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Marshall Monroe Kirkman.

Railway service; trains and stations. Describing the manner of operating trains, and the duties of train and station officials online

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right to the road, the conductor of such train (or
in his absence the engineman) must, when the
train or engine is ready to move, send danger
signals not less than one mile in advance in the
direction in which the train or engine is to be
moved. The delayed train or engine must
only run to the next siding, and while in motion
the engineman will frequently sound the
whistle, and will not exceed a speed of four



Trains and Stations. 105

miles per hour, to enable the signalman to keep
the required distance in advance. 1

When, from any cause, a train is unable to
proceed at a greater speed than four miles an
hour, the rear brakeman must go back twelve
hundred yards, and must follow the train at
that distance, and use the proper danger signals
to stop any following train.

In the event a train is delayed by accident
or otherwise between stations, and another train
having the right to the road approaches (no
matter which way it may be going), and the
train having the right to the road can not pass
the delayed train, then the latter will proceed
to the first siding in advance, carrying signals
for the following train. At the first siding it
will allow the train having the right to the
road to go ahead, after which time both the
trains will be governed in all respects as in other
cases where one train is met or passed by
another.

In extreme cases, in which enginemen find it
impossible to make their time in running to sta-
tions at which they should by schedule meet
another train, they may disconnect their engine,

I. In the event a delayed regular train has time to reach the
first telegraph station ahead without trespassing upon the
time of another regular train, then, in that case, it has not lost
its right (unless it is twelve hours late), and it may proceed di-
rectly to such telegraph station without being signaled as
directed above.



106 Railway Service :

leaving the train under proper danger signals,
as required by rule " L," and run to the next sta-
tion and notify the approaching train, and then
return after their own train. 1 But before pro-
ceeding to carry out this rule the engineman
must have the written authority of the con-
ductor to detach the engine and proceed as
directed.

When a train is delayed it is the duty of
agents and switchmen to report the fact to
trains that may be following when the latter
stop at their stations.

When a train is more than fifteen minutes
late, the conductor will report the cause of the
detention to the Superintendent at the first
telegraph station.

EXTRA TRAINS.

An extra train, following a regular train and
properly signaled by it, must always be taken
and considered to be a part of and to have all
the rights of the regular train, and no more,
and the conductors and enginemen of other,
trains must so regard it.

An engine of a regular train must not carry a
signal for any train, excepting of its own
grade, unless in such cases as are herein
specifically provided for.

r. This rule is provided for those extreme cases where, from
some sudden and wholly unexpected cause, a train becomes
stalled, or is unable to make the meeting point, or back up to
the station that it has left.



Trains and Stations. ' 107

When it shall become necessary for a train of
an inferior grade to follow a train of a superior
grade (as an extra), "then such following train
shall for that time be taken to be of the same
grade with the preceding train.

In case a following train is delayed and can
not keep up with the signals, it must not con-
sider it has the right to follow the signals
against trains having the right of the road,
though the train carrying signals for it may
have orders to run to a certain point against a
train having the right of track ; but the follow-
ing train, when unable to keep up, must keep
back and off the time of all trains having right
of track, without special and separate orders. 1

When a train is ordered to carry signals for
an extra or following train, the conductor and
enginemen of each of the trains affected by the
order must be severally notified. It is the
duty of conductors of trains carrying signals to
notify conductors whom they meet or pass of
the fact. They must also notify agents and
switchmen at places where they stop.

It is the duty of trainmen and others to care-

I. In other words, the order to run to a certain point does
not cover the extra or following train unless the latter is specifi-
cally mentioned.

"If the following train should fall so far behind as not to be
distinctly seen by the forward train at the time of its leaving
any station short of the one named in the notice, it must be
distinctly understood by all that the flag or lantern will not be
carried farther for them." Regulations 1853.



108 Railway Service :

fully observe whether signals are carried by
passing engines.

It is the duty of conductors to assure them-
selves that signals for extra trains are properly
placed and secured.

When an engine is carrying signals for an-
other train, the attention of trains that are
met or passed (including construction and
wood trains) must be called to such signals by
three short blasts of the whistle, as provided by
the signal code.

When an extra train is following another
train, it must be kept near the train ahead
on approaching a station where a train is to
be met, in order that the opposite train may
have as little detention as is consistent with
perfect safety, but in all other cases the dis-
tance between the two trains must never be
less than one mile.

Conductors of trains carrying signals for
extra trains must, on arriving at the station
beyond which the signals are not to be carried,
notify the agent of the fact, and such agent
must give notice thereof to such conductors
and enginemen as may reach his station subse-
quent to the arrival of the train carrying the
signals, and previous to the arrival of the trains
signaled by it. 1

I. " The guard of the train preceding the special train is
required to see that the tailboard flag, or extra lamp, is
removed when no longer wanted, and he must inform the per-



Trains and Stations. 109

When an engine or train leaves a point to
which it has carried signals for a following
train, before the following train has arrived at
such point, the conductor must notify all trains
that he meets until he reaches the next tele-
graph office, when he will report to the Super-
intendent that he has withdrawn the signals.

