its regular stopping places more than five min-
utes, it must be protected with signals in the
k. Should a train or engine stop at any unu-
sual point on the road (i. e. at any point that is
i. " When an accident or obstruction of any kind occurs
on any part of the line, it must be immediately reported by
telegraph, or by the most expeditious means, to the next sta-
tion or signal box on each side of the place where the accident
has occurred, so that notice maybe given to the engine-drivers
and guards of approaching trains ; also to the heads of depart-
ments, to the locomotive station where the breakdown vans for
the district are kept; to the district superintendent and the
traffic inspector for the district, and to the inspector of perma-
nent way. It must also be reported by telegraph to those sta-
tions where the starting of other trains is liable to be affected
by the delay caused by the obstruction."
"In conveying intelligence of, or in summoning assistance
to, any accident or failure, a platelayer (section-man) must be
sent as quickly as possible to the next gang in each direction,
from which a platelayer must in like manner be sent to the
next more distant gang, until information of the accident has
by this means reached the nearest station in each direction,
and the necessary assistance has been obtained, the plate-
layers of each gang proceeding without loss of time to the
place at which their services are required." English Standard.
90 Railway Service :
not a regular stopping place for such train or
engine), it must be protected as directed.
I. When a freight train stops at its regular
stopping places where it can be plainly seen at
a distance of at least one-half mile, danger sig-
nals must be placed not less than one hundred
yards in each direction, and as much farther as
may be necessary to insure stopping any train
that may be approaching, but if the train can
not be plainly seen at a distance of at least one-
half mile, signals must be sent out not less than
six hundred yards, always bearing in mind, that
if from any cause the train should be detained,
so as to come within twenty minutes of the
time of a passenger train, it must be governed
strictly as provided by the requirements of this
rule, as already recited. 1
I. This section, in force upon one of our great railroads,
seems unnecessary except upon a double track road where
freight trains move without much, if any, reference to the rights
of other trains under the schedule.
It is impossible that signals should in all cases be sent out as
directed at the various regular stopping places of freight trains.
To do so would require an enormous train or station force, and
besides, if the freight train is not trespassing upon the rights of
other trains, such precautions are unnecessary. If it is in the
way of trains having the right to the track, then the precaution
provided by this rule is necessary, otherwise it is not. The
regulations of trains require that officials in charge of extra or
wild trains, or delayed trains of inferior grade, must approach
stations carefully, expecting to find other trains at such sta-
tions. If trains of an inferior grade trespass upon the rights
of trains of a superior grade, then they should be protected in
the manner provided. Upon a double track road it would
not of course be necessary to send the signals in advance, as
provided in the rule, unless the opposite track was obstructed.
We find the following rule, in the regulations of a prominent
road, worthy of incorporation here :
Trains and Stations. 91
m. When it is necessary to cross over to the
opposite track upon a double track road, or to
protect the front of the train from any cause, a
signal must be sent ahead as directed.
n. If freight trains are, at any time, obliged
to keep the main track in passing passenger
trains, signals must be sent twelve hundred
yards, in the direction of the expected train,
to give suitable warning for it to approach care-
fully ; the conductor of the freight train must
see that the switches are right for the passage
of the approaching train.
o. Those in charge of switching engines are
required to exercise great care to prevent acci-
dent occurring from the obstruction of the main
track. 1 Engines or cars must not be permitted
to stand upon the main track, except when
switching within the limits of the various
" Should it be necessary for a first-class train to occupy the
main track at a station or turnout, in the time of any train of
the same class, which by the time-table should either stop or
pass any first-class train at such station or turnout, no signal
shall be given to such approaching train, but it must be dis-
tinctly understood that when any train occupies the main track
at any station or turnout, in the time of any other train of the
same class, which by the time-table does not stop at such
station or turnout, the proper signal must be sent out to
I. " When any train or engine is shunting from one line to
another after sunset and in foggy .weather, the head and side
lights of the engine must be reversed so as to show red against
a-ny other train or engine traveling on the line of rails ob-
structed by the train or engine so shunting. Shunting engines
employed exclusively in station yards and sidings must, after
sunset and in foggy weather, carry both head and tail lamps
showing a red light." Eng. Standard.
92 Railway Service :
yards. When it is necessary to use the main
track at any other point, signals must be placed
for the protection of approaching trains as
required by this rule. 1
p. Should any vehicle in a train be on fire, the
train must be stopped, and the conductor must
protect it in the manner required. The brake-
man or fireman must detach the cars in the
rear of those on fire, and the burning cars must
be drawn forward to a distance of fifty yards
at least, and then be uncoupled, and left until
the fire can be extinguished, to effect which
every effort must be made.
q. Immediately upon the discovery of a signal
of danger, enginemen must sound the whistle for
brakes as an evidence that the signal has been
r. In the event of accident to trains, the per-
sons in charge thereof have the right to call
upon sectionmen and others for such assistance
as they may require. 2
1. " No train may shunt on the main line unless absolutely
necessary ; and a train must be detained at a station where
there is a long siding, so as to allow the following train to pass,
rather than send it on with a chance of having to shunt on the
main line." Gt. Nor. Ry. Eng.
