changed by the man in charge, so as to indicate
thac all is right. When the line is clear and
free for the passage of trains, the arm will not
be seen by day, 2 and by night a white light
will indicate that all is right for trains to pro-
ceed. During storms, or in foggy weather,
great caution must be observed. If semaphore
arm or signal lights can not be plainly seen,
trains must be brought to a full stop, and not
be allowed to proceed until all is known to be
Red signals must be used by telegraph opera-
tors and others where the order to stop a train
Each train, or engine without a train, while
running after sunset, or during the day in
1. " The danger signal is shown by the arm on the left hand
side of the semaphore post standing out from the post." Great
Western Railway, England.
2. "The 'all right' signal is shown by the arm hanging
down to the side of the post." Great Western Rail-way, Eng.
Trains and Stations. 73
foggy weather, must display the white head-
light in front of the engine. 1
Head-lights upon engines must be kept in
good order, and always lighted when running
after dark, but they must be covered when
waiting on turnouts clear of the main track.
Each passenger train, and each through
freight train, while running, must have a bell-
cord attached to the signal bell of the engine,
passing through or over the entire length of the
train, and secured to its rear end.
Each train while running must display two
red flags at the rear by day. Passenger trains
running at night, or in foggy weather, must
have two large red lights on the rear platform.
Freight and working trains running at night, or
in foggy weather, must have three red lights at
rear of the train, one being placed on each side
of the rear car, near the top, and the other on
the rear platform of rear car, or in the cupola,
if the car is built with one. 2
Engines, if alone, running at night or in fog-
gy weather, must carry one red light on rear of
1. " The engines carry a white light in front of the passenger
trains, and a green light in front of the goods, cattle, mineral,
and ballast trains, but north of Doncaster they carry two
white or two green lights, to distinguish between goods and
passenger trains." Great Western Railway, England,
2. " Every train traveling on the line must have a signal
lamp attached to the last vehicle, by day as well as by night,
except when assisted by an engine in the rear, when such en-
gine must carry the signal." Foreign Road.
74 Railway Service :
A red lantern must be kept lighted and ready
for use at night or in foggy weather in the rear
car of trains, also upon engines.
All side lights must be covered and the cyl-
inder cocks of engines must be closed when
trains are waiting on turnouts, clear of the main
Should an engineman observe a train or engine
at a stand, on the opposite line to that on which
he is traveling, obscured by steam or smoke, he
must sound his whistle and approach it very
cautiously, so as to be able to stop if necessary.
Two green flags by day, and two green lights
at night, carried in front of an engine, denote
that the engine or train is followed by another
engine or train, running on the same schedule
The engine or train thus signaled is entitled
to the same schedule rights and privileges as the
engine or train carrying the signals. 2
Two white flags by day, and two white lights
at night, when carried in front of an engine,
indicate that the engine or train is wild, but
1. A wild train or a train operated under telegraphic orders,
is not allowed under any circumstances to carry signals for a
2. " A special train to follow is indicated by the preceding
train carrying on the last vehicle a red board or a red flag by
day, and an additional red tail lamp by night, but as special
trains or engines have frequently to be run without previous
notice of any kind, it is necessary for the staff along the line to
be at all times prepared for such extra trains or engines."
Trains and Stations. 75
the order for wild trains to carry such signals
is not imperative.
A yellow flag or lantern carried in front of an
engine denotes that the telegraph line is out of
order, and the track men of the various sec-
tions of road over which this signal is carried
must at once examine the telegraph lines, for
the whole length of their several sections, care-
fully and promptly repairing any defects they
A blue flag by day, and a blue light at night,
placed in the drawhead, or on the platform or
step of a car, or upon the track, at the end of
a train or car, denotes that car-repairmen are at
work underneath the said car or cars. The car
or train thus protected must not be disturbed
until the blue signal is removed by the car-re-
One short blast of the whistle is a signal to
apply the brakes stop !