A telegraphic or special order directing the
movement of a train, includes only the train
specifically mentioned in such order, and must
not be considered to cover a train that is or
may have been keeping it company, unless such
train is particularly mentioned.

When two or more trains are running in com-
pany, upon the time of one train and the for-
ward train cannot, from disability of engine or
other cause, make- time, it will run upon a side
track, and let the following train go ahead. 1 The
conductors and enginemen must, in such cases,
see that the train which takes precedence car-
ries the proper signals, and all special orders
affecting the movement or safety of either train
must be exchanged. Conductors must report
the occurrence to the Superintendent at the
first telegraph station ; they must also notify all
trainmen they may meet and the agents at
stations as well.

son in charge of each station at which he stops of the descrip-
tion and destination of the train that is following." Eng.
Standard.

I. The inference is that these trains are of the same grade.
It would be impracticable otherwise.



110 Railway Service :

No engine or train shall carry signals for an
extra engine or train without orders from the
Superintendent, except as provided in the fol-
lowing rule : Should a train be held by another
between telegraph stations, the conductor of
the train thus detained may require the first
regular train passing him, bound in the same
direction, to carry signals for him to the next
telegraph station, on his arrival at which he
must report to the Superintendent for orders ;
but the conductor of a . freight train shall not
have the right to have signals carried by a pas-
senger train, in case, at the next telegraph sta-
tion, or at some intervening place, said passen-
ger train should pass a train of its own class,
nor in any case, unless the freight train is in
readiness to follow immediately.

A train signaled by another, in accordance
with the foregoing rule, would possess exactly
the same rights as an extra train, already de-
scribed.

"When a train is held between telegraph
stations and can not proceed, except under the
protection of some other train, and there is no
train passing (without great delay) by which
it may " be signaled, except a wild train, the
train held may proceed immediately in advance
of such wild train to the first telegraph station,
at which place it must get out of the way.
But those in charge of the delayed train must



Trains and Stations. Ill

notify agents and signalmen, also the trainmen
they meet, that they are running irregularly in
advance of a wild train." 1

Whenever it shall be necessary to send an
extra engine over the road, it must in all cases
precede and run on the time of some regular
train; it will be entitled to all the rights
thereof, and shall carry proper signals therefor.
In such cases the regular train shall run five
minutes behind its schedule time. 2

CONSTRUCTION AND WOOD TRAINS.

When a construction train is going to or com-
ing from work it must proceed with the utmost
caution 3 ; never risking the safety of trains, and
it must never be on the road within ten minutes
of the running time of passenger trains. Neither
shall it be on the road within ten minutes of the
running time of freight trains, except when the
points between which it is working are not more
than three miles apart.

When at work on a section not extending
over three miles from siding to siding, or when
special permission is given by the Superintend-
ent, the conductor may keep at work in respect
to freight trains only, until the arrival of such

1. Old Rule.

2. When it is desired that the engine running over the road
should assist the accompanying train (assuming it to be a
freight train) at the various grades, it can be instructed to fol-
low rather than precede. But an engine should never be
allowed to follow a passenger train.

3. They must know before starting that all trains that are
due have arrived.



112 Railway Service :

trains, but he must in all cases station the proper
signals, twelve hundred yards in each direc-
tion, when upon a single track, or in the rear
only when upon a double track, unless the
same is obstructed. The signalman of the con-
struction train must continue on the watch,
under all circumstances, until the freight train
arrives. On the arrival of the expected train,
the construction train must immediately proceed
to the siding in advance of such train.

Conductors and enginemen of wood trains
will be governed by the same rules as above
given for construction trains.

When freight trains are thirty minutes late,
construction and wood trains may occupy the
main track, but must keep signals not less than
twelve hundred yards in the direction of the
expected train. Upon the arrival of the ex-
pected train, the construction or wood train
must at once proceed to the siding.

No construction train will be allowed to run
beyond its given limits without orders, except
in cases of great emergency, such as accidents
to trains, track, or bridges, or when telegraphic
communication is broken and orders cannot be
received. Under such circumstances, a con-
struction train or engine may run beyond its
limits ; but such train or engine must not only
keep off the time of regular trains, but conduc-
tors and enginemen must signal all curves care-



Trains and Stations. 113

fully, and look out for wild trains. They will
also report the fact of being off their limits, and
the reason therefor at the first telegraph sta-
tion, or if there is no telegraph station, a report
must be sent to a telegraph office by the first
train, or by special messenger if there is no
train.

Two construction trains will not be allowed
to run or work within the same limits except
in cases of great emergency ; in such cases
special orders will -be given by the Superin-
tendent.