" Guards performing shunting operations at sidings must,
in all cases, take care that the vehicles are left clear of the
main line, and within the safety points and scotchblocks, and
that the points fall properly, and the scotchblocks are replaced
across the rails after the operation is completed." Eng.
2. "In cases of accidents or emergencies requiring such ex-
ercise of authority, the conductor or engineer is empowered
Trains and Stations. 93
s. When it is necessary, while switching, or at
any other time, to leave a car or portion of
a train on a grade upon the main track or else-
where, the brakes must be set and the wheels
securely blocked. 1
t. When it is necessary to back a train (i. e.
when it is necessary to move it in a contrary
direction upon the line) danger signals must be
sent not less than one mile in advance of the
moving train. A train must only be backed to
the first siding ; while it is in motion the whis-
tle must be sounded at short intervals. The
speed of the train must not exceed four miles
per hour, so that the signalman may be able to
keep the required distance in advance.
u. When a train is run backward, the con-
ductor must station himself on the rear car, in a
position so conspicuous as to perceive the first
to summon any person or persons in the employ of the com-
pany, by night or day, to render assistance to a disabled train
or engine, and any person neglecting or refusing to obey such
summons will be discharged." Regulations N. Y. Road, 1854.
i. " When, from any cause, a goods train has been brought
to a stand on the main line, where the line is not level, and it
is necessary for the engine to be detached from the train for
the purpose of attaching or detaching wagons, the guard must,
before the engine is uncoupled, satisfy himself that the van
brakes have been put on securely, and, as an additional pre-
caution, must pin down a sufficient number of wagon brakes,
and place one or more sprags in the wheels of the wagons
next to the rear brake in the case of an ascending gradient,
and of the foremost wagons in the case of a descending gradi-
ent, so as to prevent the possibility of the wagons moving
away. The number of sprag, must be regulated by the steep-
ness of the gradient, the number of wagons, their loads, and
the state of the weather and rails." Eng. Standard.
94 Railway Service:
sign of danger, so that he may give immediate
signal thereof to the engineman. The train-
men should be placed so as to facilitate this. 1
WHEN TRAINS BREAK IN TWO.
When a train breaks in two, the person who
discovers it must signal to the other men on the
train, as directed in the code of signals, repeat-
ing the signal several times, or until sure they
have been observed.
The forward part of the train that 'is broken
in two must not stop until the engineman is
sure that the rear part of the train has stopped.
When entirely certain that the rear part has
stopped, the forward part may stop ; and, after
sending back a signal, it will move slowly back
to the rear part of the train ; but not until
a signal to back up has been received from the
conductor of "the train, who must be very care-
ful not to give such signal unless the rear part
is standing still.
If the engineman of the train can not make
sure that the rear portion of the train has
stopped, he will proceed to the first siding
where he will leave his train, and after waiting
twenty minutes, he will signal his engine back
to the rear portion of his train, presuming that
I. " Whenever it becomes necessary to back a train to a sta-
tion, it must be done with great care ; and, upon obscure parts
of the road, a man must be kept constantly in advance of
the rear end of the train." 1863.
Trains and Stations. 95
it is still in motion, and taking great care not to
collide with it.
As soon as the men upon the rear portion of
the train discover that it has broken apart, they
will stop it, and protect the rear by the usual
danger signals, as provided by rule " L."
If a following train reaches the detached part
before its engine has returned from the siding,
the following train will push the detached por-
tion very slowly toward the siding, sending for-
ward a signal twelve hundred yards in advance,
and proceeding with great care, expecting to
meet the returning engine.
If any train breaks into more than two parts,
the rear part must be stopped first, then the
part next forward of it, and so on, using great
care not to stop any part so as to permit a
following portion to collide with it. When
stopped, each portion must, if possible, be pro-
tected by signals, but the rear of the last section
must be protected in any event. 1
I. " Should any part of the train become detached when in
motion, care must be taken not to stop the front part of the
train before the rear portion has either been stopped or is run-
ning slowly, and the rear guard must promptly apply his brake
to prevent a collision with the front portion. There may be
cases requiring the train to be stopped, owing to the failure of,
or accident to, some part of it, when the prompt exercise of
judgment and skill is necessary to decide whether to stop
quickly, or otherwise. If the engine be defective, the sooner
the train can be stopped the better. If any of the vehicles be
off the rails, the brakes in the rear must be instantly applied,
in order that by keeping the couplings tight, the disabled ve-
hicle may be kept up and out of the way of the vehicles behind,
96 Railway Service :
TRAINS RUNNING WITH CARE.