A blast of the whistle, of five seconds' dura-
tion, is a signal for approaching stations, cross-
ings and drawbridges.
Two long blasts of the whistle is a signal to
loosen the brakes.
Two short blasts of the whistle when run-
ning, is an answer to the signal of conductor
to stop at the next station.
76 Railway Service :
Three short blasts of the whistle when stand-
ing, is a signal that the engine or train will back.
Three short blasts of the whistle when run-
ning, is a signal to be given by trains, when
carrying signals for a following train, to call the
attention of trains they meet or pass, to the
Four long blasts of the whistle is a signal to
the signalman to return to the train.
Four short blasts of the whistle is the engine-
man's call for signals at signal boxes, switches,
drawbridges and elsewhere.
Five short blasts of the whistle is a call for
signals to be sent out to protect the train.
Six distinct blasts of the whistle is a signal
to switchman to open the switch so that the
engine or train may occupy the side track.
A succession of short blasts of the whistle is
an alarm for live stock, or for persons walking
or standing upon the track ; it is a signal to
trainmen of danger ahead.
CONDUCTORS' SIGNALS BY BELL CORD.
One stroke of the signal bell when the en-
gine is standing, is a notice to start.
One stroke of the signal bell when the en-
gine is running, is a notice to stop at once. * If,
I. " Every guard, when traveling, must keep a good look-out,
and should he see any reason to apprehend danger, he must
use his best endeavors to give notice thereof to the engine-
driver. Should a guard wish to attract the attention of the
engine-driver, he must, in addition to using the communica-
tion, where such exist", apply his brake sharply and release it
Trains and Stations. 77
after the stroke has been given, and before the
train stops, it is found to be unnecessary to
stop the train, two strokes will be a signal to
the engineman that he may go on.
Two strokes of the signal bell when the en-
gine is standing, is a ntftice to call in the signal-
Three strokes of the signal bell when the en-
gine is standing, is a notice to back the train.
Three strokes of the signal bell when the
engine is running, is a notice to stop at the
SIGNALS BY HAND.
The hand moved above the head is a signal
to go ahead.
If waved across the body below the head, it
is a danger signal or a signal to stop. 1
suddenly. This operation repeated several times is almost
certain, from the check it occasions, to attract the notice of
the engine-driver, to whom the necessary "caution" or "dan-
ger" signal, as the case may require, must be exhibited."
i. "The danger signal 'to stop* is
shown by a red flag, or, in the absence
of the flag, by both arms held up,
"'Caution,' 'to slacken' is shown * * *
by one arm being held up."
'"All Right' is shown * * * by hold-
ing the right arm in a horizontal position
pointing across the line of rails." Gt .
Nor, Ry. Rng.
78 Railway Service :
The two arms extended widely and horizon-
tally, is a signal to back the train.
If both arms are thrown up above the head
(touching the hands together), then thrown
down by the side, it is a signal that the train is
A light swung through a vertical arc (over
the head) is a signal to go ahead.
When swung horizontally across the track it
is a signal to stop.
When raised and lowered vertically it is a
signal to back the train.
When whirled round and round, vertically
across the train, it is a signal that the train is
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE USE OF SIGNALS.
When upon duty each trainman must carry
three torpedoes in his pocket. Passenger trains
must also be provided with fusees for use as
Unnecessary sounding the whistle is pro-
hibited, as its excessive use impairs its value
as a signal of danger.
The whistle must not be used as a signal for
the stopping of a train, except in case of dan-
ger, if it can be avoided. It must never be
used as the signal for starting a passenger train.
When shifting or moving in yards and at sta-
tions, the engine bell should be rung, but the
Trains and Stations. 79
whistle must only be used in cases of absolute
The whistle must not be sounded while pass-
ing a passenger train, except in cases of emer-
gency or danger.
The engine bell must always be rung before
starting an engine or train.
When passing or meeting trains on main
track or sidings, and when passing through tun-
nels, or through the streets of cities, towns and
villages, the engine bell must be rung.
