations to stop trains
for orders. Upon another line when displayed at a switch it
indicates that such switch is set for the main track.
1. " At some large stations, where there are lamps showing
white lights for other purposes than signaling, which come in
the line of the signals, a green light is substituted for a white
light on the signal post ; but in all such cases trains are to
approach and pass through such stations with caution." G.
W. Ry., England.
2. When a train does not stop at a station, unless signaled,
such station becomes a signal station, so far as that particu-
lar train is concerned, but generally speaking, we understand
a signal station to mean a small and unimportant place where
trains do not stop unless signaled.
3 "Every guard, signalman, engine-driver, gateman, fore-
man of work, and ganger of platelayers, will be provided with
packets of detonators, which they are always to have ready
for use while on duty, and every person in charge of a station
must keep a supply of these signals in a suitable place, known
Trains and Stations. 71
The explosion of one of these signals is a
warning to stop the train immediately. If the
first explosion is followed immediately by a
second, the speed of the train need only be
slackened, but a sharp look-out must be kept for
the regular danger signals. Should a third
torpedo be exploded at the regulation distance
(600 yards) from the first two, the train must
be stopped at once. 1
A fusee must be used as an extra caution,
signal. It must be lighted and thrown on the
track at frequent intervals, by the flagman of
passenger trains at night, or in foggy weather,
by, and easy of access at all times to, every person connected
with the station. All the persons above named will be held
responsible for keeping up the proper supply of detonators.
These signals must be placed on the rail (label upwards) by
bending the clasp round the upper flange of the rail to pre-
vent their falling off. When an engine passes over a detona-
tor it explodes with a loud report, and the engine-driver must
instantly shut off steam, and bring his engine to a stand, and
then proceed cautiously to the place of obstruction, or until
he receives an "all right" signal. Detonators must be
carefully handled, as they are liable to explode if roughly
treated. It is necessary to keep them well protected from
damp. At intervals of not more than two months, one from
each person's stock must be tested, to insure that they are in
good condition." Eng. Standard.
i. Exposure to rain or wet for thirty minutes destroys or im-
pairs the explosive qualities of torpedoes, and, in such cases,
too much reliance should not be placed upon them.
" When in snowy weather there is any probability of the
detonators being swept from the rails by the brooms attached
to the gu ird-irons of the engines, these signals must not be
depended on alone. The guard must not rejoin his train, even
though it may be able to proceed, unless some qualified ser-
vant of the company can be found." Gt. Nor. Ry. Eng.
The regulations of the Great Northern Ry. of Eng. referred
to in this book, were issued in 1856.
72 Railway Service :
whenever the train is not making schedule
A train finding a fusee burning upon the
track, must stop, and not proceed until it is
A semaphore arm extended in horizontal po-
sition by day, or a red light by night, signifies
danger, 1 and trains must come to a full stop,
and not proceed until the signal has been