Conductors and enginemen are held equally
responsible for the violation of any of the rules
governing the safety or speed of trains. They
are expected to take every precaution necessary
to the protection of their trains, whether pro-
vided for by the rules or not.
Trainmen must take into consideration the
state of the weather, the condition of the track,
and the weight of the train.
Trains will run with great care during and
after severe rains, and must reduce their speed
when the track is in bad order, or when crossing
long bridges or trestle-works.
Trains of every description must approach
with care places or yards where engines use the
main track in switching.
Stations and switches must also be approached
Upon a single track road when an order is
given a train to proceed with caution, keeping
a careful look-out for a particular train, it is
the duty of the conductor in such cases to send
until the* force of the latter is exhausted, it being desirable in
such cases that the front portion of the train should be brought
slowly to a stand. The application of the front brakes might,
in such cases, result in further damage, and they should only
be applied when the disabled vehicles are in the rear of the
train. In all cases the application of brakes behind a disa-
bled vehicle will be attended with advantage." Eng, Standard.
Trains and Stations. 97
signals in advance as the train approaches curves
and obscure places in the track.
In all cases of doubt or uncertainty, trainmen
and others should take the safe course and run
TRAINS MUST STOP.
Whenever one passenger train is to meet
another passenger train at a station, whether at
a regular meeting point or at a point designated
by a special order, both trains must come to a
full stop between the switches at the place of
Engines with or without trains must come to
a full stop within four hundred feet of railroad
crossings at grade.
Unless otherwise ordered, trains must be
brought to a full stop before crossing draw-
bridges, and must not thereafter proceed until
the signal to go ahead is exhibited.
Trains must approach the end of double
track and junction switches at reduced speed,
and come to a full stop unless the switches are
plainly seen to be right.
TRAINS MEETING OR PASSING EACH OTHER. 1
Where trains are to meet each other, the
train having the right to the road shall occupy
i. '' Long sidings are provided at the principal stations on
the up and down lines, to enable the goods and coal trains, etc.,
to be passed by the passenger trains ; the sidings must always
be kept clear for this purpose ; they must not be used as ' lay
byes,' for the ordinary work of the stations." Gt, Northern
98 Railway Service:
the main track, excepting when there are spe-
cial orders to the contrary, or it shall be im-
practicable thus to pass, in which case sufficient
precaution shall be used to prevent accident or
The train going on the side track, must take
the switch at the nearest end, instead of run-
ning by and backing on, except when this is
impracticable, in which case the train must be
sufficiently protected by signals before running
by the station to back on to the siding. 1
Upon arriving at a place where a particular
train is to be met, care must be taken by train-
men to identify such train ; in other words, they
must not proceed until the right train has
When a train is not required to stop at a
meeting or passing point with another train, it
must, at night, or in foggy weather, approach
such point with caution, and at reduced speed,
being kept under control until satisfied that
the opposing train is clear of the main track,
and that the switches are properly set.
The conductor of a slow train must report to
the Superintendent immediately on arrival at a
station, where, by the schedule, he should be
overtaken by a faster train of the same class,
I. It should be understood that wherever reference is made
to the meeting of trains at stations or sidings, such reference
implies a single track road, unless otherwise specially men-
Trains and Stations. 99
in the event the latter does not arrive on time.
The conductor of the slow train must not
proceed until the faster train passes, without
special orders from the Superintendent.
When a freight train is overtaken and passed
by one section of a train carrying green signals
for other trains, it must wait until all the sec-
tions of such train have passed, unless other-
wise directed by special order. 1
Freight trains will be governed by this rule in
starting from terminal stations, and in the ap-
plication of this rule, terminal stations will be
considered the same as other stations on the
If a way freight train falls behind its time, as
fixed in the schedule, it will not yield the road
to a following freight train, with which it has no
designated passing point, until overtaken by it ;
but the way freight must be protected by sig-
nals from all chance of a rear collision, and
will yield the road at the first station after the
following train has overtaken it.
TRAINS APPROACHING STATIONS.
Trains must approach stations and yards
where switching engines are located, with ex-
When approaching stations and sidings, en-
i. Or, in other words, it must not proceed until all the extra
trains have passed.
100 Railway Service :
ginemen must observe whether the switches
are set right, and must always be on the look-
out for signals.
Enginemen of delayed trains, or trains
moved by special order, and of all extra or wild
trains, will approach stations with extreme
caution upon the supposition that another train
will be overtaken or met ; or that the main
track will be obstructed or occupied.
Enginemen will carefully approach stations
at which they ought to meet or pass trains.