The engine bell must be rung from a point
one-eighth of a mile from every road-crossing,
until the road-crossing is passed, and the whistle
must be sounded at all road-crossings at grade,
where whistling posts are placed.
One stroke of the signal bell while the train
is running will be regarded as a warning that
the train may have parted, and enginemen will
immediately look back and ascertain if such is
When two or more engines are coupled in a
train carrying signals for a following train,
each engine must carry signals.
When one flag or light (signal) is carried in
front of an engine, it must be regarded the
same as if two were displayed, but enginemen
will be held responsible for the proper display
of all the signals required by the rules.
The combined green and white signal is to
80 Railway Service :
be used only to stop trains at the signal stations
designated on the schedule. When it is neces-
sary to stop a train at a point that is not a
signal station for that train, a red signal must
Switch signals will be arranged so as to show
white when the switch is set for the main track,
and red when set for the siding, crossing, or
All trainmen, stationmen, switchmen, watch-
men, signalmen, operators, track foremen and
others whose duties at any time require them
to use signals must provide themselves with
such signals, and keep them on hand, in good
order, ready for immediate use.
Trains and Stations. 81
CLASSES AND GRADES OF TRAINS.
There are three classes of trains regular,
extra, and wild.
Regular trains are those that are specifically
enumerated on the time table.
Extra trains are those that are following
regular trains under signals ; they possess all the
rights of regular trains.
Wild trains embrace all other classes, includ-
ing those running under special orders or other-
wise. They are sometimes called irregular
or special trains.
While the grade of trains will vary upon
different roads, 1 their importance may be stated
generally in the following order :
Passenger : Express, mail, accommodation,
Freight: Stock, through, and way.
Construction and wood trains.
All trains will be graded on the schedule in
the order of their preference. A train of an
inferior grade must, in all cases, keep out of the
way of a train of a superior grade.
I. There are usually only two grades, viz.: Passenger
82 Railway Service :
EIGHTS OF TRAINS.
Trains going west have the right of track
over trains of the same or inferior grade going
east for thirty minutes beyond their schedule
time, after which they lose their rights -against
eastward bound trains of the same or superior
grade, and must thereafter keep out of the way.
Trains going west will at a meeting station wait
five minutes for the expected train, and will
then proceed, keeping five minutes behind
schedule time until the train is met, except
that trains of a superior grade will not wait for
trains of an inferior grade. The five minutes
is allowed for possible variation in watches, and
must not be used by either train. 1
i. This rule is, of course, intended for a single track road,
and is based on the supposition that the trains going west have
the right of road. It may be made to read in any other direc-
tion desired. According to this rule, if the train going west was
delayed thirty minutes, the train going east would wait that
length of time at the meeting point, after which it would pro-
ceed on its way, keeping, however, thirty minutes behind its
schedule time, until the delayed train was met. The time
which trains must wait varies upon different roads, and some-
times upon different divisions of the same road ; thus upon
one division they will wait thirty minutes, while upon a neigh-
boring division they will be required to wait an hour.
In the event a company owning a double track road,
should, for any reason, be compelled to restrict itself to the
use of one track, trains in one direction should have the right
of track over trains in an opposite direction, the same as pro-
vided for single track roads. In other words, all the peculiar-
ities of operating trains upon a single track road would be en-
forced. In England, special provision is made for operating a
single track in case of a break, the trains are conducted over
the line under the immediate direction of a pilot guard, and
Trains and Stations. 83
Should a train having the right to the road
be directed not to leave a station until a speci-
fied time, unless another train has arrived, the
train so held will wait the usual five minutes
for possible variation of watches before pro-
ceeding, if the train does not arrive by the time
When a train has orders to run regardless of
no train is allowed to pass over the track unless the pilot is
personally present on such train ; or if there are two or more
trains following, he accompanies the last, the forward trains
carrying his order to proceed. This order they deliver to the
agent at the end of the single line.