A special order allowing two construction
trains to occupy the same limits does not re-
lieve the conductor and engineman of either
train from the responsibility of signaling all
curves carefully while running, arid otherwise
protecting their trains properly while at work
on the main track, as already directed.

Before leaving stations for the day's work,
conductors of wood and construction trains
must report to the Superintendent the exact
location where they intend to work, and they
must not leave the station until they have re-
ceived a special order or permit from him.

Conductors of construction and wood trains
must leave with the station agent at the start-
ing point a memorandum stating where their
trains will be operating for the day ; this mem-
orandum must be entered in a book to be kept

8



114 Railway Service :

for that and similar purposes. This book shall
at all times be open to the convenient inspec-
tion of trainmen.

Conductors and enginemen of construction
trains are required to stop at all telegraph sta-
tions and register time of arrival and departure
of their trains, and direction in which moving,
and ascertain if any wild engines or trains are
on the road ; also the limits of any other con-
struction trains that may be at work on the
same division of the road.

Conductors of construction trains must keep
themselves informed as to the location where
wood trains are at work. In the same way the
conductors of wood trains must keep themselves
advised as to the location of construction trains.

When a limit is given a construction train, it
will only embrace the hours from 4:30 A. M. to
8:30 P. M., and the train must not occupy the
main track within its limits before or after the
hours specified without special orders. 1

Upon a single track road, signals, as provided
by rule " L " for the protection of trains, must
always be placed at a distance of not less than
twelve hundred yards on either side of the place
where construction or wood trains are at work,
and a man must* remain with such signals.
Upon double track roads, signals need only be

I. " Ballast trains must not work on the main line in a fog, ex-
cept when authorized under special circumstances." English
Standard.



Trains and Stations. 115

placed in the direction from which trains natu-
rally arrive.

In the case of a double track road, if the
opposite track is obstructed, then signals must
be placed in both directions.

Conductors and enginemen of construction
and wood trains will be held responsible for the
strict observance of the rules governing the
use of signals, and they will be expected to use
every additional precaution which particular
circumstances may render necessary.

Wood or construction trains must not have
signals carried for them by regular trains, nor '
must they carry signals for other trains, but
circumstances may arise compelling them to
follow a regular train carrying signals for
another train; in such a case the wood or con-
st ruction train must carry signals for the train
that is following.

WILD TRAINS.

When regular trains are ordered to leave
stations ahead of time, they will be considered
as wild trains while running ahead of time.

A wild train or engine must not pass over
any portion of the road without special orders
from the Superintendent, provided this rule
does not apply to engines switching within the
limits of the various yards.



116 Railway Service :

Conductors of wild trains must report by
telegraph to the Superintendent upon arrival
at their destination, and must await his reply
before leaving the office.

THE SPEED OF TRAINS.

The maximum speed given on the schedule
for each grade of trains must not be exceeded. 1

Trains must not arrive at a station ahead of
time, nor leave a station before the time speci-
fied in the schedule, nor shall they run faster
between stations than is required to enable
them to reach a station in season to start from
it on the specified time, without orders from the
Superintendent. 2

When trains are delayed, the lost time must,
so far as possible, be made up by shortening

1. " Special trains, whether passenger, fish, horse, cattle,
goods, coal, or otherwise, must be run as nearly as practicable
at the same rate of speed as corresponding trains, shown in
the working time-table, and of which they may form a part,
and the speed of special trains must, in no case, exceed that
of such corresponding trains, unless under specific instructions
from the Superintendent of the line." English Standard.

2. " Freight trains may arrive at the stations for meeting,
and for wood and water, and to take on freight, ten minutes
before the time stated in the time-table." Regulations, 1854.

" It is better for a train to have two minutes too little to
spend at a station than one more than is necessary, as stops are
tedious to passengers, and slow running is better for the road
and machinery ; and when tardiness is noticed in the wooding
and watering, it should be reported to the Superintendent."
1853-



Trains and Stations. 117

the stops at stations. 1 No risk must be incurred
for the purpose of making up lost time.

Mail trains must not be run at such speed as
to prevent the mails being exchanged at all
places where there are post offices.

A speed of fifteen miles per hour will pass,
approximately, seven telegraph poles per min-
ute. 2

DIRECTIONS APPLICABLE ONLY TO DOUBLE
TRACK LINES.

All trains in either direction, when running
on a double track, will invariably take the right-
hand track. 3

On a double track road, when a freight train
passes over to the opposite track to allow a
passenger train running in the same direction to
pass it, if, while waiting, a passenger train in
the opposite direction arrives, the freight train
may cross back, and allow it to pass ; provided,

1. " When passenger trains are behind time, the engineer is
at liberty to make it up, in whole or in part, with the consent
of the conductor, when he can do so with safety." 1863.