Trains approaching stations where a passen-
ger train is receiving or discharging passengers
must be stopped before reaching such passen-
ger train, and will not go forward until it
moves ahead or signal is given to the first men-
tioned train to move on. 1
I. Permanent danger signals are erected in both directions
from stations, by many roads in this country. They are in com-
mon use in Europe. These signals are displayed when a train
is at a station receiving or discharging passengers, or whenever
the track is for any reason obstructed, or the switches are
turned. When these signals are displayed, enginemen of ap-
proaching trains are required to advance cautiously until oth-
erwise ordered. For the purpose of protecting a train from
trains that may be following it, these station signals (or sema-
phore arms or lights) are not lowered until a specified time
after the departure of the train.
The wisdom of protecting trains with permanent or sta-
tionary signals, where the business of a line warrants it or
its receipts will permit of it, can not be too highly commended.
" Should a train be approaching, stopping at, or leaving a sta-
tion, on the opposite line, or should shunting operations be
going on, he must, on approaching and whilst passing, sound
the engine whistle. The whistle must also be sounded on en-
tering a tunnel." English Standard.
Trains and Stations. lOl
TRAINS FOLLOWING OTHER TRAINS.
When two or more passenger trains are run-
ning in the same direction, they must keep not
less than fifteen minutes apart. And trains
that are found violating this rule must be
signaled and held until the fifteen minutes has
expired. With this exception : a way pas-
senger train making all the stops may follow
an express or mail passenger train making no
stops, within five -minutes, but it must proceed
with great caution until the express or mail
train is fifteen minutes ahead. 1
A freight train or engine must not leave a
station to follow a passenger train until ten
minutes after the departure of the passenger
Freight trains following each other must be
1. " Where the block system is not in operation, no train or
engine must be allowed to follow any other train or engine on
the same line, within five minutes.
" Where the line is not worked under the block system, no
passenger train must, during foggy weather or snow storms,
follow a goods train, nor must a fast goods train follow a
stopping passenger train from a station, nor pass a signal box
where trains are ordinarily signaled, within fifteen minutes,
nor even then, until the engine-driver has been properly
warned of the time of the departure of the preceding train, and
where it will next stop." English Standard.
2. " No detached engine shall be run behind a passenger
train, within three miles, and any train following another shall
always keep two miles in the rear, and proceed with great
102 Railway Service :
kept not less than five minutes apart, except in
closing up at stations or passing places. 1
Any train following another train or engine
must proceed with caution, keeping at least
one mile in rear of it, and must approach all
stations and fuel places with care, expect-
ing to find the preceding train taking fuel or
water at such station, whether it may be a stop-
ping place, as per schedule, for that train, or
When one or more trains are followed, such
train, or trains, must never be stopped between
stations where the view from the rear of the
train is not clear for a distance sufficiently
great to stop a train after it has come in sight.
When following other trains, the engineman
and others must keep a sharp lookout for the
train immediately preceding them^ especially
when running around curves and approaching
In the event that one or more trains are
united, and run as one train, notice .of the fact
must be given agents, also the conductors and
enginemen of trains that are met or passed.
1. " Freight trains will be run in convoys of two or more
trains on the same time. Conductors and enginemen will be
held responsible to see that the necessary signals are carried."
2. This is in a certain sense supplementary to the rules
directing how many minutes shall elapse between trains of
various grades moving in the same direction.
Trains and Stations. 103
The Superintendent should be advised at the
first telegraph station of the consolidation of
KEEPING OFF THE TIME OF OTHER TRAINS.
A train of an inferior grade, running ahead
of a train of a superior grade, must keep twenty
minutes off the time of such superior train. 1
Except when otherwise specifically provided,
wild trains must keep twenty minutes off the
time of passenger trains, and ten minutes off
the time of freight trains.
A passenger train must not leave a station,
expecting to meet, or be passed at the next
station by a train having the right of track,
unless it has full schedule time to make the
meeting or passing point.
A freight train must not leave a station,
expecting to meet, or to be passed at the next
station, by a train having the right of track,
unless it can make the meeting or passing point
without exceeding its maximum speed, and oc-
cupy the siding, if necessary, before the time
required by rule to clear the opposing or fol-
A freight train, which, according to the sched-
i. " Trains of an inferior class, moving in the same direction
with trains of a superior class, must get out of their way, by
going into the nearest siding." 1863.
104 Railway Service:
ule, should .be overtaken and passed at a sta-
tion by another freight train, must keep off the
time of the train which should pass it.
It must be understood that a train not having
the right to the track must be entirely clear of
the main track before the time it is required by
rule to clear an opposing train, or a train run-
ning in the same direction ; if from any cause
it should fail to do so, signals must be sent im-
mediately, as provided by rule " L," already
given, for the protection of trains standing
upon the main track.
When a freight train meets a passenger train
on a single track road, the freight train must
occupy the siding, and clear the passenger train
Upon a single track road, in the event a train or
engine is delayed between stations and loses its