Upon many roads trains are ordered to leave the starting
point on time, whether trains of the same or inferior grade that
are due or past due have arrived or not. In such cases delayed
trains are instructed to keep out of the way without reference
to the 3O-minute rule.
" Trains of a class will start on their time from each end of
the road, although a train may be due from the opposite direc-
tion. All westward bound trains (trains from Blank) have the
right to the road against all eastward bound trains, for one
hour after their own time, at any station, per table. After that
hour the right to the road belongs to the eastward trains ; but
no eastward train must leave any station (until the westward
train, which was the cause of the delay, has been passed) for
not less than one hour after its own time, per table. After
passing the delayed train, it can make up what time it can
safely. It must be clearly understood that this eastward
train which, after an hour's delay, is entitled to the road, has
not acquired this right against any other train than the one
which was the cause of the delay. This rule is not intended to
give any rights to a train of an inferior class against a train
of a superior class ; but it is only to affect the trains of the
same class in regard to each other."
" Westward bound trains of the same class are entitled to
the main track at the turnouts, but will take the side-track
when arriving in time to do so, if it is krown that a train has
to be passed at such station, except at side-tracks having but
one opening, when the train will enter which can do so head
first." Regulations Illinois Road, 1853.
84 Railway Service :
a specified train, it gives the train under such
orders no rights over any other train.
Special orders for moving trains are for the
persons to whom they are directed, and other
persons must not use such orders as authority
for moving their trains.
Upon a single track road, when a train is
twelve hours or more behind its time, as per
schedule, it thereby loses all its rights to the
road against all kinds of trains, and can after-
wards only proceed as an extra or wild train by
special orders. 1
In case of accident to the engine of a train
of superior grade, the conductor of such train
may take the engine from the train of an infe-
rior grade, and proceed to destination, reporting
the fact from the next telegraph station.
i Until, therefore, a regular train is twelve hours or more late
it is only necessary for it, as it proceeds, to keep off the time
of regular trains, of the same or superior grade ; until the ex-
piration of the time stated, wild trains must keep out of its
way. Upon many lines a train does not lose its rights under
the regulations of the schedule until it is 24 hours or more be-
Trains and Stations. 85
HOW TO PROTECT TRAINS WHEN STANDING
UPON THE MAIN TRACK, OR WHEN THE TRACK
IS OBSTRUCTED. RULE L 1
a. When an accident occurs to a train, and
the road is thereby obstructed, danger signals
must be sent in both directions from the ob-
struction to stop any trains or engines which
may be approaching. 2 At a point six hundred
yards (paces) from the train, one torpedo must
be placed on the rail. At a point twelve hun-
dred yards (paces) from the train, two tor-
pedoes must be placed on the rail, three yards
(paces) apart. The signalmen will then return
to a point nine hundred yards (paces) from the
train, and must remain there until recalled by
the whistle of the engine, but if a passenger
train is due, the signalmen in the direction of
such passenger train must remain until it
arrives. When recalled, signalmen will remove
1 Frequent reference is made to rule "L" as we proceed
in connection with the duty conductors and others are under
of protecting trains against the possibility of accident when-
ever, from any cause, trains are compelled to occupy the
main track beyond the time allotted them, or when, from any
other cause, the track is obstructed.
Many of the rules and regulations necessary to the pro-
tection of trains on an ordinary double track road are em-
bodied farther on under the head of "Directions applicable
only to double track lines."
2 Upon a single track road, in the event there is no train
due coming from the opposite direction, it seems unnecessary
that the signals should be sent in advance of a regular train
unless it is over twelve hours late.