" Their trains should be so run as to leave at stations only
the necessary time for doing the business of the train, that as
much time may be used in running and as little in stops as
possible. They will, after attending to their passengers, see
that what remains to be done to enable them to leave the sta-
tion is done in the shortest possible time." 1853.

2. U.S. Road.

3. " The engine-driver must start and stop his train carefully,
and without a jerk, and pass along the proper line, which, in
the case of an ordinary double line, is the left-hand side of the
permanent way, in the direction of which the engine is travel-
ing." Eng. Standard.



118 Railway Service :

the other passenger train is not in sight ; and
also provided, that danger signals have been
sent not less than twelve hundred yards in the
direction of the expected train, as provided by
rule " L " for the protection of trains.

On a double track road, when it is necessary
for a freight train to cross over to the opposite
track to allow a passenger train running in the
same direction to pass it, and a passenger train
running in the opposite direction is due, danger
signals must be sent back twelve hundred yards,
as already described in rule " L," and the
freight train will not cross over until one
of the passenger trains arrives. Should the
following passenger train arrive first, danger
signals must be sent forward (as per rule re-
ferred to above), not less than twelve hundred
yards in the direction of the over-due passen-
ger train upon the opposite track before cross-
ing over. Great caution must be used, and
good judgment is required to prevent detention
to either passenger train ; preference should
always be given to the passenger train of su-
perior grade.

If an obstruction or accident make it neces-
sary to move an engine or train in the wrong
direction on a double track road, or to cross over
to the opposite track to pass around such ob-
struction, obstructed trains or engines may do
so, but the utmost caution must be used. The



Trains and Stations. 119

conductor of the obstructed train (or in his
absence, the engineraan), before the engine is
moved, will send danger signals not less than
one mile in advance, in the direction in which
the train is to be moved. The train or engine
thus moved must only be backed or run to the
next crossing, and, while moving, the engine-
-man will frequently sound the whistle, and not
exceed a speed of four miles per hour, to enable
the signalman to keep the required distance in
advance.

Freight trains, in cases described in the fore-
going rule, must clear the time of passenger
trains twenty minutes.

Upon a double track road a train that is de-
layed and falls back on the time of another
train of the same grade, does not lose its rights,
and will not take the time or assume the rights
of another train, except as provided for herein,
without orders from the Superintendent.

Upon a double track road, no conductor shall
assume the rights or take the time of any other
train without special orders from the Superin-
tendent, except as provided in the following
rule.

A train overtaking another train of the same
or superior grade will not run around it. except
the train ahead is disabled by accident, but
in such case, the train passing the disabled train
will assume its rights and report the fact to the



120 Railway Service. :

Superintendent from the next telegraph office.
The disabled train will assume the rights of the
last train passing it, and report to the Superin-
tendent from the next telegraph office. When
the rights of one train are assumed by another
train, notice of the fact should be given agents
and others at places where the train stops. 1

It must be kept constantly in mind by train-
men, when occupying the left-hand track of a
double track road (i. e., when occupying the
wrong track), that they are responsible for
keeping out of the way of trains that rightfully
belong on such track, and they must in all such
cases protect trains with adequate signals, as
described.

Should a train, which has been telegraphed
as having entered a tunnel, not emerge there-
from within a reasonable interval of time, the

I. A prominent company having a double track road pro-
vides as follows where a delayed train impedes other trains :
" Extra freight trains running ahead of regular freight trains
can take the time of such regular train when the regular is be-
hind its table time, or can do so when necessary to get over
portions of single track. Conductor of such extra must leave
written notice for conductor and engineer of regular train in-
forming them that he has then and there taken their time, and
availed himself of their rights, in which case he is authorized
to make the time of the train under whose rights he is running.
It must be distinctly understood that subordinate trains or en-
gines are still subordinate., though an extra freight is running
on the rights of a train having priority."

It will be noticed that no provision is made for notifying the
Superintendent of the transfer of rights at the first telegraph
station, from which it may, perhaps, be inferred that the train
that assumes the rights of another continues to exercise those
rights until it arrives at its destination.



Trains and Stations. 121

signalman toward whom the train is approach-
ing must prevent any train in the opposite
direction entering the tunnel, through which
there is a double line of rails, until he has ascer-
tained that the line on which it has to run
through the tunnel is clear.

Should an engineman observe anything wrong
on the line of rails opposite to that on which his
train is running, he must sound the whistle and
exhibit a danger signal to any train or engine
he may meet, and stop at the first station and
report to the person in charge what he has
observed. Should he meet an engine or train
too closely following any preceding engine or
train, he must sound the whistle and exhibit a
caution or danger signal, as occasion may
require, to the enginemen of such following


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Online LibraryMarshall Monroe KirkmanRailway service; trains and stations. Describing the manner of operating trains, and the duties of train and station officials → online text (page 7 of 17)