86 Railway Service :
the torpedoes nearest the train, but the tor-
pedoes located three yards apart must be left
on the rail as a signal of caution to approaching
trains. As the delayed train moves on, the
torpedoes in advance of such moving train
should be removed from the rail. Upon double
track roads it will not be necessary to send the
signals in advance unless the opposite track is
also obstructed. When it is necessary to send
the signals in advance, the fireman must
perform such duty, and if, from any cause, he is
unable to go forward promptly, the front
brakeman must be sent in his place. 1 When it
is necessary for the rear brakeman to go back
to protect a train, the next brakeman must
immediately take his place on the train and
remain there until relieved by the rear brake-
man. On passenger trains, th'e baggageman
shall take the place of the forward brakeman
whenever necessary. 3
1. Upon passenger trains this duty can very well be per-
formed by the forward brakeman, there being still one man
left upon the train to act as brakeman, viz : the baggageman,
but upon freight trains the absence of two brakemen would
perhaps leave the train without adequate force.
2. "In case of any detention, a man must be sent at least
one hundred rods backwards and forwards, to warn any ap-
proaching train, until the danger is over. In the night this
must be done by swinging a lantern across the track." 1853.
" In case of a collision, it will be assumed, as a rule, until
very clearly proved to the contrary, that the conductors and
enginemen of both trains have neglected some of the many
precautions, whether written or not, which are necessary to the
safety of the road." Regulations N. Y. Road, 1863.
Trains and Stations. 87
5. "Should the distance of twelve hundred
yards fall within a tunnel, or close to the mouth
of a tunnel nearest to the obstruction, or in any
other position where, owing to the formation of
the line, or some other circumstance, the engine-
driver of an approaching train or engine would
be unable to obtain a distinct and distant view of
the signal, then the signal must be exhibited at
the end of the tunnel farthest from the obstruc-
tion, or at such a distance over and above the
prescribed distance of twelve hundred yards as
may be necessary to insure the engine-driver
obtaining a good and distant view of such
c. Where a mixed gauge is used, torpedoes
must be placed on each rail, both for broad and
narrow gauge trains.
d. When, from any cause, a train is unable to
proceed at a greater speed than four miles an
hour, the signalman must go back twelve hun-
dred yards, and must follow the train at that
distance, using the proper danger signals, so as
to stop any following train, until assistance
arrives or the train is switched.
e. When a train is stopped upon the main track
in consequence of the signals referred to in this
rule, the conductor thereof must in turn protect
his train with signals, in the manner described,
from any train that may be following him,
I. English Standard.
88 Railway Service :
thus relieving the signalman previously upon
/. Should anything occur to detain an engine,
not attached to a train, upon the main track, it
must also be protected by signals in the manner
g. In the event of any obstruction or accident
to the line, not expressly provided for in the
foregoing, from the destruction of bridges or
culverts, broken rails, washing away of the
track, or from any other cause, signals must be
placed in both directions, so as to warn ap-
proaching trains. These signals must be placed
in the manner and form described.
h. In the event of any obstruction or accident
to the track, as contemplated by this rule, notice
of the same must at once be sent to the Superin-
tendent from the next telegraph station ; also
to the nearest agents or flagmen in each direc-
1. "He (the signalman that is relieved) must tell the guard
of such train as he stops what has happened, and ride on the
engine, so as to point out to the driver where he left his own
train, and tell him the particulars under which he had been
obliged to stop the following train." Great Northern Railway,
2. While the instructions contained herein provide specifically
for (rains, they are also, in many cases, intended to cover engines
running without trains; in many instances the rules are so
worded as to cover both trains and engines ; but whether both
are mentioned or not, those cases where both are intended will
be obvious to the reader. When it is desired to apply a rule to
engines that refers, herein, only to trains, but properly applies
to both trains and engines, the word conductor, wherever used,
should give place to engineman (unless there is a conductor in
charge), and engine should be substituted for train.
Trains and Stations. 89
tion from the accident ; but the first duty of
employes is to protect approaching trains from
any possibility of disaster in consequence of the
i. In the event any accident occasion the ob-
struction of, or be dangerously near to, any
track used by trains moving in the opposite
direction, signals must be placed upon such
line, and it must otherwise be protected in the
manner contemplated by this rule.
j. When a passenger train is delayed at any of